Hepatitis B Surface Antigen Test
A hepatitis B surface antigen test shows if you have an active infection. A positive result means you have hepatitis B and can transmit the virus to others. A negative result means you dont currently have hepatitis B.
This test doesnt distinguish between chronic and acute infection. This test is used together with other hepatitis B tests to determine the state of a hepatitis B infection.
What You Can Do
Healthy eating, exercise, and maintaining a healthy weight can help protect your heart and blood vessels from becoming damaged. Lowering blood pressure, as well as lowering unhealthy fat levels in cholesterol and triglycerides, can also help lower the risk of damaging cardiovascular disease.
Your doctor may recommend that you stop drinking alcohol if you have hepatitis C or cardiovascular disease. Alcohol can increase damage to the liver, increase fat in the liver, and increase toxins in the blood.
Treatment for hepatitis C is highly recommended to eliminate the virus and stop further damage from occurring. Clinical research shows hepatitis C treatment with direct-acting antivirals resulting in clearance of the virus greatly improves the risk factors resulting in cardiovascular disease and associated conditions.
Talk to your physician about what steps you can take to lower risks for cardiovascular damage and extrahepatic conditions associated with hepatitis C.
Have questions about side effects? Community members have answers.
Strengths And Limitations Of This Study
An unselected nationwide population with the most extensive sample of diabetic patients with chronic HBV infection available was examined, minimising the possibility of referral bias.
This study is the largest-scale examination of a diabetic HBV cohort to date.
No previous study has explored long-term hard endpoints and all-cause mortality in diabetic patients with chronic HBV infection.
Liver function test results and glycated haemoglobin values were not available in the nationwide dataset.
Some personal information, including body mass index and smoking status, was not available in the administrative dataset.
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What Is Hepatitis B
Hepatitis B is a liver infection caused by the hepatitis B virus . HBV is one of five types of viral hepatitis. The others are hepatitis A, C, D, and E. Each is a different type of virus. Types B and C are most likely to become chronic, or long lasting.
According to the , around 296 million people around the world are living with hepatitis B. Around 1.5 million people newly contracted chronic hepatitis B in 2019.
HBV infection can be acute or chronic.
Acute hepatitis B causes symptoms to appear quickly in adults. Infants who contract it at birth rarely develop only acute hepatitis B. Nearly all hepatitis B infections in infants go on to become chronic.
Chronic hepatitis B develops slowly. Symptoms may not be noticeable unless complications develop.
Symptoms of acute hepatitis B may not be apparent for months. But common symptoms include:
- yellowing of the whites of the eyes and skin
Any symptoms of hepatitis B need urgent evaluation. Symptoms of acute hepatitis B are worse in people over age 60.
Let your doctor know immediately if youve been exposed to hepatitis B. You may be able to prevent infection.
Hepatitis B is a viral infection thats transmitted through blood or other bodily fluids, including semen or vaginal fluids.
Some of the ways hepatitis B can be transmitted include:
Although the virus may be found in the saliva, hepatitis B is not transmitted through:
To screen for hepatitis B, your doctor will perform a series of blood tests.
Impact On The Integumentary System
Hepatitis C is associated with a wide variety of skin problems. Some common conditions include easy bruising, loss of skin pigment, rashes, and itching.
Bilirubin is an important substance that comes from the breakdown of hemoglobin. When the liver cant do its job, bilirubin can build up and cause jaundice, or the yellowing of your skin and the whites of your eyes.
Poor liver function can also lead to poor nutrition. This leads to inadequate growth of hair and nails as well.
Skin conditions that may occur include:
- porphyria cutanea tarda, which is a kind of photosensitivity leading to skin blistering
- lichen planus, which are purple, itchy papules than can appear on the skin and in the mouth
- leukocytic vasculitis, which is inflammation of the small blood vessels
The endocrine system regulates hormones. As part of the endocrine system, the thyroid gland delivers hormones into the bloodstream.
Sometimes HCV can cause the immune system to mistakenly attack or damage thyroid tissue. This
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Treating Hepatitis C Matters
When you see your doctor and start treatment for a chronic hep C infection, you can prevent these problems, improve them, or keep them from getting worse. New drugs can clear the virus from your body in a few months with fewer side effects than older medicines. If thereâs no virus in your blood 3 months after treatment, youâre considered cured.
Getting rid of the infection protects others, too. Hepatitis C spreads through blood-to-blood contact. You could infect a loved one if you accidentally use their toothbrush or cut yourself and donât clean up the blood properly. People who get hep C treatment greatly lower the odds that they will pass the virus to someone else.
If you arenât sure if you have hepatitis C, talk to your doctor to see if you should get tested. Learn why you should get tested for hepatitis C.
Serious Depression And Other Mood Disorders
Interferons can cause or worsen serious depression or other mental illness. The risk for each condition is higher if youve had that condition before. Its not known why interferons can cause mood disorders.
Symptoms may include:
- flu-like symptoms
- skin changes such as bruising, flaking, and redness
How Do Interferons Work
Interferons work in a few ways. For one, they change the way white blood cells destroy invading cells. This change triggers the bodys built-in immune response to fight viruses such as hepatitis C.
Interferons also help stop the spread of hepatitis C. Hepatitis C spreads by multiplying, or copying, its cells. Interferons would help stop the virus from multiplying, which helped slow the spread of the virus.
Interferons have other broad actions that dont target any virus in particular. This is one reason why these drugs can cause many side effects.
How Long Can You Live With Hepatitis B
Most people who contract hepatitis B during adulthood fully recover within 1 to 3 months.
People with chronic hepatitis B may have a higher risk of developing long-term liver problems, like cirrhosis or liver cancer, which require treatment and may be life threatening.
Keep in mind that the risk of developing chronic hepatitis B is higher for babies and children, especially if they have not been vaccinated against the virus.
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Why Interferons Cause Long
Interferon treatment for hepatitis C would typically last 2448 weeks . Interferons caused many long-term side effects partly because of this long treatment time.
Using the drug for this length of time gave side effects a chance to develop and get worse.
The more common long-term side effects of interferons are typically less severe. These side effects can include:
- swelling or other reactions at the injection site
- flu-like symptoms such as headache, tiredness, and weakness
- low levels of white blood cells
- loss of appetite
- itchy skin
If you have these side effects and youre concerned that they relate to your interferon exposure, call your doctor. They can assess you and determine if the interferons or something else is causing your symptoms.
A Very Rare Complication Of Hepatitis A Infection: Acute Myocarditisa Case Report With Literature Review
1Internal Medicine Department, Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI, USA
2Oakland University William Beaumont School of Medicine, Rochester, MI, USA
Hepatitis A is a common viral illness caused by the hepatitis A virus . Although avoidable by immunization, it is the most common infection leading to liver disease worldwide . HAV is fecal-orally transmitted and is endemic in developing countries . The incidence of hepatitis A has increased in the United States due to outbreaks. Since March 2017, 694 individuals were affected in California, with 454 hospitalizations and 21 deaths, and it is considered to be the largest outbreak in the United States in the last two decades. Since August 2016, there have been 790 cases in Michigan, with 615 hospitalizations and 25 deaths. Other states affected include Kentucky and Utah .
2. Case Report
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What Are The Treatments For Hepatitis B
If you think you may have been exposed to hepatitis B, its important to talk with a healthcare professional as soon as possible.
A doctor or other healthcare professional may administer the first dose of the hepatitis B vaccine and a shot of hepatitis B immunoglobulin. This is a combination of antibodies that provide short-term protection against the virus.
Though both can be given up to a week after exposure, theyre most effective at preventing infection if administered within 48 hours.
If you receive a diagnosis of acute hepatitis B, a doctor may refer you to a specialist. They may advise you to get regular blood tests to ensure you dont develop chronic hepatitis.
Many people with acute hepatitis B dont experience serious symptoms. But if you do, it can help to:
- get plenty of rest
- take over-the-counter pain mediation, like naproxen, when needed
Other lifestyle changes may also be needed to manage your infection, such as:
- eating a nutritious, balanced diet
- avoiding substances that can harm your liver, such as:
- certain herbal supplements or medications, including acetaminophen
If blood tests show you still have an active infection after 6 months, your doctor may recommend further treatment, including medications to help control the virus and prevent liver damage.
Hepatitis C And Cardiovascular Disease
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The hepatitis C virus can cause a firestorm of extrahepatic conditions such as insulin resistance, diabetes, hepatic steatosis, cryoglobulinemia, and endotoxemia – which are associated with the development of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. The longer the patient has hepatitis C, the higher the risk of developing an extrahepatic condition, such as cardiovascular disease.
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Causes Of Noninfectious Hepatitis
Although hepatitis is most commonly the result of an infection, other factors can cause the condition.
Alcohol and other toxins
The alcohol directly injures the cells of your liver. Over time, it can cause permanent damage and lead to thickening or scarring of liver tissue and liver failure.
Other toxic causes of hepatitis include misuse of medications and exposure to toxins.
Autoimmune system response
In some cases, the immune system mistakes the liver as harmful and attacks it. This causes ongoing inflammation that can range from mild to severe, often hindering liver function. Itâs three times more common in women than in men.
Impact Of Daa Treatment On Cardiovascular Disease Risk In Chronic Hcv Infection: An Update
- 1Faculty of Medicine Osijek, J. J. Strossmayer University of Osijek, Osijek, Croatia
- 2University Hospital Osijek, Osijek, Croatia
- 3Faculty of Dental Medicine and Health Osijek, J. J. Strossmayer University of Osijek, Osijek, Croatia
- 4Health Center Osijek, Osijek, Croatia
- 5St. Catherine Specialty Hospital, Zabok, Croatia
- 6Eberly College of Science, The Pennsylvania State University, State College, PA, United States
- 7The Henry C. Lee College of Criminal Justice and Forensic Sciences, University of New Haven, West Haven, CT, United States
- 8Medical School, University of Split, Split, Croatia
- 9Medical School, University of Rijeka, Rijeka, Croatia
- 10Medical School REGIOMED, Coburg, Germany
- 11Medical School, University of Mostar, Mostar, Bosnia and Herzegovina
- 12Department of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology-Hepatology, University of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington, CT, United States
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Changes In Metabolic Status Of Daa Treated Patients
Beside the direct impact on CVD outcomes, eradication of HCV with DAA treatment shows beneficial effect on glucose homeostasis, a major risk factor for CVDs development. During clinical studies it was observed that HCV-infected individuals have a significantly higher prevalence of insulin resistance, as well as a higher risk for development of diabetes mellitus type II in comparison with uninfected subjects . Achievement of virological eradication in DAA-treated patients without history of diabetes is associated with an improvement in glucose metabolism parameters and insulin homeostasis . Additionally, a decreased incidence of diabetes was observed in HCV patients treated with DAAs . Further, diabetic patients during treatment with DAA regimens and after SVR exhibit lower levels of fasting glucose as well as hemoglobin A1c. Hence, a less intensive antidiabetic therapy requirements are needed in these individuals . The link between HCV eradication and glycemic control was further confirmed in liver transplant recipients with HCV and diagnosis of impaired fasting blood glucose, where SVR was associated with a reduction of fasting glucose serum levels .
Seeking Help For Heroin Use
As such, it is advisable for a person with a heroin use disorder to try and stop using the drug to prevent permanent health damage.
A person may reach out to a family doctor or anybody they can trust to help them find treatment facilities, rehabilitation programs, and other sources of support and strategies to help them overcome the addiction.
Individuals or family members of people with substance use disorders can search for local treatment centers using the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administrations treatment finder tool.
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Hepatitis B And Pregnancy
Hepatitis B can be transmitted from a birthing parent to a newborn infant. This is because the newborn is exposed to blood and bodily fluids during delivery.
In fact, 90% of mothers with an acute hepatitis B infection and 10% to 20% of mothers with chronic hepatitis B will transmit the virus to their newborn, estimates the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists.
For this reason, birthing parents are routinely screened for hepatitis B during each pregnancy.
Additionally, the hepatitis B vaccine and hepatitis B immune globulin are both administered to infants with an HBV-positive birthing parent within of birth to prevent infection.
According to the
- people with hepatitis C infection
- men who have sex with men
- people with multiple sexual partners
- people who are seeking treatment for a sexually transmitted infections
- people with current or recent injection drug use
- family members or sexual partners of those with hepatitis B
- people with chronic liver disease
- people traveling to areas with high rates of hepatitis B
- people on maintenance dialysis
- people who are incarcerated
The hepatitis B vaccine is usually administered in three shots, given 1 month and 6 months after the first dose. Another recently approved vaccine is completed in two doses spaced 1 month apart.
Effects Of Daa Treatment On Cardiovascular Disease
Endothelial dysfunction has been predominantly recognized as the main change related to the pathogenesis of vascular diseases . Petta et al., in a prospective study, examined the impact of a sustained viral response on the levels of carotid atherosclerosis in patients with progressive liver fibrosis or cirrhosis. Collected data showed a decrease of the carotid intimal-medial thickening in patients on DAA regimens after of follow up after viral eradication . Flow-mediated dilation , known as a CV risk marker, is a broadly recognized as a precise and non-invasive method of endothelial function evaluation . Di Minno et al. found that FMD altered from 4.52% at baseline to 9.39% after completing treatment with DAAs. Further, improvements in FMD have regularly been confirmed 12 weeks after the completion of treatment with DAAs. This evidence indicates a connection between viral eradication and endothelial function amelioration .
TABLE 1. Overview of the recent studies assessing the reduction in cardiovascular risk following DAA treatment.
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Is Hepatitis B Curable
Theres currently no known cure for hepatitis B, but there are many ways you can prevent infection and avoid transmitting the virus to others.
The most effective and safe way to prevent hepatitis B is to get vaccinated. You can also use barrier methods, like condoms, when having sex and avoid sharing needles.
Factors That Can Increase Heart Damage
Two big indicators of cardiovascular disease are high blood pressure and increased fat levels in the blood. These indicators are prevalent in patients who have chronic active hepatitis C. Patients with hepatitis C are advised to take proactive steps to protect their heart and circulatory system from these damaging effects.
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Hepatitis C Is A Risk Factor For Coronary Artery Disease
A meta-analysis has helped clear up conflicting previous evidence regarding this association.
Helping to clear up conflicting previous evidence, the authors of a new meta-analysis have established that hepatitis C virus is associated with a higher risk of coronary artery disease. Depending on the type of analysis, their data indicate that the virus may drive up the risk of this form of cardiovascular disease by about 25% to nearly twofold.
People with coronary artery disease experience a narrowing or blockage of coronary arteries, which are blood vessels that supply the muscle of the heart. This process is typically caused by atherosclerosis, which refers to the accumulation of cholesterol, fat and calcium on the inner walls of the arteries.
When such buildup impedes the hearts blood supply, starving the muscle of oxygen, the result can be chest pain, or angina, and, much more seriously, a heart attack.
Research has indicated that hep C is associated not only with coronary artery disease but also with atherosclerosis itself, as well as cardiomyopathy , myocarditis , heart failure, stroke and cerebrovascular mortality .
Treating HCV is associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease, according to a recent paper. A 2017 study of people with the virus and compensated cirrhosis found that the benefit of direct-acting antiviral treatment on lowered cardiovascular disease risk was particularly stark six years after treatment.
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