Could I Give It To Other People
Yes. As long as you carry the virus, you can infect others. You may pass it on to your sex partner, to those who live in close contact with you, and to those who share your needles for injecting drugs. All of these contacts should be examined by a doctor. If they are not yet infected, they should be vaccinated.
Pregnant women who are carriers may pass hepatitis B on to their babies around the time of birth. Most infected infants become carriers. A pregnant woman should have a test for hepatitis B at her first visit to a doctor. If she is a carrier, the infant can be vaccinated at birth to protect against infection.
Sexual Transmission And Viral Hepatitis
Certain adults who are sexually active should be vaccinated against hepatitis B.
CDC and the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommend hepatitis B vaccination for
- sexually active people with more than one sex partner during the previous 6 months
- people seeking evaluation or treatment for a sexually transmitted disease
- sex partners of people with hepatitis B and
- men who have sex with men .
CDC recommends one-time hepatitis C testing of all adults and regular testing for people with risk factors.
Is Hepatitis A Sexually Transmitted Disease
Robert Burakoff, MD, MPH, is board-certified in gastroentrology. He is the vice chair for ambulatory services for the department of medicine at Weill Cornell Medical College in New York, where he is also a professor. He was the founding editor and co-editor in chief of Inflammatory Bowel Diseases.
Some types of viral hepatitis can be transmitted through sexual contact, in addition to being transmitted via other routes. Each type of hepatitis virus has a different risk of being transmitted through sex.
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What Can Explain The Rates Of Sexually Acquired Hepatitis C Infection
Another theory on why higher rates of hepatitis C may be seen in HIV-positive men is that HIV is more sexually infectious than hepatitis C, so gbMSM having types of sex that pass both infections are more likely to get HIV before hepatitis C.6,15 An additional theory is that the higher rates of hepatitis C infection among HIV-positive gbMSM may be random.6,15 Once hepatitis C entered the population of gbMSM living with HIV, hepatitis C may have been ring-fenced around gbMSM living with HIV through practices such as serosorting .6,10,15 Research analyzing strains of hepatitis C virus to trace patterns of infection supports this theory. The studies suggest there was a rapid expansion of gbMSM-specific hepatitis C virus strains in Europe after 1996, which followed the introduction of highly effective antiretroviral therapy for HIV.6,26 The studies also suggest that hepatitis C was being passed among gbMSM living with HIV and that there was minimal overlap with strains of hepatitis C virus among injection drug use networks.26
Sexually Transmitted Infections In The Western Pacific
There were an estimated 108 million new cases of one of four curable sexually transmitted infections in the Region in 2018. STIs can have serious reproductive health consequences, including infertility, mother-to-child transmission, adverse birth outcomes including stillbirths and newborn deaths, increased risk of HIV acquisition, and cancer.
Of the eight most common STIs, four are currently curable: syphilis, gonorrhoea, chlamydia and trichomoniasis. The other four infections are caused by viruses and cannot be cured: hepatitis B, herpes simplex virus , HIV, and human papillomavirus . Symptoms or disease due to these viral infections can be reduced or modified through treatment.
When used correctly and consistently, condoms are one of the most effective methods of protection against STIs and HIV. Early diagnosis of STIs, among people with or without symptoms, offers the best opportunity for effective medical treatment and support, and for preventing further transmission.
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Sexual Transmission And Hepatitis B
Hepatitis B can be transmitted through sexual activity. Unvaccinated adults who have multiple sex partners, along with sex partners of people with chronic hepatitis B infection, are at increased risk for transmission. Injection-drug use and sexual contact are other common modes of hepatitis B transmission in the United States.
Among adults seeking treatment in STD clinics, as many as 10%40% have evidence of past or current hepatitis B virus infection. Many of these infections could have been prevented through universal vaccination during delivery of STD prevention or treatment services. Offering vaccination to all adults as part of routine prevention services in STD treatment facilities has been demonstrated to increase vaccination coverage among adults at risk for hepatitis B infection, as the behavioral risk factors for STDs and hepatitis B are similar.
How Is Hepatitis B Treated
Treatment for hepatitis B depends on how long you have had the virus.
There is no specific treatment for acute hepatitis B, and most people recover within one to two months. Usually, you can manage symptoms at home with plenty of rest and painkillers if necessary. Most people make a full recovery from acute hepatitis B.
If you develop chronic hepatitis B, you will be given treatment to help some of the symptoms. This will also reduce the risk of liver damage and liver cancer. Treatment keeps the virus under control but cannot cure chronic hepatitis B. Some people will need lifelong treatment.
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How Is Hepatitis A Transmitted
Hepatitis A is spread when a person accidentally ingests traces of fecal matter from an infected individual. This can happen by eating food prepared by an infected person who hasnt washed their hands properly, by drinking water from a contaminated source, or by eating undercooked food. The best way to spread the infection is to wash your hands before preparing or eating food and after going to the bathroom or changing diapers.
Like hepatitis B and hepatitis C, hepatitis A can be passed through sexual activity and needle sharing, although this isnt common in the United States.
Is Hepatitis A Sexually Transmitted
Is Hep A an STD? How is Hep A spread? Hepatitis A virus can be transmitted through any sexual activity that is with someone who has the infection. This also goes for what is called a brown shower in the BDSM world. A brown shower is when the excrement of someone is emptied into the mouth of another person. Similar to a golden shower, which refers to urine instead of feces.
Can I Get it Again?
No, if you have been infected with hepatitis A in the past, your body has developed antibodies to the hepatitis A virus, therefore you cannot get it again.
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention , hepatitis A transmission is decreasing in the United States. Getting tested is especially important if you have traveled or lived in locations such as Eastern Europe, Africa, Mexico, Central or South America, or certain parts of Asia where hepatitis A is prevalent.
Those at a higher risk of acquiring HAV may include those who:
- Live in areas that have a lack of safe water
- Live in a household with an infected person
- Have poor sanitation/hygiene
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How Can One Reduce The Risk Of Spreading Hepatitis During Sex
Hepatitis is an infection that causes inflammation of the liver. It is usually caused by a virus, but it can sometimes be caused by alcohol consumption, drug use, or certain medical conditions. The most common types of viral hepatitis are hepatitis A, B, and C.
In terms of transmission, hepatitis A can be spread through casual contact , hepatitis B can be spread through sexual contact or sharing needles with an infected individual, and hepatitis C can be spread through coming in contact with infected blood . Since hepatitis A is spread through coming in contact with infected fecal matter, it can also be spread during sexual activities like anilingus .
Although hepatitis A is passed more easily from person to person, it typically only results in a mild, short-term illness, and most people recover from it fully without any liver damage. On the other hand, both hepatitis B and hepatitis C can lead to chronic infections, which may increase a persons risk of more serious health problems such as liver damage , liver cancer, and liver failure.
The most common symptoms of hepatitis are fatigue, abdominal pain, nausea, dark urine, and yellow skin and/or eyes , but sometimes people with hepatitis do not experience symptoms and may not even know that they have the virus.
Sharing Of Razor Blades Toothbrushes And Other Personal Grooming Aids
Items used for everyday hygiene may present a possible transmission risk if blood is present. To minimise the risk of transmission within the home, it is suggested that people do not share razor blades, toothbrushes and sharp personal grooming aids.
When wiping up blood spills, it is advisable to wear gloves and use paper towels and lukewarm soapy water .
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How Do I Test For Hepatitis B
A simple blood test carried out by a healthcare professional will show whether you have the virus. You may also be given extra tests to see if your liver is damaged. You can have a test even if you do not have symptoms.
If youve got hepatitis B you should be tested for other STIs. Its important that you tell your recent sexual partner/s so they can also get tested and treated.
How Can Hepatitis A Be Treated
There is no cure for hepatitis A. Your best bet is to prevent contracting the virus in the first place with proper hand hygiene. Vaccination is recommended for all children at age one and for other people at high risk of contracting the virus, including men who have sex with men and people who use illicit drugs. Other people who should be vaccinated include people traveling to or adopting children from areas of the world with high rates of hepatitis A, people who may be exposed to hepatitis A at work, people with liver disease, and people who receive certain blood products. If youve been exposed to the virus and are not vaccinated, your doctor may recommend an injection known as postexposure prophylaxis , which can prevent the virus from affecting you if you take it within two weeks of exposure. If you think you have hepatitis A or were exposed to it, seek medical attention and follow the advice of your physician. Most people recover without any specific treatment. Once symptoms subside, you are immune from contracting it in the future.
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How It’s Passed On
Most people get the virus from sharing drug injecting equipment such as needles, syringes, water cups, tourniquets, spoons, filters and swabs. Sharing things like straws and banknotes that are used for snorting drugs might pass the virus on, as can sharing pipes.
In the UK piercing and tattooing should be safe but unsterilised equipment abroad can spread the virus.
An infected person risks infecting others if they share anything that might have blood on it like a toothbrush or razor. A pregnant woman with the virus can give it to her baby during pregnancy or childbirth.
Blood transfusions in the UK are safe as blood is screened.
You can also potentially get it from medical or dental treatment abroad in countries where hepatitis C is common and infection control is inadequate.
What Is Hepatitis C
The term hepatitis means an inflammation of the liver. The inflammation may damage the liver, which is the largest internal organ in the body. The liver filters the blood and breaks down harmful substances.
Infection with a virus is the most common cause of hepatitis. If a person contracts HCV, the disease is called hepatitis C, or hep C for short.
Hepatitis A and hepatitis B are other types of hepatitis that result from viral infection. Hepatitis A, B, and C differ in the way they spread, their effect on the liver, and their method of treatment, according to the
HCV causes hepatitis C. A person may contract HCV by coming into contact with the blood of someone else who has the condition. Even microscopic amounts of blood may be enough to spread the virus.
In the United States, the way for someone to contract hepatitis C is by sharing drug-injection equipment, such as needles or syringes.
According to the , other ways a person may contract hepatitis C include:
- coming into contact with the open sores or blood of a person with the condition
- using the toothbrush, nail clippers, or razor of a person with the condition
- getting a tattoo or piercing with non-sterile instruments or inks
- getting an accidental stick with a needle from someone with hepatitis C
About 6% of babies born to people with hepatitis C will develop hepatitis C.
Sometimes an individual will experience symptoms 13 months after contracting HCV, according to
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Prevention And The Treatment Potential
Currently, there is no vaccine to prevent HCV infection. However, the recent availability of DAA for the treatment of chronic HCV with cures rates over 95% has created optimism towards HCV elimination. In many countries treatment is now available for all individuals with a chronic HCV infection, irrespective of fibrosis stage . Modelling studies were the first to demonstrate that rapid scaleup of DAA might limit onward transmission and chronic HCV prevalence and incidence among MSM could decline , , . However, for substantial reductions a decline in risk behaviour is needed as the scaleup of DAA is counterbalanced by ongoing risk behaviour, resulting in initial and reinfections , , . In addition, early treatment, including treatment of acute infection, might further reduce HCV incidence , . As treatment is costly and treatment uptake varies considerably across countries , effective behavioural interventions for MSM at risk of infection are urgently needed. Qualitative research among HIVpositive MSM with a cured HCV infection in the preDAA era showed that the strongest motive to implement risk reduction strategies was the reward of avoiding HCV retreatment and its side effects , but this may have changed with the less burdensome DAA treatment. Also sexual risk norms within the MSM population, HCV stigma and nondisclosure of HCV status forms barriers to safer sex, and drug use directly impedes the selfefficacy of MSM to take risk reduction measures .
For Safer Sex Treat Hepatitis C
If you have chronic hepatitis C, you can lower your odds of spreading the virus by seeking medical treatment. Direct-acting antiviral medications can cure more than 90 percent of hepatitis C cases with eight to 12 weeks of treatment, according to the CDC. These newer hepatitis C treatments are not only effective but also generally have fewer, much less severe side effects than previous drugs.
Just be aware that during treatment, transmission can still occur. And a cure doesnt grant you protection against the virus for life. If you continue to engage in high-risk behavior, you can get reinfected, warns Kenneth Sherman, MD, PhD, a professor of medicine and the director of the division of digestive diseases at the University of Cincinnati College of Medicine.
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Contaminated Food And Water
Hepatitis A is most commonly passed on by eating food prepared by someone with the virus whose hands have not been washed properly. You can also get it by drinking dirty water and by eating raw or undercooked shellfish from dirty water.
You can protect yourself by:
- Washing your hands each time you go to the toilet, before you prepare or eat food, after coughing or sneezing, or handling rubbish or other dirty items.
- Peeling and washing all your fresh fruit and vegetables avoiding raw or undercooked meat and fish avoiding all drinks if youre not sure if theyre safe with or without ice.
- If tap water isnt safe and bottled water isnt available, boil tap water before drinking it.
- People living in places with poor sanitation and hygiene are at a greater risk of hepatitis A infection. You may also be exposed to hepatitis A through your work, for example, sewage workers, staff in institutions where levels of personal hygiene may be poor , people working with animals that may be infected with hepatitis A and daycare centres.
Hepatitis B Virus Is Spread Through Three Main Ways:
1. Direct blood to blood contact: blood of a person with hepatitis B entering into the blood stream of another person.
2. Unprotected sexual contact
3. Mother living with hepatitis B can pass it onto to her baby during childbirth.
The hepatitis B virus cannot penetrate unbroken skin and is killed by the digestive juices in the stomach if it is swallowed.
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Should You Get Tested
The CDC recommends that anyone over the age of 18 get tested for Hepatitis C. But you should especially consider being tested if you:
- Were born between 1945 and 1965
- Have used injected drugs
- Were born to a mother who had hepatitis C
- Were treated for a blood clotting problem before 1987
- Got a blood transfusion or organ transplant before July 1992
- Have been a long-term hemodialysis patient
- Work in health care or public safety and were exposed to blood through a needle stick or other sharp object injury
If you get tested and find out you have hepatitis C, tell your sex partner and anyone else who may have been exposed to your blood, including through drug use.
What Is Hepatitis A
The term hepatitis means inflammation of the liver. Hepatitis can be caused by many things, including heavy alcohol use, certain medications or health problems, toxins, or viruses, including hepatitis A, hepatitis B, hepatitis C and the far less common hepatitis D and E. While hepatitis B and C can cause chronic infections, hepatitis A typically causes a short-term infection and symptoms usually subside within 8 weeks . Symptoms can include general discomfort, fever, diarrhea, nausea, dark urine, and/or jaundice , although not everyone has symptoms. Fortunately there is a vaccine, and doctors in the United States recommend that all children receive the vaccine at their first birthday .
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