Friday, June 21, 2024

How To Tell If Someone Has Hepatitis

Can The Results Of Liver Panel Tests Point To The Presence Of Hepatitis C

Hepatitis B

A liver panel usually includes tests called AST, ALT, bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, and some others. Abnormal results could show up in many different conditions, not just hepatitis C. And even if the results of a liver panel are normal, you might still have hepatitis C. So, the liver panel alone cannot tell your provider the answer.

Hepatitis C can be diagnosed only by blood tests that are specific to hepatitis C:

  • A hepatitis C antibody test can tell you whether you have ever been infected with the hepatitis C virus, but cant by itself tell you whether the infection is still present.
  • A hepatitis C RNA test looks for the actual virus in the bloodstream. A positive result indicates an ongoing hepatitis C infection. If the RNA test result is negative , then you do not have a chronic hepatitis C infection.
  • In short, if the results of one or more tests on a liver panel are abnormal, generally speaking, the tests should be repeated and confirmed. If the results remain abnormal, your provider should be prompted to look for the cause.

    More important than using the liver panel, if you have risks of having been infected with hepatitis C then you should have the specific hepatitis C antibody test to determine if you have hepatitis C infection.

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    How Is Hepatitis Treated

    Someone who has hepatitis will need to drink enough fluids, eat healthy foods, and get rest. The person’s family members may need to get hepatitis vaccines, if they haven’t already.

    Later on, the person will get follow-up blood tests. Often the blood tests will show that the person no longer has hepatitis. Sometimes, the blood tests may show that someone is now a carrier of hepatitis he or she won’t have hepatitis symptoms, but could pass the infection to other people.

    Sometimes, blood tests will continue to show that some people still have hep B or C, which means they may have chronic hepatitis. If so, they will need to eat healthy foods and take very good care of themselves by getting rest and visiting the doctor regularly. In some cases, someone with chronic hepatitis may get special medicine for the condition.

    We hope that this heads-up on hepatitis will help you stay safe. It may sound funny, but you can love your liver by washing your hands and making smart choices!

    What Should You Know About Hepatitis B Before You Travel

    Hepatitis B is quite common in China and other Asian countries, where as many as 1 in 12 people have the virus, though many dont know it. Before traveling to those places, you should make sure youve been vaccinated against the virus.

    In addition to getting the vaccine, you can take these additional precautions to reduce your risk of contracting the virus:

    • Refrain from taking illegal drugs.
    • Always use latex or polyurethane condoms during sex.
    • Make sure new, sterile needles are used during all piercings, tattoos and acupuncture sessions.
    • Avoid direct contact with blood and bodily fluids.
    • Know the HBV status of all your sexual partners.
    • Ask your doctor about possible vaccination before you travel to a place where hepatitis B is common.

    A note from Cleveland Clinic

    Hepatitis B is a liver disease that can cause serious damage to your health. One reason that is dangerous is that it can easily go undetected for years while damaging your liver. Talk with your healthcare provider about being tested for hepatitis B if you have any reason to believe that you were not vaccinated or if you have engaged in risky behavior. If you do test positive, follow the directions from your healthcare provider so that you can live a longer, healthier and happier life.

    Last reviewed by a Cleveland Clinic medical professional on 07/09/2020.

    References

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    What Are Hepatitis B And Hepatitis C

    Although hep A is a short-term illness that goes away completely, hepatitis B and hepatitis C can turn into serious long-term illnesses for some people. Teens and young adults are most at risk for getting these two viruses.

    Hep B and C get passed from person to person the same ways that HIV does through direct contact with infected body fluids. Hepatitis B and C are even more easily passed in fluids and needles than HIV. This can happen through sexual contact and by sharing needles that have been contaminated with infected blood. Even when infected people dont have any symptoms, they can still pass the disease on to others.

    Sometimes mothers with hep B or C pass the virus along to their babies when theyre born. Hep B and C also can get passed in ways you might not expect such as getting a manicure or pedicure with unsterilized nail clippers or other dirty instruments. Getting a tattoo, if dirty needles are used, is another way someone can get hep B or C.

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    Diagnosing Hepatitis A B & C

    Hepatitis B Symptome : NajuobiÄ?ajeniji naÄ?in prenosa u centralnoj ...

    At NYU Langone, hepatologists, or liver specialists, and infectious disease specialists use blood tests to diagnose hepatitis A, B, and C. These viral infections cause inflammation of the liver.

    If the results of a blood test confirm a diagnosis of viral hepatitis, your doctor may recommend imaging tests or a liver biopsy to determine the extent of liver disease.

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    How Do You Get Hepatitis C

    Just like hepatitis B, you can get this type by sharing needles or having contact with infected blood. You can also catch it by having sex with somebody who’s infected, but that’s less common.

    If you had a blood transfusion before new screening rules were put in place in 1992, you are at risk for hepatitis C. If not, the blood used in transfusions today is safe. It gets checked beforehand to make sure it’s free of the virus that causes hepatitis B and C.

    It’s rare, but if you’re pregnant and have the disease, it’s possible to pass it to your newborn.

    There are some myths out there about how you get hepatitis C, so let’s set the record straight. It’s not spread by food and water . And you canât spread it by doing any of these things:

    See your doctor as soon as possible if you have any of these symptoms.

    Sometimes, people have no symptoms. To be sure you have hepatitis, youâll need to get tested.

    How Is Hav Spread

    • Food handlers with HAV did not wash their hands after they used the bathroom.
    • Drinking water that was not clean or eating raw shellfish that came from water that was not clean.
    • Travel to areas in the world where hepatitis A is common or has an active outbreak.
    • Daycare workers did not wash their hands after they changed a diaper.
    • Sexual contact with someone who has hepatitis A, especially men who have sex with other men.

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    Where Is The Hepatitis B Virus Found And How Is It Transmitted

    Blood is the major source of the hepatitis B virus in the workplace. It can also be found in other tissues and body fluids, but in much lower concentrations. The risk of transmission varies according to the specific source. The virus can survive outside the body for at least 7 days and still be able to cause infection.

    How Does A Person Get Hepatitis

    The Truth about Hepatitis B

    A person can get hepatitis A through the following sources:

    • Food or water contaminated with the fecal matter of an infected person

    A person can get hepatitis B in many ways, which include:

    • Having sexual contact with an infected person
    • Sharing needles
    • Being in direct contact with an infected persons blood
    • Transferred from mother to the fetus
    • Getting an infected needle prick
    • Being in contact with an infected persons body fluid

    A person can get hepatitis C through:

    • Sharing infected needles

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    If I Have Hepatitis C Infection Does This Mean I Am Going To Have Other Health Problems

    Hepatitis C can cause scarring of the liver leading to cirrhosis and liver cancer. Other conditions have also been linked to hepatitis C and are known as extra-hepatic manifestations of hepatitis C. They include diabetes mellitus, arthritis, hypothyroid, and aplastic anemia among other conditions. Talk to your provider for more information.

    Could I Give Hepatitis C To Someone Else

    Yes, once you have hepatitis C, you can always give it to someone else. If you have hepatitis C, you cannot donate blood. You should avoid sharing personal items like razors and toothbrushes. It is very rare to pass hepatitis C in these ways, but it can happen. Always use a condom when you have sex. If you have hepatitis C, your sexual partners should be tested to see if they also have it.

    Talk to your doctor first if you want to have children. The virus isnt spread easily from a mother to her unborn baby. But it is possible, so you need to take precautions. However, if youre trying to have a baby, do not have sex during your menstrual cycle. The hepatitis C virus spreads more easily in menstrual blood.

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    What If I Have Symptoms Of Viral Hepatitis

    If you have symptoms or signs of viral hepatitis, your health care provider can perform a blood test to check for the presence of an antibody. If you have hepatitis B or C, more blood samples may be necessary later even if the symptoms have vanished to check for complications and determine if you have progressed from acute to chronic disease. Most people have vague or no symptoms at all hence, viral hepatitis is often referred to as a silent disease.

    Your healthcare provider may also require a liverbiopsy, or tissue sample, in order to determine the extent of the damage. A biopsy is commonly performed by inserting a needle into the liver and drawing out a fragment of tissue, which is then sent to a lab to be analyzed.

    How Is Hepatitis C Spread

    Hepatitis: Causes, Symptoms and Treatment â Healthsoul

    Hepatitis C spreads through contact with the blood of someone who has HCV. This contact may be through:

    • Sharing drug needles or other drug materials with someone who has HCV. In the United States, this is the most common way that people get hepatitis C.
    • Getting an accidental stick with a needle that was used on someone who has HCV. This can happen in health care settings.
    • Being tattooed or pierced with tools or inks that were not sterilized after being used on someone who has HCV
    • Having contact with the blood or open sores of someone who has HCV
    • Sharing personal care items that may have come in contact with another persons blood, such as razors or toothbrushes
    • Being born to a mother with HCV
    • Having unprotected sex with someone who has HCV

    Before 1992, hepatitis C was also commonly spread through blood transfusions and organ transplants. Since then, there has been routine testing of the U.S. blood supply for HCV. It is now very rare for someone to get HCV this way.

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    What Is The Difference Between Relapse And Nonresponse

    The goal of treating chronic hepatitis C is to completely clear the virus. This means that your “viral load” is zero or so low that the virus can’t be detected with standard blood tests.

    Without treatment, the hepatitis C virus in liver cells constantly makes copies of itself, and the virus ends up not just in liver cells but also in the bloodstream. Treatment is intended to completely stop reproduction of the virus so that it doesn’t continue to enter the bloodstream or cause any more injury to liver cells.

    Successful treatment results in a “sustained virological response.” This means the virus becomes completely undetectable before the treatment is finished, and it remains undetectable for 6 months after treatment is stopped.

    A “relapse” means the viral load drops to an undetectable level before treatment is completed, but becomes detectable again within 6 months after treatment is stopped. Even if the virus returns at a level that is lower than it was before treatment, a relapse is still considered to have occurred. A relapse can be determined if the viral load starts to rise during treatment, or at any time after the virus becomes undetectable.

    A “nonresponse” means the viral load never drops significantly and the virus remains detectable throughout the course of treatment.

    Additional Tests You Might Need

    Once youve been diagnosed with Hepatitis C, your doctor will likely order a number of tests to find out about the health of your liver and decide on a treatment plan thats most appropriate for you.

    Hepatitis C genotype

    The Hepatitis C genotype refers to a specific strain or type of the Hepatitis C virus. There are six major types of Hepatitis C around the world: genotypes 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6. In the United States, genotypes 1, 2, and 3 are common:

    • Genotype 1: Most Americans with Hepatitis C have this type
    • Genotype 2: About 10% of Americans with Hepatitis C have this type
    • Genotype 3: About 6% of Americans with Hepatitis C have this type

    The genotype of Hepatitis C does not change over time, so you only need to get tested once.

    Genotype tests are done before a person starts treatment. Hepatitis C treatment works differently for different genotypes, so knowing your genotype helps your doctor choose the best treatment for you.

    Testing for Hepatitis A and Hepatitis B

    Your doctor may test to see if your body is immune to Hepatitis A and Hepatitis B. If these tests show no prior exposure or protection, he or she will recommend that you be vaccinated against these two viruses to eliminate the chance of becoming infected.

    Liver function tests or liver enzymes

    Liver function tests also include ALP and total bilirubin, among other things.

    Tests to measure liver scarring or fibrosis

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    Hepatitis C: Who Is At Risk

    People who have injected illegal drugs at any time, even one time, many years ago, could be walking around with chronic hepatitis C. Because there are often no symptoms, many former drug users may not realize they have the infection. People who received a blood transfusion before 1992 also have a higher risk. Before that year, donated blood was not screened for the hepatitis C virus.

    Hepatitis C Antibody Test

    What you need to know about Hepatitis B

    Certain foreign substances that enter your body trigger your immune system to make antibodies. Antibodies are specifically programmed to only target the foreign substance they were made to fight.

    If youve ever had a hepatitis C infection, your body will make hepatitis C antibodies as part of its immune response.

    Your body only makes these antibodies if you have hepatitis C or had it in the past. So the hepatitis C antibody test can confirm whether you have the virus by testing for these specific antibodies.

    It may take 2 to 3 months after exposure for the test to detect antibodies. If needed, your healthcare professional may order an HCV RNA test, which can detect the virus after just 1 or 2 weeks.

    If the antibody test is positive, an HCV RNA test can show whether the infection is current.

    While people of any gender experience the same hepatitis C symptoms, 2014 research suggested some effects of the virus may differ, depending on the sex you were assigned at birth.

    Researchers noted that:

    • women have a higher chance of clearing the virus without treatment
    • liver disease may progress more rapidly in men
    • men have a higher chance of developing cirrhosis

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    Preventing The Spread Of Hepatitis C

    There is no vaccine available to prevent a person from being infected with hepatitis C. Recommended behaviours to prevent the spread of the virus include:

    • Always use sterile injecting equipment. This can be accessed from your local needle and syringe program service.
    • Avoid sharing personal items such as toothbrushes, razors, nail files or nail scissors, which can draw blood.
    • If you are involved in body piercing, tattooing, electrolysis or acupuncture, always ensure that any instrument that pierces the skin is either single use or has been cleaned, disinfected and sterilised since it was last used.
    • If you are a healthcare worker, follow standard precautions at all times.
    • Wherever possible, wear single-use gloves if you give someone first aid or clean up blood or body fluids.
    • Although hepatitis C is not generally considered to be a sexually transmissible infection in Australia, you may wish to consider safe sex practices if blood is going to be present, or if your partner has HIV infection. You may wish to further discuss this issue and personal risks with your doctor.

    What Are Possible Complications Of Alcoholic Hepatitis

    If you dont stop drinking and your condition worsens, your overall outcome and chances for recovery will worsen as well.

    Alcoholic hepatitis can lead to hepatic encephalopathy. This condition occurs when the toxins typically filtered out by your liver remain in the bloodstream. These toxins can cause brain damage and lead to a coma.

    Your outlook may worsen if you develop cirrhosis as a result of excessive alcohol use. Bleeding complications, anemia, and liver failure can become life-threatening.

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    What Are The Seven Signs Of Hepatitis

    The different forms of hepatitis have different signs and symptoms, making regular screenings important for health. While hepatitis B and C dont always cause symptoms, hepatitis A can trigger symptoms similar to the flu as well as these seven common signs:

  • Yellowing of the eyes and skin
  • Abdominal pain or discomfort
  • Loss of appetite and/or unexplained weight loss
  • Clay- or light-colored stools
  • While these symptoms can resolve in a few weeks, hepatitis A can lead to serious illness that lasts for months. If you suspect you may have hepatitis, schedule an appointment with Dr. Rivas right away to get a diagnosis and start treatment if applicable.

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