Sunday, February 5, 2023

Schedule For Hepatitis B Vaccination

Why Is The Hepb Vaccine Recommended

HepB Immunization Schedule – Memory Palace – “Hippie Giving Birth at Home”

People who dont know they’re infected can spread the hepatitis B virus. So it cant be avoided just by being careful. That’s why health experts recommend that all babies get the vaccine right from birth.

The HepB injection usually creates long-term immunity. Most infants who get the HepB series are protected from hepatitis B infection beyond childhood, into their adult years.

Eliminating the risk of infection also decreases risk for cirrhosis of the liver, chronic liver disease, and liver cancer.

Where Can I Get More Information

  • Your vaccination provider, pharmacist, or doctor can provide more information about this vaccine. Additional information is available from your local health department or the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Remember, keep this and all other medicines out of the reach of children, never share your medicines with others, and use this medication only for the indication prescribed.

Are Hepatitis B Virus Infections Easily Avoided

Large quantities of hepatitis B virus are present in the blood of people with hepatitis B in fact, as many as one billion infectious viruses can be found in a milliliter of blood from an infected individual. Therefore, hepatitis B virus is transmitted in the blood of infected individuals during activities that could result in exposure to blood, such as intravenous drug use, tattooing, or sex with people who are infected. However, it is also possible to catch hepatitis B virus through more casual contact, such as sharing washcloths, toothbrushes or razors. In each of these cases, unseen amounts of blood can contain enough viral particles to cause infection. In addition, because many people who are infected don’t know that they are infected, it is very hard to avoid the chance of getting infected with hepatitis B virus.

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Hepatitis B Vaccine: Canadian Immunization Guide

For health professionals

Last partial content update : May 2022

The footnotes in and the accompanying text description for the figure have been revised to align with the corresponding figure in Protocole d’immunisation du Québec, 5e édition from which it was adapted.

Last complete chapter revision :

How Is Hepatitis B Treated

Recommended Adult Immunization Schedule

Immunoglobulin, a passive immunisation, can be administered within 12 hours of an at-risk exposure to help prevent HBV infection. Treatment for chronic disease is through the use of antiviral medications and medications containing naturally-occurring proteins. A liver transplant may be necessary in the event of severe liver damage.

A Hepatitis B vaccination schedule is the best way to prevent infection.

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Accelerated Us Children And Adult Hepatitis B Vaccine Schedules

*Please note that the first dose should be given as soon as possible. Additional doses require minimum time intervals between doses in order for the vaccine to be effective.

In some instances, it may be necessary to vaccinate within a short period of time to ensure protection before travel. There are accelerated schedules to provide the highest level of protection over a short period of time. Individuals who need an accelerated schedule must have a booster dose at 1 year to ensure long-term protection. Note that the 2-dose Heplisav-B vaccine will also ensure maximum protection over a 1-month period without the need for a booster dose at 1 year.

4-Dose Vaccine Series for Children and Adults

Engerix-B is a 3-dose vaccine that can be given on an accelerated, four-dose schedule, with 3 shots administered within 2 months, and a booster dose at 1 year to provide maximum long-term protection.

4-Dose Combination Hepatitis A and B Vaccine Series

Twinrix is a 4-dose vaccine that can be given on an accelerated schedule to provide protection against hepatitis A and B. Three doses are administered within 1 month, followed by a booster shot at 1 year. This is a common choice of vaccine for those travelling on short-notice outside the U.S. It is important to complete the booster dose at 1 year, to ensure long-term protection.

2-Dose Vaccine Series

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Who Should Receive The Hepatitis B Vaccine

Vaccination is the most reliable way to prevent getting hepatitis B or developing serious related medical complications.

The CDCs Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommends that people in all age groups get the hepatitis B vaccine, including:

  • All infants within 24 hours after birth
  • Children and teens who have not previously been vaccinated against hepatitis B
  • Adults ages 19 to 59
  • Adults ages 60 and older with at least one risk factor for hepatitis B

Adults over 60 who are not at risk of developing hepatitis B can also receive the HepB vaccine if they choose.

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Hepatitis B Vaccination Schedule For Children And Infants

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends that babies and children receive three 0.5 milliliter doses of either Engerix-B or Recombivax HB, starting just after birth.

The current recommended hepatitis B vaccine schedule for children and infants is as follows:

Hepatitis B Vaccination Schedule for Infants and Children
Hepatitis B Vaccine Dose
3 618 months old

If your child is undergoing hemodialysis, your healthcare provider may recommend that they receive additional doses of the HBV vaccine.

Persons New To Canada

Hepatitis B Vaccine for Babies – Importance and Recommended Schedule

Health care providers who see persons newly arrived in Canada should review the immunization status and update immunization for these individuals, as necessary. In many countries outside of Canada, HB vaccine is in limited use.

All persons from a country that is endemic for HB should be assessed and vaccinated against HB if not immune and not infected. Individuals born in developing countries are more likely to be carriers of HB, necessitating vaccination of their sexual and household contacts based on review of their serologic test results. HB vaccine is recommended for all household contacts whose families have immigrated to Canada from areas in which there is a high prevalence of HB and who may be exposed to HB carriers through their extended families or when visiting their country of origin.

Children adopted from countries in which there is a high prevalence of HB infection should be screened for HBsAg and, if positive, household or close contacts in the adopting family should be immunized before adoption or as soon as possible thereafter. Adults going to pick-up children from these countries should be vaccinated before departure. Refer to Immunization of Persons New to Canada in Part 3 for additional information.

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I Am A Healthcare Worker Who Did Not Develop Hepatitis B Antibodies After Immunization What Should I Do

Two versions of hepatitis B vaccine are available. One, called Heplisav-B, contains a novel adjuvant that was not present in previous versions used by adults . Some people did not respond to the older version hepatitis B vaccine. In fact, in a group of adults younger than 40 years of age who received two doses of the older version vaccine 75 of 100 were protected. Following the third dose, this number increased to 90 of 100. However, people older than 40 years of age were less likely to respond to the vaccine with increasing age. On the other hand, 90 to 100 of 100 adults 18 years of age and older respond to Heplisav-B, which was approved for use in 2018.

About 5-10 of every 100 children and adults younger than 40 years of age do not respond to the third dose of the hepatitis B vaccine. Some of these people will be recommended to get vaccinated again. About 5 of 100 people will still not respond after getting all recommended doses of both series. Note that children younger than 18 years of age cannot get Heplisav-B.

If the people who do not respond to vaccination are determined not to have chronic hepatitis B, they will be reliant on taking precautions to reduce the chance of exposure and relying on those around them for protection. In other words, these people will be reliant on herd immunity.

Dosage Forms & Strengths

Contraindicated

  • belimumab

    belimumab decreases effects of hepatitis b vaccine by immunosuppressive effects risk of infection. Contraindicated. Do not administer live vaccines 30 days before or concurrently with belimumab.

Serious – Use Alternative

Monitor Closely

Minor

  • chloroquine decreases effects of hepatitis b vaccine by pharmacodynamic antagonism. Minor/Significance Unknown.

  • ozanimod

    ozanimod decreases effects of hepatitis b vaccine by immunosuppressive effects risk of infection. Minor/Significance Unknown. No clinical data are available on the efficacy and safety of vaccinations in patients taking ozanimod. Vaccinations may be less effective if coadministered with ozanimod.

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What Is Hepatitis B

Hepatitis B is a contagious liver disease caused by the hepatitis B virus. When a person is first infected with the virus, he or she can develop an acute infection. Acute hepatitis B refers to the first 6 months after someone is infected with the hepatitis B virus. This infection can range from a very mild illness with few or no symptoms to a serious condition requiring hospitalization. Some people are able to fight the infection and clear the virus.

For others, the infection remains and is chronic, or lifelong. Chronic hepatitis B refers to the infection when it remains active instead of getting better after 6 months. Over time, the infection can cause serious health problems, and even liver cancer.

Immunisation Against Hepatitis B

SciELO

The current Australian immunisation program provides free hepatitis B vaccine to protect all children against the hepatitis B virus.

A full course of hepatitis B injections must be given for a child to be protected. It is recommended that this course begins within 24 hours of birth with a vaccine against hepatitis B alone. Further doses are routinely given at 2 months , 4 months and 6 months of age, as a combination vaccine.

Vaccination is the best protection against hepatitis B infection. In Victoria a free hepatitis B vaccine is available for a number of groups at high risk, including but not limited to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples, men who have sex with men, and people living with HIV.

The adult course involves 3 doses of the vaccine over 6 months and gives protection to about 95 per cent of people. Once you have had the 3 doses, you can have a blood test to see if you are protected.

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Screen For Contraindications And Precautions

  • Do not administer Heplisav-B to individuals with a history of severe allergic reaction after a previous dose of any hepatitis B vaccine or to any component of Heplisav-B, including yeast.
  • Consult the package insert for precautions, warnings, and contraindications and Hepatitis B Vaccine Safety for additional information and possible side effects.
  • See Vaccine Administration and SIRVA infographic for more information about proper IM vaccine administration.
  • Get The Shot And Stay Informed

    The hepatitis A & B virus is silent but violent. The virus is 50 to 100 times more contagious than HIV and can survive outside the body for at least seven days, making it much more infectious then most infectious diseases.

    Nobody is immune to the first infection, and once contracted, it can lead to chronic illness and, in extreme cases, even death.

    We hope this article answered the question, How long does Twinrix last? Also, that it has given you further insight into hepatitis A and B.

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    Where Is It Found

    Hepatitis B prevalence is highest among some sub-Saharan African, East and Southeast Asian, and Pacific island populations but can also be found in high numbers in the Mediterranean countries, parts of Eastern Europe, Africa, and Central and South America. It is important to note that although there is a higher risk in certain countries or regions, Hepatitis B occurs in all countries.

    Some people may have a higher risk of contracting Hepatitis B through their occupation, i.e. healthcare workers, police and other emergency services workers, funeral company employees, staff of residential care facilities, tattooists, acupuncturists, people who perform body piercings and sex workers.

    Who Should Receive Hepatitis B Vaccination

    Hepatitis B Vaccine: Routine and Catch-up Schedule
    • All newborns before hospital discharge. Infants born to hepatitis B-positive women need hepatitis B vaccine and HBIG within 12 hours of birth.
    • All children and adolescents not previously vaccinated.
    • Children born in the U.S. to individuals born in a country with high hepatitis B endemicity.
    • All individuals at risk of hepatitis B infection:
    • Sex partners of hepatitis B-positive persons.
    • Sexually active persons who are not in a long-term, mutually monogamous relationship .
    • Persons seeking evaluation or treatment for a sexually-transmitted disease.
    • Men who have sex with men.
    • Persons who inject drugs.
    • Household contacts of hepatitis B-positive persons.
    • Persons born in countries where hepatitis B infection is endemic should be tested and vaccinated if susceptible.
    • International travelers to regions with high or intermediate rates of endemic hepatitis B infection.
    • Health care and public safety workers that may be exposed to blood or blood-contaminated body fluids.
    • Residents and staff of facilities for developmentally disabled persons, corrections facilities, and other facilities that serve adults at risk for hepatitis B infection.
    • Persons with end-stage renal disease, including pre-dialysis, hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis, and home dialysis patients.
    • Persons with chronic liver disease.
    • Persons to age 60 years with diabetes.
    • Persons with HIV infection.
  • All other persons seeking protection from hepatitis B infection.
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    International Hepatitis B Vaccine Schedules

    *Please note that the first dose should be given as soon as possible. Additional doses require minimum time intervals between doses in order for the vaccine to be effective.

    The hepatitis B vaccine is an injection that is generally given in the arm and as a three-dose series. The World Health Organization recommends a 0, 1, and 6-month vaccine schedule, though schedules may vary based on a countrys national immunization program. Completing the hepatitis B vaccine series, preferably beginning at birth, will ensure protection against hepatitis B, hepatitis delta and lower the lifetime risk of liver cancer. Greater than 90% of babies and up to 50% of young children who are not vaccinated and are infected with hepatitis B will have lifelong infection, which makes the birth dose essential to their protection. Please note that the vaccine brand name, manufacturer and associated schedules for adults, children and infants may be unique to different countries, though there is a list of WHO prequalified vaccines.

    3-Dose Vaccine Series for Infants

    The World Health Organization recommends all infants receive the first dose of the hepatitis B vaccine within 24 hours of birth and to complete the vaccine series with additional shots at 1 month and 6 months of age. Beginning the hepatitis B vaccine at birth will ensure protection against hepatitis B for life.

    3-Dose Vaccine Series for Children and Adults

    4-Dose Combination Vaccine Series for Infants

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    How Is The Hepatitis B Vaccine Made

    People are protected against hepatitis B virus infection by making an immune response to a protein that sits on the surface of the virus. When hepatitis B virus grows in the liver, an excess amount of this surface protein is made. The hepatitis B vaccine is made by taking the part of the virus that makes surface protein and putting it into yeast cells. The yeast cells then produce many copies of the protein that are subsequently used to make the vaccine. When the surface protein is given to children in the vaccine, their immune systems make an immune response that provides protection against infection with the hepatitis B virus.

    The first hepatitis B vaccine was made in the 1980s by taking blood from people infected with hepatitis B virus and separating or purifying the surface protein from the infectious virus. Because blood was used, there was a risk of contaminating the vaccine with other viruses that might be found in blood, such as HIV. Although contamination with HIV was a theoretical risk of the early, blood-derived hepatitis B vaccine, no one ever got HIV from the hepatitis B vaccine. That is because the blood used to make vaccine was submitted to a series of chemical treatments that inactivated any possible contaminating viruses. Today, there is no risk of contaminating the vaccine with other viruses because the surface protein is manufactured in the laboratory.

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    How To Get Vaccinated Against Hepatitis B

    All babies in the UK born on or after 1 August 2017 are given 3 doses of hepatitis B-containing vaccine as part of the NHS routine vaccination schedule.

    These doses are given at 8, 12 and 16 weeks of age.

    Babies at high risk of developing hepatitis B infection from infected mothers are given extra doses of the hepatitis B vaccine at birth, 4 weeks and 1 year of age.

    If you think you’re at risk and need the hepatitis B vaccine, ask your GP to vaccinate you, or visit any sexual health or genitourinary medicine clinic.

    If your job places you at risk of hepatitis B infection, it’s your employer’s responsibility to arrange vaccination for you, rather than your GP. Contact your occupational health department.

    Transmission Symptoms And Treatment

    Immunisation

    How is HBV transmitted?

    HBV is transmitted through activities that involve percutaneous or mucosal contact with infectious blood or body fluids , including

    • sex with a partner who has HBV infection
    • injection drug use that involves sharing needles, syringes, or drug-preparation equipment
    • birth to a person who has HBV infection
    • contact with blood from or open sores on a person who has HBV infection
    • exposures to needle sticks or sharp instruments and
    • sharing certain items with a person who has HBV infection that can break the skin or mucous membranes , potentially resulting in exposure to blood.

    How long does HBV survive outside the body?

    HBV can survive outside the body and remains infectious for at least 7 days .

    What should be used to clean environmental surfaces potentially contaminated with HBV?

    Any blood spills should be disinfected using a 1:10 dilution of one part household bleach to 9 parts water. Gloves should be worn when cleaning up any blood spills.

    Who is at risk for HBV infection?

    The following populations are at increased risk for becoming infected with HBV:

    • Infants born to people with HBV infection
    • Sex partners of people with HBV infection
    • Men who have sex with men
    • People who inject drugs
    • Household contacts or sexual partners of known people with chronic HBV infection
    • Health care and public safety workers at risk for occupational exposure to blood or blood-contaminated body fluids
    • Patients on hemodialysis

    Who should be screened for HBV?

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