Thursday, September 22, 2022

Side Effects Of Hepatitis B Vaccine

Side Effects Not Requiring Immediate Medical Attention

Does HepB Vaccine Cause Defects?

Some side effects of hepatitis b adult vaccine may occur that usually do not need medical attention. These side effects may go away during treatment as your body adjusts to the medicine. Also, your health care professional may be able to tell you about ways to prevent or reduce some of these side effects.

Check with your health care professional if any of the following side effects continue or are bothersome or if you have any questions about them:

More common

  • muscle aches, cramps, pains, or stiffness
  • pain or tenderness at the injection site
  • swollen joints
  • redness or swelling at the injection site

Emergency Hepatitis B Vaccination

If you have been exposed to the hepatitis B virus and have not been vaccinated before, you should get immediate medical advice, as you may benefit from having the hepatitis B vaccine.

In some situations, you may also need to have an injection of antibodies, called specific hepatitis B immunoglobulin , along with the hepatitis B vaccine.

HBIG should ideally be given within 48 hours, but you can still have it up to a week after exposure.

Concerns About Immunisation Side Effects

If the side effect following immunisation is unexpected, persistent or severe, or if you are worried about yourself or your child’s condition after a vaccination, see your doctor or immunisation nurse as soon as possible or go directly to a hospital.

It is important to seek medical advice if you are unwell, as this may be due to other illness, rather than because of the vaccination.

Immunisation side effects may be reported to SAEFVIC, the Victorian vaccine safety and reporting service. Discuss with your immunisation provider how to report adverse events in other states or territories.

Read Also: Where Does Hepatitis C Virus Come From

What Are The Important Side Effects Of Recombivax Hb

Common side effects of HBV vaccines include:

  • Irritability

In healthy adults, injection site reactions and systemic adverse reactions were reported following 17% and 15% of the injections, respectively.

Clinical Trials Experience

Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a vaccine cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another vaccine and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.

In three clinical studies, 434 doses of Recombivax HB, 5 mcg, were administered to 147 healthy infants and children who were monitored for 5 days after each dose. Injection site reactions and systemic adverse reactions were reported following 0.2% and 10.4% of the injections, respectively. The most frequently reported systemic adverse reactions , in decreasing order of frequency, were

In a study that compared the three-dose regimen with the two-dose regimen of Recombivax HB in adolescents, the overall frequency of adverse reactions was generally similar.

In a group of studies, 3258 doses of Recombivax HB, 10 mcg, were administered to 1252 healthy adults who were monitored for 5 days after each dose. Injection site reactions and systemic adverse reactions were reported following 17% and 15% of the injections, respectively. The following adverse reactions were reported:

Incidence Equal To or Greater Than 1% of Injections

  • pain,

Who Should Not Get The Hepatitis B Vaccine

Hepatitis B Vaccine: Side Effects, Benefits, and More

Hepatitis B is a safe vaccine that does not contain a live virus.

However, there are some circumstances in which doctors advise against getting the HBV vaccine.

You should not receive the hepatitis B vaccine if:

  • youve had a serious allergic reaction to a previous dose of the hepatitis B vaccine
  • you have a history of hypersensitivity to yeast or any other HBV vaccine components

Recommended Reading: How To Manage Hepatitis B

Who Should Get The Hbv Vaccine

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends that all children and adults up to age 59 should receive the hepatitis B vaccine.

Infants should get their first hepatitis B vaccine within 24 hours of birth and complete their doses by age 6 to 18 months.

All unvaccinated children and adults through age 59 should receive the vaccine. Also, unvaccinated adults over the age 60 who are at risk of hepatitis B should get the vaccine.

Adults over age 60 who are not at risk of hepatitis B may also choose to get the shot.

Several types of the HBV vaccine are also safe to administer to pregnant women.

  • people who have had more than one sex partner in the last 6 months
  • men who have sex with men
  • people seeking treatment for a sexually transmitted infection
  • people whose partners or household members have hepatitis B
  • people who inject drugs
  • people who live or work in care facilities
  • people who are on dialysis
  • travelers to countries where hepatitis B is common
  • people with chronic liver disease, HIV, or hepatitis C
  • people who are in jail or prison

People who have diabetes should talk with a healthcare professional about their risk for contracting hepatitis B.

Why Should I Vaccinate My Newborn Child If I Know That I Am Not Infected With Hepatitis B Virus

Before the hepatitis B vaccine, every year in the United States about 18,000 children were infected with hepatitis B virus by the time they were 10 years old. This statistic is especially important because people are much more likely to develop liver cancer or cirrhosis if they are infected early in life, rather than later in life .

About 9,000 of the 18,000 children infected in the first 10 years of life caught the virus from their mother during birth. However, many young children didn’t catch the disease from their mother. They caught it from either another family member or someone else who came in contact with the child. Because hepatitis B can be transmitted by relatively casual contact with items contaminated with the blood of an infected person, and because many people who are infected with hepatitis B virus don’t know that they have it, it is virtually impossible to be “careful enough” to avoid this infection.

For these reasons, all young children are recommended to receive the hepatitis B vaccine. The best time to receive the first dose is right after birth. This will ensure that the child will be protected as early as possible from catching hepatitis B from people who dont know that they are infected with the virus.

Listen to Dr. Offit explain why newborns get the hepatitis B vaccine by watching this short video, part of the series Talking About Vaccines with Dr. Paul Offit.

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Who Should Be Immunised Against Hepatitis B

Hepatitis B immunisation is recommended and funded for the following groups:

  • all children up to their 18th birthday
  • babies born to mothers with hepatitis B infection
  • people who live in close contact with someone infected with hepatitis B
  • anyone undergoing renal dialysis
  • people who have hepatitis C infection, or who are HIV positive, or who have had a needle stick injury.
  • anyone who has received immunosuppression therapy of at least 28 days or has had solid organ or bone marrow transplant.

Hepatitis B immunisation is also recommended, but not funded, for:

  • workers who are likely to come into contact with blood products, or who are at increased risk of needlestick injuries, assault, etc.
  • people who change sex partners frequently such as sex workers
  • people who regularly receive blood transfusions such as people with haemophilia
  • prison inmates
  • current or recent injecting drug users
  • migrants and travellers from or to areas with intermediate or high rates of hepatitis B such as the Asia and Pacific region.

How Do Inactivated Viral Vaccines Work

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Inactivated viralvaccines are sterile biologic products that provide immunity against viral infections. Inactivated viral vaccines work by stimulating the bodys immune system to produce antibodies against specific types of viruses, and protect a person from becoming infected when exposed to these viruses.

In the case of SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus that causes respiratory illness and has led to the COVID-19 pandemic, vaccines do not entirely prevent infection but protect vaccinated individuals from serious illness and hospitalization from the disease.

Inactivated viral vaccines contain particles of proteins or genetic material from viruses. Inactivated viral vaccines may also contain substances that preserve and stabilize the vaccine, and enhance immune response. Some viral vaccines are delivered in inactivated harmless viruses such as human adenovirus.

Inactivated viral vaccines may be made from:

  • Surface proteins of the viruses enable the virus to hold on to a human cell, enter inside and replicate.
  • Modified RNA particles from the virus can enter host cells and induce the production of viral antigen, which stimulates an immune response from the body.
  • Recombined DNA material from multiple strains and subtypes of viruses, killed to eliminate disease-causing capability.

Currently, inactivated viral vaccines approved by the FDA protect against viral infectious diseases that include:

  • Coronavirus disease , caused by SARS-Cov-2 virus
  • Routine poliovirus vaccine prophylaxis
  • Adults

    Read Also: Does Hepatitis C Cause Hair Loss

    Vaccine Side Effects & Injury Lawyers

    If you or a loved one has been the victim of a vaccine side effect, you should contact a vaccine lawyer with experience in this type of complex litigation.

    We have recently partnered with Schmidt & Clark, LLP a Nationally recognized law firm who handles vaccine lawsuits in all 50 states.

    The lawyers at the firm offer a Free Confidential Case Evaluation and may be able to obtain financial compensation for you or a loved one by filing a vaccine lawsuit or claim with The National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program. Contact Schmidt & Clark today by using the form below or by calling them directly at .

    What Is Hepatitis A And B Vaccine

    Hepatitis A and B are serious diseases caused by virus. Hepatitis causes inflammation of the liver, vomiting, and jaundice . Hepatitis can lead to liver cancer, cirrhosis, or death.

    The hepatitis A and B vaccine is used to help prevent these diseases in adults. The vaccine works by exposing you to a small dose of the virus, which causes the body to develop immunity to the disease. This vaccine will not treat an active infection that has already developed in the body.

    This vaccine is recommended for adults with risk factors for getting hepatitis A or B, including:

    • having chronic liver problems, such as cirrhosis or hepatitis C, or needing a liver transplant

    • using intravenous drugs

    • living with a person who has either hepatitis A or B infection

    • having sexual contact with an infected person

    • having a blood clotting disorder such as hemophilia

    • being on dialysis or receiving blood transfusions

    • living in a correctional institution

    • being in the military or traveling to high-risk areas and

    • working in healthcare or public safety and being exposed to infected blood or body fluids.

    Like any vaccine, the hepatitis A and B vaccine may not provide protection from disease in every person.

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    Where Can I Get Vaccinated

    The best place to go for vaccinations is your family medical clinic. They have your medical records and can check to see if youve already had a particular vaccination. Either your doctor or a nurse can give the vaccination.If you dont have a family doctor, you can go to one of the after-hour medical clinics. Ring them first to make sure they can help you with the vaccination you need.You can find a clinic near you on the Healthpoint website. Put in your address and region, and under Select a service, click on GPs/Accident & Urgent Medical Care.Vaccines on the National Immunisation Schedule are free. Other vaccines are funded only for people at particular risk of disease. You can choose to pay for vaccines that you are not eligible to receive for free.

    When To Delay Or Avoid Hepb Immunization

    Why do newborns need the hepatitis B vaccine?

    Doctors delay giving the vaccine to babies who weigh less than 4 pounds, 7 ounces at birth whose mothers do not have the virus in their blood. The baby will get the first dose at 1 month of age or when the baby is discharged from the hospital.

    The vaccine is not recommended if your child:

    • is currently sick, although simple colds or other minor illnesses should not prevent immunization
    • had a serious allergic reaction after an earlier dose of the vaccine or is allergic to baker’s yeast

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    Biologic Events Following Immunization

    The antibodies produced after infection with hepatitis B virus or after administration of plasma-derived vaccine or recombinant vaccine are alike in terms of their ability to elicit protective determinants that are active against all subtypes of the virus . In the United States, hepatitis B recombinant vaccines are given as a three-dose series. This consists of two priming doses given 1 month apart this is followed by a third dose given 6 months after the first one . An alternative schedule, consisting of three priming doses at 1-month intervals and then a fourth dose 12 months after the first one, is approved for one vaccine . The priming doses induce detectable antibody to HBsAg in 70-85 percent of healthy adults and children, but they are of relatively low titer. The final dose induces adequate high-titer antibody in more than 90 percent of healthy adults under the age of 50 and 95 percent of children and infants . The immunogenicity and safety of hepatitis B vaccine in premature infants are less well defined . Studies show seroconversion rates similar to those observed with the plasma-derived vaccine licensed for use in the United States .

    Studies of the immunogenicity of the recombinant vaccine show that, by the third dose, over 95 percent of healthy children and adults have responded by producing antibody. Infants and older individuals produce less antibody than young children and adults, which is the usual case for many vaccines.

    What Drugs Interact With Twinrix

    Concomitant Administration With Vaccines And Immune Globulin

    • Do not mix Twinrix with any other vaccine or product in the same syringe.
    • When concomitant administration of immunoglobulin is required, it should be given with a different syringe and at a different injection site.
    • There are no data to assess the concomitant use of Twinrix with other vaccines.

    Immunosuppressive Therapies

    • Immunosuppressive therapies, including irradiation, antimetabolites, alkylating agents, cytotoxic drugs, and corticosteroids , may reduce the immune response to Twinrix.

    Interference With Laboratory Tests

    • Hepatitis B surface antigen derived from hepatitis B vaccines has been transiently detected in blood samples following vaccination. Serum HBsAg detection may not have diagnostic value within 28 days after receipt of a hepatitis B vaccine, including Twinrix.

    Read Also: Hepatitis C Antigens And Antibodies

    How Is The Vaccine Given

    Engerix-B® and Recombivax HB® are given in 3 or 4 shots over a 6-month period. Infants should get their first dose at birth and usually complete the series by 6 months of age. Older children and teenagers who were not vaccinated as infants should also be vaccinated, as well as unvaccinated adults who are at risk of infection with hepatitis B.

    Rare Side Effects After Immunisation

    Addressing Adult Patients Hepatitis B Vaccine Concerns with Dr. Sandra Leal

    There is a very rare risk of a serious allergic reaction to any vaccine. This is why you are advised to stay at the clinic or medical surgery for at least 15 minutes following immunisation, in case further treatment is required.

    If you think your child may be having a serious allergic reaction and you are no longer at the clinic where they were immunised, take them immediately to your doctor or to the nearest hospital, or call 000 for an ambulance.

    Another rare side effect is the hypotonic-hyporesponsive episode . If they are experiencing HHE, a baby may be:

    • pale
    • limp
    • unresponsive.

    This may occur from one to 48 hours following vaccination. The whole episode may last from a few minutes to 36 hours.

    If you think your child may be having an HHE episode, take them immediately to your doctor or to the nearest hospital.

    Follow-up of children with HHE shows no long-term neurological or other side effects.

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    The Hepatitis B Vaccine

    The hepatitis B vaccine is used to prevent hepatitis B. Its usually provided in three doses.

    The first dose can be taken on a date you choose. The second dose must be taken 1 month later. The third and final dose must be taken 6 months after the first dose.

    Some people may need two or four doses of this vaccine.

    There is also a newer hepatitis B vaccine thats offered in two doses.

    Others Recommended To Have The Vaccine

    Hepatitis B is recommended if you:

    • work in an occupation that places you at a risk of contracting hepatitis B
    • were born after May 2000 and have not completed or started the hepatitis B schedule
    • are from an overseas country with a high-prevalence of hepatitis B
    • are adopting a child from overseas who is living with hepatitis B
    • are a household contact of a person who is living with acute or chronic hepatitis B infection
    • are having sex with a person who is living with hepatitis B
    • are a person who injects drugs
    • are an inmate of a correctional facility
    • are of Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander descent
    • have an immune disease including Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection
    • receive certain blood products
    • are a person with a developmental disability
    • have received a liver transplant
    • are travelling overseas to regions where hepatitis B infection is common
    • are homeless
    • are a solid organ or a haemopoietic stem cell transplant recipient.

    Also Check: Hepatitis B Or C Symptoms

    More Information On Side Effects

    Reactions listed under âpossible side effectsâ or âadverse eventsâ on vaccine product information sheets may not all be directly linked to the vaccine. See Vaccine side effects and adverse reactions for more information on why this is the case.

    If you are concerned about any reactions that occur after vaccination, consult your doctor. In the UK you can report suspected vaccine side effects to the Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency through the Yellow Card Scheme

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