Thursday, September 22, 2022

Hepatitis B And Hpv Vaccine Together

Get The Hep B Vaccine

Norman Swan on COVID vaccine efficacy and the need for booster shots | ABC News

The hepatitis B vaccine offers long-term protection against a virus that can cause serious liver disease and liver cancer. If you are having sex with multiple partners or sharing needles to inject drugs, you may be at risk for hepatitis B.

Who: The CDC encourages hepatitis B vaccinations for all infants and unvaccinated children under the age of 19. The CDC also supports vaccination for people who are sexually active or use injection drugs, as well as for those with long-standing liver disease. Travelers to countries where the virus is common may also need to get the vaccine. Talk to your doctor about whether you should get vaccinated for hepatitis B.

What: There are several hepatitis B vaccines available in the United States. Usually, children and adults receive the vaccine in a series of three shots. The second shot is given one month after the first, along with another shot six months after the first. A new type of vaccine has now been approved for two doses.

Why: In some people, an infection with the hepatitis B virus can cause long-term liver disease. Over time, this can lead to liver cancer. You can become infected with hepatitis B through contact with the blood of a person who has the virus often during sex or when sharing needles to inject drugs. A baby can be infected during birth if the mother has the virus. According to the CDC, vaccination is the best way to prevent hepatitis B.

Recommended Adult Immunization Schedule United States 2011

Additional information is available as follows: schedule at information about adult vaccination at ACIP statements for specific vaccines at and reporting adverse events at or by telephone, 800-822-7967.

Changes for 2011

Common And Local Adverse Events

HB vaccine

HB vaccine is well tolerated. Reactions are generally mild and transient, and include: irritability, headache, fatigue and injection site reactions in 10% or more of recipients.

HAHB vaccine

There is no increase in adverse events when HAHB vaccine is compared with HA vaccine given alone or concomitantly with HB vaccine at a different injection site. When the adult formulation of HAHB vaccine is given to children in the 2 dose schedule, there is no increase in adverse events compared with those occurring after administration of the pediatric formulation of HAHB vaccine.

DTaP-HB-IPV-Hib vaccine

Reactions are usually mild and transient, and include fever, irritability, restlessness and injection site reactions .

HBIg

Headache, diarrhea, fever, urticaria, angioedema and injection site reactions may occur.

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The Hpv Vaccine And Men Who Have Sex With Men

The longstanding HPV vaccination programme in girls indirectly protects boys against cancers and genital warts linked to infection with HPV because girls will not pass HPV on to them.

MSM have not benefited in the same way from the girls’ HPV vaccination programme.

But they’re at risk of cancers linked to infection with HPV types 16 and 18 that affect men, such as cancer of the anus, penis, mouth or throat.

MSM are also at risk of genital warts caused by HPV types 6 and 11.

MSM up to and including the age of 45 are eligible for free HPV vaccination on the NHS when they visit sexual health or HIV clinics.

MSM aged 15 and over need 3 doses of the vaccine. Those under 15 need 2. It’s important to have all doses to be properly protected.

Ask the doctor or nurse at the clinic for more details.

Concurrent Administration Of Vaccines

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HB-containing vaccines may be administered concomitantly with other vaccines or with HBIg. Different injection sites and separate needles and syringes must be used for concurrent parenteral injections.

Refer to Timing of Vaccine Administration in Part 1 for additional information about concurrent administration of vaccines.

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Adequate Response After Hbv Vaccination

Several possible questions can be raised concerning the characteristics of anti-HBs antibodies: A) Is there a titer effect ? B) Is there a delay in the antibody response? C) Is the antibody persistent or boosters required? D) Does the vaccine-stimulated anti-HBs offer the same protection as naturally arising anti-HBs?

Several clinical trials have been performed to investigate the most optimal and effective vaccine dose and schedule of vaccination in different subject groups like adults, infants and neonates, and immune-suppressed patients. The ideal vaccine will produce sufficient titer with minimal delay, remain persistent and offer the same protection as naturally acquired anti-HBs. The antibody titer after vaccine administration ranges from < 10 IU/L to > 10000 IU/L. At least three doses are necessary for a minimally acceptable immune response . The anti-HBs titer declines very fast, within 12 months, and comparatively slowly thereafter. Advanced models with mathematical algorithms can predict such a declining trend.

People With Chronic Hepatitis B

The vaccine does not affect people with chronic hepatitis B virus infection there are no therapeutic benefits or associated adverse events. The vaccine is also safe in people who are already immune to hepatitis B through past natural infection, but it offers no additional benefit.

Hepatitis B is an infection caused by hepatitis B virus. It affects the liver.

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Adjuvants In Recombinant Hbv Vaccines

Modern recombinant vaccines are very refined and contain less antigenic components . As a result, adding adjuvants is essential to induce a better immune response. Among the adjuvants, aluminum salts are widely used. These salts can form insoluble particles, cause retention and release of vaccine antigens gradually like a depot, and thereby induce innate immunity. The various adjuvant systems used with recombinant HBV vaccines are AS01B , AS01E , AS02A , AS02B , AS02V , AS03 , AS04 , etc.

Different Childhood Vaccines Can Be Given At The Same Time

Hepatitis B: Explained

Many vaccines are recommended early in life to protect young children from dangerous infectious diseases. In order to reduce the number of shots a child receives in a doctors visit, some vaccines are offered as combination vaccines. A combination vaccine is two or more different vaccines that have been combined into a single shot. Combination vaccines have been in use in the United States since the mid-1940s. Examples of combination vaccines are: DTap , trivalent IPV , MMR , DTap-Hib, and Hib-Hep B.

Often, more than one shot will be given during the same doctors visit, usually in separate limbs . For example, a baby might get DTaP in one arm or leg and IPV in another arm or leg during the same visit.

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Indications For Hpv Vaccine

The HPV vaccine is a routine childhood vaccination , the American Academy of Pediatrics, the American Academy of Family Physicians, and the American… read more ). The U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved indication for the 9-valent vaccine has recently been expanded to include adults age 27 through 45 years for prevention of certain HPV-related cancers and diseases the current recommendations from the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices are

  • For both males and females up to age 26 years: HPV vaccine is recommended at age 11 or 12 years and for previously unvaccinated or not adequately vaccinated patients up through age 26 years.

  • For adults 27 to 45 years: Clinicians should engage in a shared decision-making discussion with patients to determine whether they should be vaccinated.

Alternatively , the following may be used:

  • HPV4 or HPV2 for females

  • HPV4 for males, including those who have sex with men

Adult Studies On Concomitant Administration

Nine concomitant meningococcal vaccine studies performed in adults are summarized in .,,- All of these studies also included individuals 25 years of age however, results were not reported by age subgroup, and all adult studies lacked the focus on adolescents and/or young adults that characterized the studies described previously. As for the adolescent and young adult studies, safety findings from adult studies were generally unremarkable ,- exceptions are noted in the following sections where applicable.

Meningococcal protein vaccines with meningococcal conjugate vaccines

A small single-arm study assessed the coadministration of MenB-4C and MenACWY-CRM in laboratory workers. Of note, MenB-4C is generally administered as 2 doses given 1 month apart. Although the first respective doses of MenB-4C and MenACWY-CRM were administered together, there was no comparator group included in this analysis and therefore immune interference was not systematically assessed. High rates of baseline immunity were observed, which increased following vaccination the highest rSBA GMTs for groups A, C, and Y were measured at month 3 .

Safety findings from this study indicated higher rates of nausea and headache when MenACWY-CRM and MenB-4C were administered concomitantly than when MenB-4C was administered alone at subsequent vaccination visits.

Meningococcal conjugate vaccines with non-meningococcal vaccines

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Guidance On Reporting Adverse Events Following Immunization

Vaccine providers are asked to report, through local public health officials, any serious or unexpected adverse event temporally related to vaccination. An unexpected AEFI is an event that is not listed in available product information but may be due to the immunization, or a change in the frequency of a known AEFI.

Refer to Reporting Adverse Events Following Immunization in Canada and Adverse events following immunization in Part 2 for additional information about AEFI reporting.

People At Occupational Risk

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Hepatitis B vaccine is recommended for people who work in any occupation that involves any of:

  • direct patient care
  • handling human tissue, blood or body fluids
  • handling used needles or syringes

These people should also routinely follow standard precautions against exposure to human tissue, blood or body fluids.19

The risk to people in certain occupations differs considerably between settings in different parts of Australia. Workers who have an increased risk of acquiring hepatitis B include:

  • healthcare workers
  • police, members of the armed forces, emergency services staff and staff of correctional facilities, if they are assigned to duties that may involve exposure to human tissue, blood or body fluids
  • funeral workers, embalmers and other workers who have regular contact with human tissue, blood or body fluids, or used needles or syringes
  • staff involved in both residential and non-residential care of people with developmental disabilities, because of the high prevalence of markers of past or current infection in people in this setting16-18
  • workers who perform skin penetration procedures, such as tattooists and body-piercers

Early childhood educators and carers are normally at minimal risk of hepatitis B transmission. The local public health authority can provide advice about risk if needed.

Adult-formulation hepatitis B vaccine should be given in a 3-dose schedule. See Table. Monovalent hepatitis B vaccines for adolescents and adults in Vaccines, dosage and administration.

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More Information On Side Effects

Reactions listed under âpossible side effectsâ or âadverse eventsâ on vaccine product information sheets may not all be directly linked to the vaccine. See Vaccine side effects and adverse reactions for more information on why this is the case.

If you are concerned about any reactions that occur after vaccination, consult your doctor. In the UK you can report suspected vaccine side effects to the Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency through the Yellow Card Scheme

Only 201 Percent Of Girls And 14 Percent Of Boys In Tennessee Have Received All Three Hpv Vaccine Doses Meanwhile Hepatitis B Rates Are Rising

People often wish that there was a vaccine to protect against cancer. What you may not realize is that for some cancers caused by viruses, those vaccines are already available to you.

HPV, a common virus that infects about 14 million Americans each year, is linked to several types of preventable cancers. More than 10 years ago, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention began recommending the HPV vaccine for girls to prevent cervical cancer.

Since then, we have learned HPV causes at least five other types of cancer in men and women, including about 90 percent of anal cancers about 70 percent of vaginal, vulvar and oropharyngeal cancers and more than 60 percent of penile cancers.

The CDC now recommends the HPV vaccine to all girls AND boys ages 11-12. Teenage girls and young women can get the vaccine until age 26, and most teenage boys and young men can get the vaccine until age 21.

Despite this recommendation, only 39.7 percent of girls and 21.6 percent of boys in the U.S. have received all three doses of the HPV vaccine. In Tennessee, the numbers are even more troubling only 20.1 percent of girls and 14 percent of boys have received all three doses.

Hepatitis B and C are known to lead to liver cancer, and together cause about 65 percent of cases in the U.S. A vaccine is available for hepatitis B, so if you were not vaccinated for this at birth, you should get vaccinated now.

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Hepatitis B And Hpv Vaccination

Every young person needs access to accurate, evidence-based sexual health information. In conjunction with Immunization Awareness Month, recognized every August, here is what the data say about the uptake of HPV and Hep B vaccination in America as well as why these vaccinations are so important.

Why Do Vaccines Matter?

All children and young people need to be vaccinated against serious diseases such as meningitis, human papilloma virus , tetanus, and whooping cough among others. To ensure theyre protected and that vaccines are administered safely, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has created an immunization schedule, which is designed specifically to provide immunity from these diseases early in life, before children are likely to be exposed to them.

While some vaccine-preventable diseases like chickenpox are still common, others like measles are not. However, if vaccination for measles stopped, measles, which are very dangerous, could again quickly become a common childhood disease. In 2019, after an uptick in the number of children not receiving their immunization, the US saw more cases of measles in 5 months than in the past 25 years. Many of the vaccine-preventable diseases can lead to serious health problems late in life. For example, more than 34,000 people in the US are diagnosed with cancers caused by HPV each year.

Why Vaccinate Against HPV?
HPV Immunization Rates
Why Vaccinate Against Hep B?
Hep B Immunization Rates

Regulatory Recommendations For Clinical Development Of Hbv Immunoglobulins

Vaccination Schedule, Contraindications, and Family Teaching – Pediatric Nursing – Principles

WHO mentions the use of HBV immunoglobulin in newborn infants whose mothers are HBsAg-positive, in anyone following exposure to the percutaneous or mucous membrane with HBsAg-positive blood or body fluids, following sexual exposure to an HBsAg-positive person, or to protect from recurrent HBV infection following liver transplantation. The HBV immunoglobulins are generally considered as adjuvants to the vaccine. A recent study showed a better response rate in HBV perinatal transmission in the group who received both immunoglobulin and HBV vaccine.

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Adolescent And Young Adult Studies On Concomitant Administration

summarizes the 12 studies assessing concomitant administration of meningococcal vaccines in adolescents and young adults .,- The following sections focus on potential changes to immune responses to vaccines when administered together with meningococcal vaccines. Most of the adolescent studies that compared immune responses to the meningococcal vaccine under individual and concomitant administration did not find any decreases in meningococcal immune responses under concomitant administration.-,,- Similarly, safety was generally comparable across groups in each of the adolescent studies when assessed.,- Exceptions to both of these general observations are specified where applicable.

Persons With Inadequate Immunization Records

Evidence of long term protection against HB has only been demonstrated in individuals who have been vaccinated according to a recommended immunization schedule. Independent of their anti-HBs titres, children and adults lacking adequate documentation of immunization should be considered susceptible and started on an immunization schedule appropriate for their age and risk factors. Refer to Immunization of Persons with Inadequate Immunization Records in Part 3 for additional information.

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Serological Testing After Hepatitis B Vaccination

It is recommended that levels of hepatitis B surface antigen in infants born to mothers with chronic hepatitis B are measured 312 months after they complete the infant vaccine course. Do not test the infant before 9 months of age, to avoid detecting anti-HBs

Post-vaccination serological testing is recommended 48 weeks after completing the vaccine course for:

  • people at significant occupational risk, such as healthcare workers whose work involves frequent exposure to human tissue, blood or body fluids
  • people at risk of severe or complicated hepatitis B, such as people who are immunocompromised and people with pre-existing liver disease not related to hepatitis B
  • people who may respond poorly to hepatitis B vaccination, such as haemodialysis patients and people with bleeding disorders who received the vaccine subcutaneously
  • close contacts of people who are infected with hepatitis B virus, including sexual partners, household contacts and household-like contacts22

If serological testing 48 weeks after the vaccine course shows levels of antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen of < 10 mIU per mL, check the person for acute or chronic hepatitis B virus infection by testing for serological markers, including antibodies to anti-HBs and hepatitis B core antigen.

After the booster dose, check for anti-HBs

A non-responder is a person who:

Contraindications And Precautions Of Hpv Vaccine

STD Prevention Infographics

Contraindications for HPV vaccine include

  • A severe allergic reaction after previous dose or to a vaccine component

  • Pregnancy

Although HPV vaccines are not recommended for pregnant women, pregnancy testing is not needed before vaccination. If pregnancy is diagnosed after the vaccination series has been started, no intervention is needed, but the remaining doses of the series should be delayed until pregnancy is completed.

The main precaution with HPV vaccine is

  • Moderate or severe acute illness with or without fever

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