Maoto Interferes With Hepatitis B Virus Nucleocapsid Incorporation Into Viral Particles
To understand the mechanisms of action of maoto, we next evaluated the amount of intracellular core-DNA, which is a reverse-transcribed product of pgRNA, in HBV-infected HepG2-NTCP cells and PXB-cells. Although extracellular HBV production was suppressed by maoto , we did not detect any reduction in core-DNA by maoto treatment . We therefore reasoned that HBV budding might be decreased by maoto treatment. To evaluate this possibility, we determined the ratio of the amount of extracellular HBsAg to that of intracellular HBsAg during maoto treatment. In contrast to our hypothesis, the Ex/In HBsAg ratio in maoto-treated cells was comparable to that in control cells , suggesting that HBV budding process seemed not affected by maoto treatment. We then examined if production of HBV enveloped particles containing HBV DNA was decreased by maoto treatment. We purified Dane particles using CsCl density gradient centrifugation as shown in Figure 3G and found that the amount of HBV Dane particles was decreased by maoto treatment . Taken together, these results suggest that maoto likely interferes with the process of HBV nucleocapsid incorporation into viral particles.
Combined Use Of Maoto And Lamivudine Decreases Hepatitis B Virus Replication More Efficiently Than The Individual Use
Considering that maoto suppresses an HBV infection step different from that of lamivudine , i.e., the reverse transcription step, we reasoned that a combined use of 3TC and maoto would suppress HBV replication more effectively. We therefore compared the effect of maoto alone, 3TC alone, and the combined use on HBV replication. Compared to maoto or 3TC alone, the combined use decreased HBV replication more efficiently as expected . These results suggest the potential of maoto for increasing the efficacy of current anti-HBV drugs when used in combination.
Figure 4 Combined use of maoto and 3TC decreases hepatitis B virus replication more efficiently than the individual use. Cells were treated with distilled water , 30 µg/ml maoto alone, 250 nM lamivudine alone, or maoto and 3TC for 9 days with refreshing the medium and drugs every 3 days as shown in Figure 3A. HBV DNA in culture supernatants of the cells after 9 days of maoto treatment was measured by real-time PCR. Values are expressed as the mean percentage + S.E. of three independent experiments. *P< 0.05 **P< 0.01 ****P< 0.001 N.S., no significance.
What Is My Risk
Your risk depends of several factors: destination, length of stay, what you do when you are travelling and whether you have direct contact with blood or other body fluids. In certain destinations, your risk may be higher, as some areas have higher numbers of people with chronic hepatitis B in the general population.
The risk increases with certain activities, such as unprotected sex, sharing needles, tattooing and acupuncture.
Aid and health care workers and anyone who receives medical or dental care with unsterilized or contaminated equipment in a country where hepatitis B occurs are also at greater risk.
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Reasons For The Use Of Herbal Medicine
The main reasons given for use of herbal medicine in the group discussions were related to convenience, availability, cost, cultural norms and aggressive marketing strategies used by herbal medicine retailers. All these were seen to increase accessibility for the population to herbal medicine therefore leading to increased utilization.
One of the main reasons given as to why herbal medicine was used despite the availability of conventional treatment was the easy accessibility and availability of herbal therapies and herbal practitioners compared to conventional health facilities.
Those who sell herbal medicine are everywhere, they even come to ones door, even in the market. At least one does not get disappointed as it is in the hospital where one is told that the doctor has not yet come, yet one has come from afar and then has to wait the whole day. It is easier to find a herbalist nearby so I can get back home quickly… .
Several patients also noted that the cheaper cost of herbal therapies as a reason for use of herbal medicine in the group discussions however they concluded that whereas the cost of herbal treatment for simple ailments such as cough and malaria is cheap, herbal concoctions used to treat chronic diseases such as hepatitis end up being expensive due to the long-term use.
What Not To Eat When You Have Hepatitis B
You should keep one thing in mind that an unhealthy diet can lead to liver damage. If you eat lots of fried, highly processed food, such as pasta, noodles, burger sugary foods, fatty foods, on daily basis then this will lead to fat consumption in your liver and ultimately you could face the problem of “Fatty Liver“. Which is directly associated with cirrhosis. So you need to avoid the things which are mentioned below:
- Avoid soda, packed high fat dairy products.
- Fast foods
- Sugary items like cookies packed baked goods etc.
- Fried foods
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The Pivotal Role Of Hbsag In The Pathogenesis Of Chronic Hbv Infection And The Suppression Of Effective Host Immunity
Figure 1. High load of HBsAg suppresses innate and adaptive immune responses through different mechanisms. Persistent stimulation of HBsAg leads to exhaustion of HBsAg-specific T-cell and B-cell responses, which are characterized by upregulation of inhibitory molecules, such as PD-1, cytotoxic T-lymphocyte associated protein 4 , and T cell immunoglobulin domain and mucin domain-containing molecule- 3. High level of HBsAg attenuates hepatic innate immunity through inhibition of TLR-mediated signal pathway and induction of interleukin-10 in LSECs and KCs. SVPs, subviral particles.
How Is It Transmitted
Hepatitis B is highly infectious, and is spread from one person to another through exposure to infected blood and body fluids . It can be spread through:
- blood transfusions or organ transplantation in countries where blood or blood products have not been properly screened for hepatitis B and other viruses transmitted through blood
- unprotected sex with an infected person
- sharing needles or equipment for injecting drugs
- unsterilized medical/dental equipment and shared/contaminated materials or equipment used for tattooing, body piercing or acupuncture
- sharing toothbrushes or razors
- household contact between family members
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Novel And Emerging Therapies
Heteroaryldihydropyrimidines. Heteroaryldihydropyrimidines are antiviral compounds that have been shown to inhibit HBV replication in isolated cells and animal models. In contrast to nucleotide and nucleoside analogs, which interfere with the replication of the viral genome, HAPs prevent the proper assembly of the protein capsule that surrounds the mature virus and serves as the site of DNA replication . They are effective against HBV mutant strains resistant to nucleotide/nucleoside analog drugs . Bay 41-4109, the best studied HAP, reduced HBV viral load by about 2 to 3-fold in a humanized mouse model . These compounds await human trials.
RNA interference is a cellular mechanism for controlling gene expression it is used by cells to regulate cell development and metabolism, but can also be used to turn off the expression of foreign genes, such as those of an invading virus. Since the life cycle of HBV relies on RNA intermediates for its replication, it is sensitive to inhibition by RNAi . Therapeutic RNA inhibitors have been designed to interrupt HBV DNA replication, and turn off the genes that produce the structural and regulatory proteins required for assembly of infectious HBV particles. They have shown success in decreasing virus replication in cell cultures . Early results of a safety trial of the small interfering RNA NUC B1000 appear promising .
How Is Hepatitis B Treated
Your healthcare provider will treat you based on what type of hepatitis B you have, acute or chronic.
Acute hepatitis B infections
If you develop an acute form of the condition, you probably wont need medical treatment. Instead, your doctor will likely suggest that you get plenty of rest, drink lots of fluids and maintain a healthy diet to support your body as it fights off the infection.
Chronic hepatitis B infections
If you have chronic hepatitis B, you might be a candidate for drug therapy. Usually, drug therapy is used only if you have active liver disease. There are seven drugs that are approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to treat hepatitis B. Two are injectable forms of interferon, while the five other antivirals are tablets.
You will need to take these medications every day. They help by slowing the viruss ability to multiply in your system. This helps reduce swelling and liver damage. Youll need to be regularly monitored for early signs of liver damage and liver cancer. Your healthcare provider will want to see you once or twice a year.
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Ayurvedic Medicines For Hepatitis B By Planet Ayurveda
Planet Ayurveda has provided us with an herbal combo pack known as “Liver Care pack”, which contains a blend of various natural herbs. It is free from any harmful preservative, additive and chemical compounds. The all the products of Liver Care Pack contains natural extract of herb such as Indian Echinacea, Bhumi Amla , Katuki , Makoy , Punarnava , Kaasni , Bhringraj etc.
How Is Acute Hepatitis B Treated
Acute hepatitis B doesnt always require treatment. In most cases, a doctor will recommend monitoring your symptoms and getting regular blood tests to determine whether the virus is still in your body.
While you recover, allow your body to rest and drink plenty of fluids to help your body fight off the infection. You can also take an over-the-counter pain reliever, such as ibuprofen , to help with any abdominal pain you have.
See a doctor if your symptoms are severe or seem to be getting worse. You may need to take a prescription antiviral medication to avoid potential liver damage.
Like acute hepatitis B, chronic hepatitis B may not require medical treatment to avoid permanent liver damage. In some patients, monitoring symptoms and getting regular liver tests is appropriate.
Treatment generally involves antiviral medications, such as:
- peginterferon alfa-2a injections
- antiviral tablets, such as tenofovir or entecavir
Antiviral medications can help to reduce symptoms and prevent liver damage. But they rarely completely get rid of the hepatitis B virus. Instead, the goal of treatment is to have the lowest viral load possible. Viral load refers to the amount of a virus in a blood sample.
Theres no cure for hepatitis B, but the condition is easily preventable by taking a few precautions. Hepatitis B is often spread through sexual contact, shared needles, and accidental needle sticks.
You can reduce your risk of developing hepatitis B or spreading the virus to others by:
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How Far Have We Got
Some exciting research is underway around the world, including the recent identification of the cell receptor which allows the virus to infect the body. This has enabled studies of the complete virus replication cycle including the viral reservoir that is untouched by current therapies.
New approaches to a possible cure include mechanisms to block the virus entry into the cell and to stop the virus from making the proteins it needs to replicate and infect new cells.
Studies are also underway to enhance patients immune responses so their own natural defences can control or even eliminate the virus. This is similar to immunotherapies already being used to treat some cancers.
Its likely a hepatitis B cure will require a dual-pronged approach, directly targeting the virus while also enhancing the immune response in people who are infected.
The goal is to reduce the amount of virus in the body and restore the persons immune responses. This is called a functional cure and is similar to what happens when a person naturally gets rid of the virus. It would also mean they didnt need to take drugs any more.
Some of these approaches are now in early stage human clinical trials. More than 30 drugs have been developed and are being tested in people with chronic hepatitis B. However, much more work needs to be done to achieve a cure.
Natural Remedies For Treating Hepatitis C
One of the most disturbing aspects of the disease hepatitis C is that many people carrying the infection dont know they have it . . . until it attacks their liver. That can result in a debilitating condition for the patient because the liver is key to regulating your bodys digestive system and flushing toxins from the body. If left untreated, hepatitis C can eventually lead to death.
Per natural-homeremedies.com, citing statistics from the World Health Organization, between 130 and 150 million people worldwide have been diagnosed as having the disease, with about 350,000 a year dying from it. Its a contagious disease caused by a virus most commonly transmitted through the contact of one infected persons blood with another person, and, less commonly, through transfer of semen or saliva, per healthline.com.
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Natural Remedies And Hepatitis B
When we get sick, we want to get well quickly. Some of us turn to our doctors first, while others may try home remedies or alternative medicine. Many of us do both.
Natural medicine means that no chemicals, drugs or surgeries are used to help you get well. Alternative medicine is simply an alternative to conventional medicine. For instance, in the U.S., ancient healing practices, such as faith healing, Chinese medicine or seeing a curandero are alternatives. So are naturopathy, homeopathy, and herbal medicine. Integrative medicine uses both. Its common for people to use more than one healing method.
In the U.S., we have access to many alternatives, and we tend to apply Western medical concepts to natural medicine. This is most evident in our use of supplements. When diagnosed with hepatitis B, we may want to take something that will help the liver, such as a supplement or herb. Its easier to take something than it is to exercise and eat right. However, everything passes through the liver, and just because herbs and supplements are natural, they arent necessarily safe.
Despite claims on the Internet, no natural remedy has been proven to cure hepatitis B. There may be remedies that improve symptoms associated with hep B, but none has permanently eradicated the virus. There isnt a large body of research on natural remedies and hepatitis B much of what we know is anecdotal, meaning that people tell others about their experiences.
Maoto Suppresses Extracellular Hepatitis B Virus Production In Hepad387 Cells
To confirm the effect of maoto, we evaluated it in HepAD38.7 cells in more detail . We first confirmed that the maoto extract did not show any cytotoxicity at a concentration of 100 µg/ml . Then, the effect of maoto on HBV production was evaluated at various concentrations under 100 µg/ml . Consistent with the results in Figure 1C, maoto inhibited extracellular HBV production in HepAD38.7 cells in a dose-dependent manner . Maoto did not affect HBeAg production, which is thought to correlate with HBV pgRNA production, in the tested concentration range . These results confirmed the inhibitory effect of maoto on extracellular HBV production without any cytotoxicity and suggest that maoto inhibits a step in the HBV production process after HBV pgRNA expression.
Accessibility And Hbsag Clearance Rate
HBsAg clearance occurs spontaneously or via antiviral treatment in CHB patients. The most commonly used drugs are nucleoside analogue and pegylated interferon . NA drugs include entecavir , tenofovir disoproxil fumarate and tenofovir alafenamide fumarate . The 2018 AASLD guidelines recommend Peg-IFN, ETV, or TDF as the preferred initial therapy for adults with immune-active CHB. It also suggests that alanine transaminase levels be tested at least every 6 months for adults with immune-tolerant CHB to monitor for potential transition to immune-active or immune-inactive CHB . The 2017 EASL guideline recommends ETV, TDF and TAF as the preferred monotherapy regimens, and the extension of the duration of Peg-IFN therapy beyond week 48 may be beneficial in selected HBeAg-negative CHB patients . The potential side effects of NAs include lactic acidosis for ETV and nephropathy, osteomalacia, lactic acidosis for TDF. CHB patients should be clinically monitored. The most frequently reported side effects for Peg-IFN are flu-like syndrome, myalgia, fatigue, mood disturbances, weight loss, hair loss and local reactions at the site of injection, and these side effects may be partially managed with dose reduction . Currently, the clearance of HBsAg is based primarily on sequential or combined treatment with NA and Peg-IFN.
What Are Hepatitis Cs Causes And Symptoms
According to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, per healthline.com, the hepatitis C virus is most commonly transferred from one person to another via the sharing of needles .
Using someone elses razor, toothbrush, and even nail clippers also carries a hepatitis C risk, although casual contact such as hugging, or holding or shaking hands, isnt believed to pass the virus from one person to another. Theres also about a 4 percent chance that a mother infected with hepatitis C will pass the virus on to her baby, per healthline.com.
If and when the hepatitis C virus becomes active in a persons body and the incubation period can be as long as 15 years, per ayushremedies.in symptoms can include the following, per livealittlelonger.com. Some of these can often be overlooked or rationalized away because they are also typical of the flu:
- Stomach pain
- Loss of appetite
- Other symptoms can include bruising or bleeding easily, diarrhea, joint pain, weight loss, itchy skin, and confusion.
If you suspect you have the disease, its vital that you see a doctor immediately for proper diagnosis and a plan for treatment and prescription medications , if needed. A simple blood test can tell you if you have hepatitis C.
If caught early enough, any related damage to your liver which happens to be your bodys biggest gland, per ayushremedies.in is reversible. Its also important to know that hepatitis C is the leading cause of liver cancer, per draxe.com.
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