What Are The Possible Reactions From The Vaccine And How Should They Be Managed
The most serious but rare side effect is a severe allergic reaction , which can be life threatening and usually occurs within 15 to 20 minutes of receiving the vaccine. Procedures are in place for the nurse to quickly respond to anaphylaxis by administering adrenaline.
Hepatitis A vaccine is well tolerated with the most common side effects of the vaccine including:
- localized swelling, redness, itching, warmth, and/or tenderness/pain at the injection site
- mild fever, headache, malaise, fatigue, irritability, nausea, loss of appetite, and dizziness.
It is not necessary to give acetaminophen after every immunization. If discomfort or fever occurs acetaminophen can relieve these symptoms.
- Please remain in the waiting room for 15 minutes after immunization.
- See a doctor or seek medical attention if any serious side effect occurs.
- Report serious reactions to the public health nurse.
Managing Injection Site Discomfort
Many vaccine injections may result in soreness, redness, itching, swelling or burning at the injection site for one to 2 days. Paracetamol might be required to ease the discomfort. Sometimes a small, hard lump at the injection site may persist for some weeks or months. This should not be of concern and requires no treatment.
Who Should Not Get The Vaccine
Speak with your health care provider if you have had a life-threatening reaction to a previous dose of hepatitis A vaccine, or any component of the vaccine including neomycin, or to latex.
There is no need to delay getting immunized because of a cold or other mild illness. However, if you have concerns speak with your health care provider.
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Vaccine For Hepatitis B
Hepatitis B Vaccine
It takes only a few shots to protect yourself and your loved ones against hepatitis B for a lifetime.
The hepatitis B vaccine is a safe and effective vaccine that is recommended for all infants at birth and for children up to 18 years. The hepatitis B vaccine is also recommended for adults living with diabetes and those at high risk for infection due to their jobs, lifestyle, living situations, or country of birth. Since everyone is at some risk, all adults should seriously consider getting the hepatitis B vaccine for a lifetime protection against a preventable chronic liver disease.
The hepatitis B vaccine is also known as the first anti-cancer vaccine because it prevents hepatitis B, the leading cause of liver cancer worldwide.
You cannot get hepatitis B from the vaccine. All hepatitis B vaccines that have been used since 1986 are made synthetically meaning the hepatitis B vaccines do not contain any blood products. Learn more.
If you have a current HBV infection or have recovered from a past HBV infection, the hepatitis B vaccine series will not benefit you or clear the virus. However, the vaccine can provide a lifetime of protection for loved ones who do not have hepatitis B and get the vaccine as soon as possible. Testing is the only way to know if you or your loved ones have a current infection or have recovered from a past infection.
Hepatitis B Vaccine Recommendations
Three-Dose Hepatitis B Vaccine Schedule
Side Effects Of Immunisation Against Hepatitis A
Immunisations against hepatitis A are effective and safe. All medications can have side effects.
For most people, the chance of a serious side effect from a vaccine is much lower than the chance of serious harm if you catch the disease.
Common side effects from the hepatitis A vaccine include:
- localised pain, redness and swelling at the injection site
- low-grade temperature
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What Happens If I Miss A Dose
Contact your doctor if you miss a booster dose or if you get behind schedule. The next dose should be given as soon as possible. There is no need to start over.
Be sure you receive all recommended doses of this vaccine. You may not be fully protected against disease if you do not receive the full series.
Who Should Not Get The Hepatitis B Vaccine
Generally seen as a safe vaccine, there are some circumstances in which doctors advise against receiving the HBV vaccine. You shouldnt have the hepatitis B vaccine if:
- youve had a serious allergic reaction to a previous dose of the hepatitis B vaccine
- you have a history of hypersensitivity to yeast or to any other vaccine components
- youre experiencing a moderate or severe acute illness
If youre currently experiencing an illness, you should postpone receiving the vaccine until your condition has improved.
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Do The Benefits Of The Hepatitis B Vaccine Outweigh Its Risks
Every year in the United States about 2,000 people die following an overwhelming hepatitis B virus infection. In addition, every year about 22,000 people are infected with hepatitis B. Some of them will remain chronically infected, putting them at high risk of the long-term consequences of hepatitis B virus infection: cirrhosis and liver cancer. In fact, with the exception of influenza virus, hepatitis B virus causes more severe disease and death in the United States than any other vaccine-preventable disease. On the other hand, the hepatitis B vaccine is an extremely rare cause of a severe allergic reaction called anaphylaxis. To date, no one has died from this reaction, but it is theoretically possible that this could occur.
Because hepatitis B virus is a common cause of severe disease and death in the United States, and because the hepatitis B vaccine does not cause permanent damage or death, the benefits of the hepatitis B vaccine clearly outweigh its risks.
Is There A Hepatitis C Vaccine
No vaccine exists for hepatitis C right now. While efforts to develop a vaccine for this specific strain are ongoing, it’s proven challenging. That’s because hepatitis C tends to avoid immune responses. In other words, a person can catch hepatitis C repeatedly despite past infection, which is what makes it hard to create a vaccine that works for this virus.
There is an effective treatment for hepatitis C, though, and it involves direct-acting antivirals . Thanks to this treatment, WHO aims to cut 80% of hepatitis C cases worldwide by 2030. Researchers across the globe think that a vaccine is needed to accomplish this goal, so creating one is a high priority.
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Symptoms Of Hepatitis A
You can become ill any time between 2 and 4 weeks after coming into contact with the hepatitis A virus.
The average incubation period for the virus is 28 days.
Many infected people, particularly children less than 5 years old, show few or no symptoms.
For older children and adults, the symptoms of hepatitis A include:
- yellow skin and eyes .
Symptoms may last for several weeks. Most people fully recover from hepatitis A infection.
A single infection of hepatitis A leads to lifelong immunity. Prior infection with hepatitis B or hepatitis C does not offer immunity for hepatitis A.
What Are The Risks From Hepatitis B Vaccine
- Soreness where the shot was given or fever can happen after hepatitis B vaccination.
People sometimes faint after medical procedures, including vaccination. Tell your provider if you feel dizzy or have vision changes or ringing in the ears.
As with any medicine, there is a very remote chance of a vaccine causing a severe allergic reaction, other serious injury, or death.
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What Is Hepatitis A And What Are The Complications Of Having Hepatitis A Disease
Hepatitis A is one of several types of hepatitis virus that attack the liver. It is most commonly spread by contact with the feces of an infected person either directly or indirectly through consuming food or water. Food and water may become contaminated due to lack of handwashing, failure to wash produce, or from handling of food by an infected person. Transmission through infected blood or blood products has also been reported.
Symptoms of Hepatitis A illness appear several days to weeks after infection but the infected person is able to spread the disease two weeks before the onset of symptoms. Symptoms include fever, fatigue, nausea and vomiting, loss of appetite, stomach or joint pain, and jaundice .
History Of Vaccine Development
Since the 1990s, several vaccines against HAV have been commercially available, including both an inactivated and live attenuated vaccine. The first inactivated HAV vaccine was produced from a strain of the virus propagated in cell culture. This was then purified and inactivated using formalin and the purified HAV strain was then grown on human diploid MRC-5 cells . This vaccine was clear of any remaining infective capability in vitro. Marmoset monkeys injected with the vaccine did not show any changes in hematological or chemistry values, effectively demonstrating vaccine administration without the clinical effects of an acute HAV infection. Infectious HAV particles were detected neither in feces nor in the sera of the vaccinated primates by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. With regards to the immunogenicity of the vaccine, guinea pigs were injected with 0.8, 0.2, or 0.05 micrograms of HAV antigen. The antibody response was dose dependent, with one injection of 0.2 micrograms of the HAV antigen prompting sero-conversion in 100% of animals . Further increase of antibody titers was achieved after the second and third immunizations. These initial tests showed this methodology was safe and provided a great immunologic response in the animal models, which led to further testing in human subjects confirming the same results .
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How Is The Hepatitis B Vaccine Made
People are protected against hepatitis B virus infection by making an immune response to a protein that sits on the surface of the virus. When hepatitis B virus grows in the liver, an excess amount of this surface protein is made. The hepatitis B vaccine is made by taking the part of the virus that makes surface protein and putting it into yeast cells. The yeast cells then produce many copies of the protein that are subsequently used to make the vaccine. When the surface protein is given to children in the vaccine, their immune systems make an immune response that provides protection against infection with the hepatitis B virus.
The first hepatitis B vaccine was made in the 1980s by taking blood from people infected with hepatitis B virus and separating or purifying the surface protein from the infectious virus. Because blood was used, there was a risk of contaminating the vaccine with other viruses that might be found in blood, such as HIV. Although contamination with HIV was a theoretical risk of the early, blood-derived, hepatitis B vaccine, no one ever got HIV from the hepatitis B vaccine. That is because the blood used to make vaccine was submitted to a series of chemical and treatments that inactivated any possible contaminating virus. Today, there is no risk of contaminating the vaccine with other viruses because the surface protein is manufactured in the laboratory.
Why Is Hepa Recommended
The HepA vaccine not only protects the kids who get it. It also can help prevent outbreaks. An outbreak is when a disease happens in greater numbers than expected in a particular area.
Childcare centers are a common site of hepatitis A outbreaks. Some kids can be infected and not have symptoms. But they can still spread the virus to others. Having many young kids vaccinated against hepatitis A can stop it from spreading in a community.
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When Should The Hepatitis A Vaccine Not Be Given
- Persons who have had an anaphylactic reaction to any of the contents of this vaccine should not receive this vaccine.
- Those who are acutely ill, especially with fever, should return for their immunization at a later date.
The safety of Hepatitis A vaccine during pregnancy is being studied, and since the vaccine is prepared from inactivated virus, it is anticipated there is no risk to the developing fetus. If there is an exposure during pregnancy, it is advisable to consult with the attending physician.
Who Should Be Immunised Against Hepatitis A
Travellers to countries outside Western Europe, North America and Australasia should consider being immunised. The highest-risk areas include the Indian subcontinent , Africa, parts of the Far East , South and Central America and the Middle East. Vaccination is generally recommended for anyone over the age of 1 year. Your doctor or practice nurse can advise if you should be immunised against hepatitis A for your travel destination.
You can find out if immunisation against hepatitis A is recommended for any countries you are planning to visit from the NHS website Fitfortravel.
Close contacts of someone with hepatitis A. Occasional outbreaks of hepatitis A occur in the UK within families or in institutions. Close contacts of someone found to have hepatitis A infection may be offered vaccination. This only happens rarely. The most important measure for anybody with hepatitis A is good personal hygiene. In particular, washing hands after going to the toilet or before eating.
People with chronic liver disease. If you have a persistent liver disease it is suggested that you have the hepatitis A vaccine. Hepatitis A infection is not more common in those with chronic liver disease but, if infection does occur, it can cause a more serious illness.
People exposed to hepatitis A at work. For example, laboratory workers who are exposed to hepatitis A during their work and sewage workers are advised to be immunised against hepatitis A.
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Proteins Expressed In Other Systems
A C-terminal peptide of ORF2 encompassing amino acids 551607 has been expressed on chimeric VLPs formed by the hepatitis B surface antigen in the methylotropic yeast Pichia pastoris . The VLPs showed reactivity to human sera containing antibodies against HBV as well as those with anti-HEV antibodies, and are being explored as a recombinant HBV/HEV bivalent vaccine candidate. In more recent studies, ORF2 antigens 69660 and 112660 have been expressed independently in P. pastoris, and the purified proteins have been shown to induce high titer antibodies in rhesus monkeys .
The 23-kDa ORF2 antigen , earlier expressed in bacteria , has recently been expressed in transgenic tomato plants . The expression levels of the protein in this system were, however, quite low, being in the range of 4060 ng/g of the leaf or fruit tissue .
Vaccination For Hepatitis A And Hepatitis B
Vaccines for hepatitis A and hepatitis B are the most effective preventive measures against those viruses. The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has recommended these vaccines for all babies as part of routine healthcare since the 1990s.
The vaccine can be administered to people of any age. If you were not vaccinated as a baby, it is fine to be vaccinated now. Vaccination provides long-term protection from infection.
Even if you have recently been exposed to the virus, the vaccine may prevent infection. Ideally, vaccination takes place within 24 hours of a possible exposure.
There is no vaccine for hepatitis C. Our doctors recommend adopting certain behaviorssuch as avoiding shared needles and other risk factorsto prevent infection.
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How Is Hepatitis A Spread
The hepatitis A virus is found in the bowel movements of infected persons. People with hepatitis A infection who use the bathroom without proper hand washing can pass the virus on to others through food preparation or other hand-to-mouth contact. The disease can also be spread by sexual contact, or sharing of equipment used in illegal drug use, such as needles or pipes.
Hepatitis A can also be spread by drinking contaminated water, or by eating raw or under-cooked shellfish, such as crabs, clams, oysters or mussels that have been contaminated with sewage.
What Is Hepatitis A
Hepatitis A is an illness caused by the hepatitis A virus. The virus mainly causes inflammation of the liver. Symptoms include:
- Generally feeling unwell.
- Yellowing of your skin or the whites of your eyes .
- Sometimes, being sick .
- A raised temperature .
However, some people who are infected do not develop any symptoms . The illness is not usually serious and full recovery is usual but the symptoms can be quite unpleasant for a while. The hepatitis A virus is passed out in the stools of infected people and infection is usually spread by eating dirty food or drink.
Hepatitis A infection can occur in the UK but it is more common in countries where there is poor sanitation or where disposal of sewage is poor. In the UK, most cases of hepatitis A are seen in people who have recently returned after travelling to such countries. If you catch hepatitis A, the illness is not usually serious but it may ruin a holiday or business trip. See the separate leaflet called Hepatitis A for more details.
This leaflet is just about vaccination to help prevent hepatitis A infection.
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Hepatitis A And B: Diseases Of The Liver
Hepatitis is an inflammation of the liver, most often caused by a viral infection. There are three common types of hepatitis caused by viruses: hepatitis A, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C. Vaccines have been developed that protect people from contracting hepatitis A and B. There is no vaccine for hepatitis C.
Over the last 20 years, there has been a 90% decrease in cases of hepatitis A and an 80% decrease in hepatitis B cases in the U.S. Health experts believe that immunization efforts have led to this drop in rates of infection.
Is It Okay To Get An Extra Dose Of Hepatitis B Vaccine
Yes. Although extra doses of vaccine are not recommended, you can think of the extra dose as another chance for the immune system to see the hepatitis B virus. A vaccine is not the only time the immune system will see the virus or bacteria contained in it. People may be exposed to the virus or bacteria at school or the store or when visiting family or friends. An extra dose of vaccine is like one more exposure, except the difference is that the virus or bacteria in any vaccine has been made safe, so it wont make you ill.
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