What Are The Possible Reactions After The Vaccine
Vaccines are very safe. It is much safer to get the vaccine than to get hepatitis A.
Common reactions to the vaccine may include soreness, redness and swelling where the vaccine was given. Headache, fatigue, fever, and stomach upset may also occur after getting the vaccine. These reactions are mild and generally last 1 to 2 days.
For more information on Reye Syndrome, see HealthLinkBC File #84 Reye Syndrome.
It is important to stay in the clinic for 15 minutes after getting any vaccine because there is an extremely rare possibility, less than 1 in a million, of a life-threatening allergic reaction called anaphylaxis. This may include hives, difficulty breathing, or swelling of the throat, tongue or lips. Should this reaction occur, your health care provider is prepared to treat it. Emergency treatment includes administration of epinephrine and transfer by ambulance to the nearest emergency department. If symptoms develop after you leave the clinic, call 9-1-1 or the local emergency number.
It is important to always report serious or unexpected reactions to your health care provider.
Why Is Hepa Recommended
The HepA vaccine not only protects the kids who get it. It also can help prevent outbreaks. An outbreak is when a disease happens in greater numbers than expected in a particular area.
Childcare centers are a common site of hepatitis A outbreaks. Some kids can be infected and not have symptoms. But they can still spread the virus to others. Having many young kids vaccinated against hepatitis A can stop it from spreading in a community.
How Long Does The Hepatitis Vaccine Last
30 Nov 2021
- Written by Dr. Andrea Pinto on 01 December 2021
Hepatitis B is a type of viral illness that affects your liver, and in some cases, it can become chronic and lead to serious health problems. Since the main route of transmission for hepatitis B is through unprotected sex, this disease is considered to be a sexually transmitted infection . However, there are other ways in which you can get hepatitis B. Fortunately, hepatitis B vaccination is very safe and effective against this disease.
Keep reading this article to learn how long the hepatitis vaccine lasts, and if youll need to get vaccinated again in the future.
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Are There Any Adults Who Should Not Get The Vaccine
Do not get the hepatitis vaccine if you:
- Have ever had a severe allergic reaction to a hepatitis A vaccine or to any vaccine component hepatitis A vaccines contain alum and some contain 2-phenoxyethanol.
- Are ill, unless it is a mild illness
- Are pregnant, unless you are at greater risk for contracting hepatitis A
Who Should Get A Hepatitis A And B Vaccine
Infants typically receive doses of hepatitis B vaccine at birth and at 6 months. Hepatitis A vaccines are recommended for children 12 months and older who are at risk for infection.
A hepatitis A and B combination vaccine is also recommended for anyone 18 or older who:
- Travels to an area where hepatitis is common
- Is military personnel
- Engages in high-risk sexual behavior
- Uses injection drugs
- Lives or works in an area with increased exposure to blood or bodily fluids
A hepatitis vaccine is not recommended for anyone who:
- Has a serious allergy to an ingredient in the vaccine
- Has had a serious reaction to a dose of the vaccine in the past
- Has a weakened immune system
- Is pregnant
Consult a healthcare provider for specific recommendations.
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Safety And Adverse Events
Common and local adverse events
HA vaccine is well tolerated. Reactions are generally mild and transient, and are usually limited to soreness and redness at the injection site. Other less frequent reactions include headache, irritability, malaise, fever, fatigue and gastrointestinal symptoms. Injection site reactions occur less frequently in children than in adults as do mild, systemic events . No significant difference in reactions is evident between initial and subsequent doses of vaccine or in the presence of pre-existing immunity.
Refer to Hepatitis B Vaccine in Part 4 for information about HAHB vaccine.
Injection site reactions following receipt of standard human Ig include tenderness, erythema and stiffness of local muscles, which may persist for several hours. Mild fever or malaise may occasionally occur.
Less common and serious or severe adverse events
Less common side effects following receipt of standard human Ig include flushing, headache, chills and nausea. Urticaria, angioedema and anaphylactic reactions may occur rarely.
Guidance on reporting Adverse Events Following Immunization
Vaccine providers are asked to report, through local public health officials, any serious or unexpected adverse event temporally related to vaccination. An unexpected AEFI is an event that is not listed in available product information but may be due to the immunization, or a change in the frequency of a known AEFI.
Contraindications and precautions
Who Should Not Get The Vaccine
Speak with your health care provider if you have had a life-threatening reaction to a previous dose of hepatitis A vaccine, or any component of the vaccine including neomycin, or to latex.
There is no need to delay getting immunized because of a cold or other mild illness. However, if you have concerns speak with your health care provider.
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How Common Is Hepatitis A
In the United States, hepatitis A has become relatively uncommon. After the hepatitis A vaccine became available in 1995, the rate of hepatitis A infections declined by 95 percent in the United States. The number of reported cases of hepatitis A fell to 1,239 in 2014, the lowest yearly number of cases reported since the disease could be tracked.1 However, the number of reported cases increased to 3,366 in 2017, almost 3 times higher, mostly due to outbreaks among people who use drugs and people experiencing homelessness.1 Early reports suggest that the numbers of cases and outbreaks of hepatitis A increased further during 2018 and continue at these higher rates in 2019.2
Hepatitis A is more common in developing countries where sanitation is poor and access to clean water is limited. Hepatitis A is more common in parts of Africa, Asia, Central and South America, and Eastern Europe than it is in the United States.
Who Should Get Hepatitis Vaccinations
Since the vaccines were first developed, the hepatitis A and B vaccines have become part of the regular childhood immunization schedule. They are not considered a routine adult immunization.
“When we’re talking about adults, I would say yes, get the vaccine if they fit into one of these risk factors” says Poland. “If they don’t fit into the risk factors, their risk is so low that there’s no compelling reason to do it.”
People at risk for hepatitis A include:
- Anyone traveling to or working in areas where hepatitis A is more widespread.
- People whose work puts them in potential contact with hepatitis A, such as those who work with the hepatitis A virus in research labs
- People who are treated with clotting-factor concentrates
- People who have chronic liver disease
- People who use recreational drugs, injected or not
- Men who have sex with men
People at risk for hepatitis B include:
- Anyone traveling to or working in areas where hepatitis B is more widespread.
- Health care workers and other people whose job exposes them to human blood
- People with HIV infection, end-stage kidney disease, or chronic liver disease
- People who live with someone with hepatitis B
- People who inject street drugs
- Sexually active people who have had more than one partner
- Anyone who has had an STD
- Men who have sex with men
- Sex partners of people with hepatitis B
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Who Is More Likely To Get Hepatitis A
People more likely to get hepatitis A are those who
- travel to developing countries
- have sex with an infected person
- are men who have sex with men
- use illegal drugs, including drugs that are not injected
- experience unstable housing or homelessness
- live with or care for someone who has hepatitis A
- live with or care for a child recently adopted from a country where hepatitis A is common
How Do Doctors Treat Hepatitis A
Treatment includes resting, drinking plenty of liquids, and eating healthy foods to help relieve symptoms. Your doctor may also suggest medicines to help relieve symptoms.
Talk with your doctor before taking any prescription or over-the-counter medicines, vitamins or other dietary supplements, or complementary or alternative medicinesany of these could damage your liver. You should avoid alcohol until your doctor tells you that you have completely recovered from hepatitis A.
See your doctor regularly to make sure your body has fully recovered. If you have symptoms for longer than 6 months, see your doctor again.
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What If You Have Hepatitis A
There are no specific treatments once a person gets hepatitis A. Doctors usually recommend rest, adequate nutrition and fluids to treat symptoms, although some people will need additional medical care at a hospital.
The disease can range from a mild illness lasting a few weeks to a severe illness lasting several months. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, although rare, hepatitis A can cause liver failure and death in some people. This is more common in people who are at least 50 years old and in people with other liver diseases.
Once you recover from hepatitis A, you develop antibodies that protect you from the virus for life.
Hepatitis A And B Vaccines At Sutter Walk
Your liver is one of the hardest working organs in your body. To help keep it healthy throughout your life, Hepatitis A and Hepatitis B vaccinations are strongly recommended.
Sutter Walk-In Care offers Hepatitis A and B vaccinations for those 18 years and older. No appointment necessary. Our care team is ready to answer any questions you may have.
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What Steps Can You Take To Prevent Hepatitis A
The best way to prevent hepatitis A is by practicing good hand hygiene including thoroughly washing hands after using the bathroom, changing diapers and before preparing or eating food and through vaccination.
The hepatitis A vaccine is safe, effective and given as two shots, six months apart. Both shots are needed for long-term protection. It can be given to people with compromised immune systems, and getting extra doses of the vaccine is not harmful.
The hepatitis A vaccine is recommended for school children. As of 2014, one dose of the vaccine is required for entry into kindergarten and first grade. Most adults are likely not vaccinated, unless they received vaccinations prior to traveling internationally.
The vaccine will only protect you against hepatitis A. There is a separate vaccine available for hepatitis B, although there is a combination hepatitis A and hepatitis B vaccine that can be given to anyone age 18 or older. This combination vaccine is given as three shots over six months. There is no vaccine for hepatitis C at this time.
How Cdc Monitors Vaccine Safety
CDC and FDA monitor the safety of vaccines after they are approved or authorized. If a problem is found with a vaccine, CDC and FDA will inform health officials, health care providers, and the public.
CDC uses 3 systems to monitor vaccine safety:
- The Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System : an early warning system, co-managed by CDC and FDA, to monitor for potential vaccine safety problems. Anyone can report possible vaccine side effects to VAERS.
- The Vaccine Safety Datalink : a collaboration between CDC and 9 health care organizations that conducts vaccine safety monitoring and research.
- The Clinical Immunization Safety Assessment Project: a partnership between CDC and several medical research centers that provides expert consultation and conducts clinical research on vaccine-associated health risks.
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Postexposure Prophylaxis For Hepatitis A
What are the current CDC guidelines for postexposure protection against hepatitis A?
Hepatitis A vaccine should be administered as soon as possible, within 2 weeks of exposure, to all unvaccinated people aged 12 months who have recently been exposed to hepatitis A virus . In addition to hepatitis A vaccine, co-administration of GamaSTAN S/D immune globulin is recommended under certain circumstances according to age and health status of the exposed person.
Should patrons of an establishment implicated in an outbreak of hepatitis A receive postexposure prophylaxis ?
Because common-source transmission to patrons is unlikely, PEP administration to patrons is typically not indicated. However, PEP may be considered for those patrons potentially exposed to a symptomatic food handler if a) the food handler directly handled uncooked or cooked foods without gloves AND had diarrhea or poor hygienic practices and b) the patron can be identified and treated within 2 weeks of exposure, though the risk to these patrons still remains low .
In settings in which repeated exposures to hepatitis A virus might have occurred , consideration of PEP use is warranted. PEP in this scenario should generally consist of vaccination for all age groups, though immune globulin may be considered for exposed people who are immunocompromised or have chronic liver disease.
What should be done when a case of hepatitis A is found in a setting providing services to children or adults ?
Enhancing Healthcare Team Outcomes
Vaccination providers, including the pharmacist and nurse practitioner, commonly encounter persons who do not have adequate immunization documentation. Only written, dated records should be used as evidence of vaccination. If records are not available, these patients should receive their age-appropriate vaccination schedule or have serologic testing to determine immunity. However, not all commercially available serologic tests are sensitive enough for the detection of vaccine-induced immunity.
Vaccination administration should be as close to the recommended intervals as possible. An interruption in the vaccination schedule does not require restarting the entire hepatitis A vaccine series or the addition of extra doses.
Only severe allergy to a prior HAV is a valid contraindication to vaccination. Misperceptions by healthcare providers result in missed opportunities to administer recommended vaccinations and should be avoided. Routine physical examinations are not necessary for vaccinating persons who appear to be healthy.
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How And When Do Doctors Give Vaccines
For the hepatitis A vaccine:
You should get two doses, given as shots, 6 months apart for complete protection. The virus in the vaccine is killed .
Children should get the first dose between 12 and 23 months of age. Children older than age 2 can get the first dose at their next doctorâs visit.
If you need the vaccine because of upcoming travel, get it at least 1 month before you go.
For the hepatitis B vaccine:
For long-lasting immunity, you need three to four doses, depending on which type of vaccine is used. You get them as shots.
Children should get their first dose at birth and complete the series by age 6 months. Usually, the baby would get a second dose at 1 month old and the third dose at 6 months.
Babies born to women who have hepatitis B need a shot of hep B antibodies, as well as their first hep B vaccine shot, when theyâre born. They will also need follow-up blood tests to make sure theyâre OK.
Catch-up vaccinations are recommended for children and teens who were never vaccinated or who did not get all three shots.
If you’re an adult who wants to be vaccinated, you should talk about it with your doctor or pharmacist. If you are considering both vaccines, ask your doctor about vaccines that combine hep A and B.
Immunizing Agents Available For Use In Canada
Hepatitis A-containing vaccines
- AVAXIMÂ® and AVAXIMÂ®-Pediatric , Sanofi Pasteur SA , Sanofi Pasteur Ltd.
- HAVRIXÂ®1440 and HAVRIXÂ®720 Junior , GlaxoSmithKline Inc.
- TWINRIXÂ® and TWINRIXÂ®Junior , GlaxoSmithKline Inc. Refer to Hepatitis B Vaccine in Part 4 for additional information about HAHB vaccine.
- VAQTAÂ® , Merck Canada Inc.
- ViVAXIMÂ® , Sanofi Pasteur Ltd.
- GamaSTANÂ® , Grifols Therapeutics LLC.
Standard human immunoglobulin is a sterile, concentrated solution for intramuscular injection containing 15% to 18% immunoglobulin. It is obtained from pooled human plasma from screened donors and contains mainly IgG with small amounts of IgA and IgM. For complete prescribing information, consult the product leaflet or information contained within the product monograph available through Health Canada’s Drug product database.
Refer to Contents in Immunizing Agents Available for Use in Canada in Part 1 for lists of vaccines and passive immunizing agents available for use in Canada and their contents.
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Hepatitis A And B Vaccine
Hepatitis is an inflammation of the liver that can be deadly. There are five main hepatitis viruses, known as A, B, C, D and E. Hepatitis is most often caused by the A and B viruses.
Hepatitis A is commonly spread through infected food or water. It is more common in countries without safe water or sewage systems. Hepatitis B is spread through sexual contact or contact with blood. It can also be passed from mother to child.
Vaccines can prevent hepatitis A and hepatitis B. There is also a combination vaccine that protects against both viruses.
Immunogenicity Efficacy And Effectiveness
Protective concentrations of antibody against HA develop in 95% to 100% of vaccine recipients after 1 dose of HA vaccine, and nearly 100% seroconvert after receiving 2 doses of vaccine.
HA vaccines are at least 90% to 97% effective in preventing clinical HA illness.
The use of HA vaccine in susceptible populations interrupts HA outbreaks. The protective efficacy of HA vaccine when used within 1 week of exposure is approximately 80%.
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