Friday, December 2, 2022

Hepatitis B Surface Antigen Test

Interpretation Provides Information To Assist In Interpretation Of The Test Results

HBsAg (Hepatitis B Surface Antigen) Blood Test

A reactive screen result confirmed as positive by hepatitis B surface antigen confirmatory test or a positive screen result is indicative of acute or chronic hepatitis B virus infection, or chronic HBV carrier state.

Specimens with initially reactive screen results, but negative by HBsAg confirmatory test results, are likely to contain cross-reactive antibodies from other infectious or immunologic disorders. These unconfirmed HBsAg-reactive screening test results should be interpreted in conjunction with test results of other HBV serologic markers . Repeat testing is recommended at a later date if clinically indicated.

Confirmed presence of HBsAg is frequently associated with HBV replication and infectivity, especially when accompanied by presence of hepatitis B e antigen and/or detectable HBV DNA.

Viral Hepatitis Serologic Profiles

Counseling Practices That Educate Support And Motivate Clients Undergoing Screening

Clients might need help deciding whether to get screened, understanding the test results, and determining their next steps. Even when services offered through the substance abuse treatment program are limited, discussing testing with clients presents an opportunity for counselors to motivate clients for change by confronting substance use and by making choices that improve their overall health. However, this may also be true when services are offered on-site through substance abuse treatment programs. A study at one methadone clinic that offered hepatitis screening and vaccination revealed that although the majority of clients completed screening , only 54.7 percent of clients who lacked for hepatitis A received vaccinations and only 2.9 percent of clients who lacked immunity for received vaccinations .

The Consensus Panel makes the following general recommendations while recognizing that, in some programs, the counselors role may be limited:

Hepatitis B Surface Antigen Confirmation Prenatal Serum

Diagnosis of acute, recent, or chronic hepatitis B infection in prenatal patients

This test is not useful during the “window period” of acute hepatitis B virus infection .

This test is not suitable as stand-alone prenatal screening test of HBsAg status in pregnant women.

This test is not offered as a hepatitis B surface antigen screening or confirmatory test for blood donor specimens.

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Addressing Hepatitis For The First Time

It is crucial that a treatment counselor or health professional use a nonjudgmental and compassionate tone. Clients need to feel comfortable disclosing information about their health and risky behaviors. The following strategies can help initiate the conversation:

  • Display posters, literature, or other -related items that could help prompt the client to ask questions about hepatitis. .
  • Assess clients ability to discuss , based on their degree of openness in the counseling session, the amount of detail they provide in their responses, and the length of the therapeutic relationship.
  • Raise the subject in a way that avoids making clients feel defensive or afraid. Consider introducing the subject by making parallels with other conditions that have been discussed. Say, for example, You said you were tested for HIV several times. Were you ever tested for viral ? or You mentioned that your friend is sick with HIV. Have you been tested for HCV or HIV? Tell me about those tests.
  • Be patient and allow time for multiple, short conversations about the subject. This might ease feelings of fear, anxiety, or shame.

What Is Hepatitis B

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The liver is the largest organ in our body. It is in charge of digesting food, storing energy, and removing toxins. When a person contracts hepatitis, delivered becomes inflamed. A hepatitis B infection is caused by the hepatitis b virus.

There are five different types of hepatitis viruses. Hepatitis B is normal spread through blood, seminal fluids, and vaginal secretions. Once infected, it may take many months first sentence to start appearing. The virus infects the liver and clears up, from the system, within six months. In some cases, the virus would not clear within this given period. This is referred to as a chronic hepatitis B infection that could cause damages and scarring to the liver, as well as liver cirrhosis and cancer.

There is a big difference between an acute and chronic hepatitis B infection. The first one last a maximum of six months. It can be cleared by the immune system and, the infected person would be able to recover completely within few months. The second lasts for more than six months because they the immune system cannot fight it off. It lingers for as long as a lifetime and can cause serious damage and our body. Younger people, who are not vaccinated with the hepatitis B, are at high risk of the infection becoming chronic. Also, people that are sixty years and older have the same risk.

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Interpretation Of Diagnostic Tests

Hepatitis B surface antigen is the first marker of HBV detectable in serum in acute infection. By the time clinical and biochemical hepatitis is present after an incubation period of up to 140 days, other serologic markers of HBV infection appearâincluding antibody to HBV core antigen . Hepatitis B core antigen, a marker of viral replication found in infected hepatocytes, does not circulate in serum. However, its corresponding antibody does. Documented HBsAg positivity in serum for 6 or more months suggests chronic HBV with a low likelihood of subsequent spontaneous resolution. Chronic HBV is diagnosed by the absence of IgM anti-HBc antibody. IgM anti-HBc antibody is a marker of acute or recent acute hepatitis B and is detectable for 6 months after infection, whereas IgG anti-HBc is lifelong. If acute HBV resolves, neutralizing antibody against HBsAg develops. If HBV infection becomes chronic, other HBV markersâincluding HBV viremia and hepatitis e antigen âshould be sought. Both of these markers imply viral replication and thus greater infectivity, although any patient who is HBsAg positive is potentially infectious.

Rima Fawaz, Maureen M. Jonas, in, 2021

Hepatitis B Surface Antigen

Hepatitis B is a self-containing viral infection attacking the liver. It can be acute and get resolved on its own or, chronic that may lead to numerous complications and even death. Getting tested for the hepatitis B surface antigen can help identify an active infection. It is an effective tool to screen, diagnose and follow-up on the course of the disease.

It is recommended to test about 2-4 weeks after exposure. After 7 weeks, about 50 % of those infected will no longer be infectious and those who do not remain chronically infected will be HBsAg-negative by 15 weeks after onset of symptoms. This test is a qualitative test and will only provide a positive or negative result.

Results may take 1-3 business days once the specimen is received at the laboratory.

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Hbv Dna Hbv Genotype And Hbv Drug Resistance Assays

Specimen: Serum or plasma

Container: Red-top tube, yellow-top tube , gel-barrier tube, plasma preparation tube, or lavender tube

Collection method: Routine venipuncture

The specimen should be transfused to separate plasma/serum from cells within 6 hours and kept frozen when testing cannot be done promptly.

The tests use PCR amplification, DNA probe hybridization, and sequencing method.

What Your Hepatitis B Surface Antigen Test Results Mean

HbsAg Test | What is Hepatitis B Surface Antigen

A positive hepatitis B surface antigen test result indicates that the person is infected with hepatitis B. such a result will need to be followed by other tests to make a more accurate diagnosis. Positive results also indicate that the infection is active and, the infected person can spread hepatitis B to others. A negative test result indicates the absence of the virus in the system.

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How It Is Done

The health professional taking a sample of your blood will:

  • Wrap an elastic band around your upper arm to stop the flow of blood. This makes the veins below the band larger so it is easier to put a needle into the vein.
  • Clean the needle site with alcohol.
  • Put the needle into the vein. More than one needle stick may be needed.
  • Attach a tube to the needle to fill it with blood.
  • Remove the band from your arm when enough blood is collected.
  • Apply a gauze pad or cotton ball over the needle site as the needle is removed.
  • Put pressure on the site and then put on a bandage.

Clinical Information Discusses Physiology Pathophysiology And General Clinical Aspects As They Relate To A Laboratory Test

Hepatitis B virus is endemic throughout the world. The infection is spread primarily through percutaneous contact with infected blood products . The virus is also found in various human body fluids, and it is known to be spread through oral and genital contacts. HBV can be transmitted from mother to child during delivery through contact with blood and vaginal secretions, but it is not commonly transmitted transplacentally.

Hepatitis B surface antigen is the first serologic marker appearing in the serum at 6 to 16 weeks following exposure to HBV. In acute infection, HBsAg usually disappears in 1 to 2 months after the onset of symptoms. Persistence of HBsAg for more than 6 months in duration indicates development of either a chronic carrier state or chronic HBV infection.

Viral Hepatitis Serologic Profiles

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Hepatitis B Blood Tests

The Hepatitis B Panel of Blood Tests

Only one sample of blood is needed for a hepatitis B blood test, but the Hepatitis B Panel includes three parts. All three test results are needed to fully understand whether a person is infected or not. Below is an explanation of the 3-part Hepatitis B Panel of blood test results.

  • HBsAg – A “positive” or “reactive” HBsAg test result means that the person is infected with hepatitis B. This test can detect the actual presence of the hepatitis B virus in your blood. If a person tests positive, then further testing is needed to determine if this is a new acute infection or a chronic hepatitis B infection. A positive HBsAg test result means that you are infected and can spread the hepatitis B virus to others through your blood.
  • anti-HBs or HBsAb – A “positive” or “reactive” anti-HBs test result indicates that a person is protected against the hepatitis B virus. This protection can be the result of receiving the hepatitis B vaccine or successfully recovering from a past hepatitis B infection. This test is not routinely included in blood bank screenings. A positive anti-HBs test result means you are immune and protected against the hepatitis B virus and cannot be infected. You are not infected and cannot spread hepatitis B to others.
  • Hepatitis B Surface Antigen Blood Test

    HBsAg One Step Hepatitis B Surface Antigen Test Device ...

    This test is used to screen for infection with the Hepatitis B virus. The Surface Antigen test looks for a protein which is present on the surface of the virus. This protein will be present in the blood with an acute or chronic Hep B infection. Because it has a fairly early detection window, the Surface Antigen Test is often ordered by people who believe they have had a recent exposure. This test can detect the presence of Hepatitis B in chronic or long-term infections even if the person has no symptoms.

    Hepatitis B is a viral liver infection which is spread through exposure to infected blood or bodily fluids. It is the most common cause of acute viral Hepatitis. Hepatitis B infections often show no symptoms but when symptoms do occur they are often described as flu-like. Common symptoms include abdominal pain, fever, loss of appetite, nausea, joint pain, fatigue, jaundice, and dark colored urine. Chronic Hep B infections can cause serious health complications like Cirrhosis and Liver Cancer.

    Turnaround time for the Hepatitis B Surface Antigen test is typically 1 business day.

    Note: Result turn around times are an estimate and are not guaranteed. Our reference lab may need additional time due to weather, holidays, confirmation/repeat testing, or equipment maintenance.

    Detection Period:

    For the majority of people, this test will have the highest level of accuracy at 12 weeks from an exposure or any time after. Some people may be detectable as early as 4 weeks from exposure.

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    What Is Hepatitis B Surface Antibody

    When you are exposed to hepatitis B, your body mounts an immune reaction against it as an invader. This happens whether you are exposed due to blood or sexual contact or if you are vaccinated with the hepatitis B vaccine.

    The hepatitis B virus has proteins on its surface that cause your immune system to produce antibodies. With the vaccine, the sample contains the protein only and not the virus itself.

    The first response your body will make when exposed to hepatitis B is to manufacture hepatitis B IgM antibodies. These early antibodies are produced to fight against several parts of the virus including its core. These antibodies are seen in the initial response, but they eventually fade away.

    Your immune system then begins to produce IgG antibodies. It continues to produce these antibodies for the rest of your life. In this way, your immune system is always ready to attack hepatitis B virus when it is exposed to it.

    Diagnostic Accuracy Of Laboratory Immunoassays For Hbsag Detection

    Five studies , performed in China, Ghana, Cambodia and Vietnam evaluated 8 EIAs against a CMIA reference standard, in 1825 serum or plasma samples, reported a pooled sensitivity and specificity of 88.9% and 98.4% , respectively. The respective positive and negative LRs were 46.8 and 0.04 , with visible and statistical heterogeneity between studies . Outliers were from two Chinese studies that evaluated two older ELISA assays with a sensitivity lower than 90% .

    Fig. 8

    One study evaluated 3 different EIAs in 838 HIV-positive patients. Results were homogenous between tests, with pooled sensitivity and specificity of 97.9% and 99.4% , respectively, for a positive and negative LR of 167.3 and 0.02 respectively .

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    Treatment Options For Hepatitis B

    Acute hepatitis B usually doesnt require treatment. Most people will overcome an acute infection on their own. However, rest and hydration will help you recover.

    Antiviral medications are used to treat chronic hepatitis B. These help you fight the virus. They may also reduce the risk of future liver complications.

    You may need a liver transplant if hepatitis B has severely damaged your liver. A liver transplant means a surgeon will remove your liver and replace it with a donor liver. Most donor livers come from deceased donors.

    Can I Take The Test At Home

    Quantitative HBsAg and its Role in Chronic Hepatitis B Patient Management

    Samples for hepatitis B testing can be collected at home. At-home hepatitis B testing requires a patient to collect a blood sample, typically from a fingerstick using a very small needle provided in the test kit. Once a blood sample is collected, it is prepared according to the instructions contained in the test kit and mailed to a laboratory for testing.

    Because there are numerous types of tests for HBV, it is important to look closely at the specific components of any at-home test kit. Many at-home test kits only look for hepatitis B surface antigen .

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    Educating Clients About Viral Hepatitis

    Clients may believe they know about viral , but their understanding of the disease may not be accurate. It is easy to confuse the three main types of viral , B, and C. Clients may have formed impressions based on limited or incorrect information. Counselors should briefly describe hepatitis A, B, and C, including their prevalence, , and relationship to drug use, as well as to other infections, such as HIV and sexually transmitted diseases. Specific strategies for speaking with clients include:

    • Speak clearly and keep the message simple, focused, and brief.
    • Use language, examples, and concepts that the client understands.
    • Use appropriate visual aids.
    • Frame numerical statements in terms that are easy to visualize. Say 5 out of 100 people rather than 5 percent of the population say more than half instead of the majority.
    • Repeat the information at different times in different ways. The average client retains only approximately one-third of what he or she is told. Summarize essential points.
    • Pay attention to a clients response to the information. For example, if a client stiffens his or her posture, consider saying, I notice that this topic seems to make you uncomfortable. It does for a lot of people. Please tell me what youre feeling right now. Id really like to help you with this.
    • Use the opportunity to describe the potential detrimental effects of alcohol and other substance use on the liver of a person who is infected with HCV.

    The Treatment Programs Role In The Screening Process

    Medical staff members at substance abuse treatment programs might assume the primary role for screening individuals for and explaining the screening process and test results. Opioid treatment programs with medical staff members should screen for and C at intake and periodically as indicated. In programs without onsite medical staff, clients may be referred elsewhere for screening with minimal involvement of the substance abuse treatment program.

    Regardless of the type of program, counselors should have a basic understanding of the importance of screening, the screening process, and the meaning of the results. Counselors can encourage clients referred for screening to follow through and complete the screening and evaluation process . Clients might feel anxious about being diagnosed with hepatitis, and they might delay or avoid getting screened.

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    Questions For Your Doctor About Test Results

    Patients may find it helpful to ask questions about their hepatitis B test results. Questions that may be helpful include:

    • What was my test result?
    • Do I have an acute or chronic hepatitis B infection?
    • Does the test result suggest that I have immunity for hepatitis B?
    • Would I benefit from hepatitis B vaccination?
    • Do I need any follow-up tests based on my hepatitis B test results?

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