What Is The Treatment For Hepatitis B
If no symptoms are visible in a person suffering from Hepatitis B, then the treatment of Hepatitis B is done by examining the blood for other reasons.
- Doctors conduct different tests when Hepatitis B symptoms are seen.
- To check for Hepatitis B infection, blood test and HBsAg test is conducted. If Hepatitis B infection is in the initial stage, then IgM test is done and if it is in the later stage, then IgG test is done.
- If the persons liver is damaged, then to check the liver status, liver biopsy is done.
- HBsAg tests are done to check the intensity of Hepatitis B.
- Liver function test is done to examine the effects of infection on the liver.
- An ultrasound scan is done to check the status of the liver.
- Polymerase Chain Reaction test is done to check the viral load in the blood.
If you want to get more information and treatment related to Hepatitis B, then contact the Hepatologist Doctor today without any delay.
Is There A Cure For Chronic Hepatitis B
Currently, there is no complete cure for hepatitis B. But when managed properly, those living with the virus can expect to live a normal life. Maintaining a healthy diet and avoiding alcoholic beverages and tobacco products are crucial components in managing the disease.
You should also visit a doctor familiar with hepatitis B at least annuallythough twice a year might be best to monitor your liver through blood tests and medical imaging. As with most diseases, detecting it early leads to a better outcome. If youre exposed to the virus, you should get an antibody injection within 12 hours of exposure.
Who Is Most Affected
In the United States, rates of new HBV infections are highest among adults aged 40-49 years, reflecting low hepatitis B vaccination coverage among adults at risk. The most common risk factor among people with new HBV infections is injecting drugs, related to the opioid crisis.
The highest rates of chronic hepatitis B infection in the United States occur among foreign-born individuals, especially people born in Asia, the Pacific Islands, and Africa. Approximately 70% of cases in the United States are among people who were born outside of the United States. CDC developed this map of the geographic distribution of hepatitis B around the world – PDF. Other groups who have higher rates of chronic HBV infection include people who inject drugs and men who have sex with men.
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Should I Be Screened For Hepatitis B
Screening is testing for a disease in people who have no symptoms. Doctors use blood tests to screen for hepatitis B. Many people who have hepatitis B dont have symptoms and dont know they are infected with hepatitis B. Screening tests can help doctors diagnose and treat hepatitis B, which can lower your chances of developing serious health problems.
Your doctor may recommend screening for hepatitis B if you9,14
- are pregnant
- were born in an area of the world where 2 percent or more of the population has hepatitis B infection, which includes Africa, Asia, and parts of the Middle East, Eastern Europe, and South America
- didnt receive the hepatitis B vaccine as an infant and have parents who were born in an area where 8 percent or more of the population had hepatitis B infection, which includes sub-Saharan Africa and parts of Asia
- are HIV-positive
- are a man who has sex with men
- have lived with or had sex with a person who has hepatitis B
- have an increased chance of infection due to other factors
Hepatitis B: Screening Prevention Diagnosis And Treatment
THAD WILKINS, MD, MBA RICHARD SAMS, MD, MA and MARY CARPENTER, PharmD Medical College of Georgia at Augusta University, Augusta, Georgia
Am Fam Physician. 2019 Mar 1 99:314-323.
Patient information: See related handout on hepatitis B, written by the authors of this article.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimated that in 2015 there were 21,900 cases of acute hepatitis B, with an overall incidence of 1.1 cases per 100,000.1 There are an estimated 850,000 to 2.2 million individuals in the United States with chronic hepatitis B.1,2 Approximately 25% of children and 15% of adults with chronic hepatitis B die prematurely from hepatocellular carcinoma or cirrhosis.3 However, treatment reduces morbidity and mortality from the disease.
WHAT IS NEW ON THIS TOPIC
Approximately 1,000 cases of perinatal hepatitis B occur annually in the United States, and nearly 90% of chronic hepatitis B cases in infants develop in the first year of life.
Hepatitis B vaccination is recommended for all medically stable infants weighing 2,000 g or more within 24 hours of birth, unvaccinated infants and children, and unvaccinated adults requesting protection from hepatitis B or who are at increased risk of hepatitis B.
SORT: KEY RECOMMENDATIONS FOR PRACTICE
Pregnant women should be screened for hepatitis B at the first prenatal visit.
SORT: KEY RECOMMENDATIONS FOR PRACTICE
Pregnant women should be screened for hepatitis B at the first prenatal visit.
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Value Of Biopsy: Fibrosis And Necro
Patients with moderate/severe inflammation or bridging fibrosis/cirrhosis must be treated. The degree of fibrosis or inflammation upon liver biopsy cannot be predicted for HBV-DNA levels > 10000 copies/mL. ALT is an imperfect marker for liver disease . Traditional and current guidelines recommend liver biopsy for patients who meet the criteria for chronic hepatitis . These patients must be treated if we follow the guidelines, and we believe that liver biopsy may be unnecessary.
Liver biopsy is more important for patients who do not meet the current criteria for treatment but have serum HBV-DNA levels of 104 to 105 copies/mL and/or ALT/AST levels that are normal or mildly elevated . The presence of significant inflammation or bridging fibrosis/cirrhosis is an indication for treatment. In a subgroup of these patients, hepatic elastography can avoid the need to carry out a liver biopsy for detection of significant fibrosis. This is a novel non-invasive method to assess hepatic fibrosis in patients with a chronic disease, by measuring liver stiffness. Its failure rate is about 5% of cases, mainly in obese patients. Elastography has a high positive predictive value for diagnosing significant fibrosis in Asian CHB patients. This method does not have a defined role in HBeAg-negative patients because histological inflammation during reactivation may affect the results.
Epidemiology Of Hdv Infection
HDV infection is a significant source of healthcare and economic burden. Globally, it is estimated that 510.6% of individuals with chronic HBV are coinfected with HDV, representing up to 72 million people worldwide . The prevalence of HDV/HBV coinfection varies geographically. HDV coinfection is highly endemic in the Mediterranean basin, Vietnam, Pakistan, Iran, Mongolia, Romania, Central Africa, West Africa, and the Amazon Basin, with estimates of prevalence exceeding 20% in these regions . The prevalence of HDV coinfection has been reported to be as high as 42% in the Brazilian Amazon , and 75% among HIV-infected injection drug users in Taiwan . In the US, HDV/HBV coinfection is associated with higher healthcare utilization and costs than HBV monoinfection .
As a result of HBV vaccination, the prevalence of HDV infection has declined since the 1990s in certain parts of Europe, particularly Italy , Spain , and Turkey , where the prevalence has stabilized around 811% . However, a resurgence of HDV infection has been observed in some countries due to increases in injection drug use, unprotected sex, and immigration of persons from highly endemic regions .
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How Is Hepatitis B Prevented
Testing & Vaccination
- The hepatitis B vaccine offers excellent protection against HBV. The vaccine is safe and highly effective. Vaccination consists of 3 doses of vaccine over the course of 6 months. Protection lasts for 20 years to life.
- The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that all children should receive hepatitis B vaccine starting at birth. .
- The CDC recommends hepatitis B vaccine for persons traveling to countries where HBV is common .
- If you have one or more risk factors for hepatitis B infection, you should get a simple HBV blood test. The blood test will determine whether you are:
- immune to hepatitis B or
- susceptible to hepatitis B and need vaccination or
- infected with hepatitis B and need further evaluation by a physician
- California law requires testing of all pregnant women for hepatitis B infection
- If the mother is HBV-infected, she will pass the infection to the baby during the birth process, unless the baby gets immunized within hours of birth
- Giving the infant HBIG and HBV vaccine right away will reliably prevent infection of the infant
- Other family members should best tested for hepatitis B too, and given vaccine if they are not already infected or immune
After Exposure to Hepatitis B
Antiviral Medication For Hepatitis C
For people with hepatitis C, the goal of treatment with antiviral medication is to prevent the virus from replicating, or copying itself, and to eliminate the virus from the bloodstream. If the hepatitis C virus has been in the body for more than six months, the infection is considered chronic. Without treatment, most people with acute hepatitis C develop the chronic form of the disease.
Your doctor decides which antiviral medicationor combination of medicationsto prescribe based on the results of a blood test called a genotype test. There are six genotypes, or strains, of the hepatitis C virus, and people with certain genotypes respond more quickly to medical treatment.
For many years, the standard treatment for chronic hepatitis C consisted of the antiviral medications pegylated interferon and ribavirin. Ribavirin is taken by mouth every day, and interferon is an injection that you or a caregiver can administer once a week at home.
In 2013 and 2014, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved a group of new medications for the treatment of hepatitis C. These medications, which include sofosbuvir, are very effective and have fewer side effects than older medications, particularly interferon.
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What Are The Risk Factors For Hepatitis B And C
Hepatitis B: Although most commonly acquired early in life, adults can also contract it. Hepatitis B is largely transmitted through bodily fluids. It can be passed at birth from a hepatitis B-infected mother or through exposure in early childhood to body fluids, blood or contaminated medical instruments. Hepatitis B can also be transmitted through intranasal and injection drug use as well as infected tools used during tattooing and body piercing.
Hepatitis C: The key risk factors are also intranasal and injection drug use, tattoos and body piercings, high-risk sexual contact, blood transfusions before 1992 and organ transplantation.
Another key risk factor for hepatitis C is being born from 1945 to 1965, during the baby-boom years. Eighty percent of all people who currently have hepatitis C in the United States were born in that timeframe.
Although the reasons that baby boomers are more likely to have hepatitis C than others arent entirely understood, its believed that most were infected in the 1970s and 1980s, when rates of hepatitis C were at their peak.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommend that all U.S. adults born from 1945 to 1965 undergo a one-time screening test for hepatitis C. Connecticut is one of several states that has written this recommendation into law. In Connecticut ,the law requires that primary care clinicians screen all adults born within those years.
Hepatitis B Virus/hiv Coinfection
Approximately 5% to 10% of people with HIV in the United States also have chronic hepatitis B virus infection.1 The progression of chronic HBV to cirrhosis, end-stage liver disease, or hepatocellular carcinoma is more rapid in persons with HBV/HIV coinfection than in persons with chronic HBV monoinfection.2 Conversely, chronic HBV does not substantially alter the progression of HIV infection and does not influence HIV suppression or CD4 T lymphocyte cell responses following initiation of antiretroviral therapy .3,4 However, antiretroviral drug toxicities or several liver-associated complications attributed to flares in HBV activity after initiation or discontinuation of dually active ARV drugs can affect the treatment of HIV in patients with HBV/HIV coinfection.5-7 These complications include the following:
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Eating Diet And Nutrition For Hepatitis B
If you have hepatitis B, you should eat a balanced, healthy diet. Obesity can increase the chance of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease , and NAFLD can increase liver damage in people who have hepatitis B. Talk with your doctor about healthy eating and maintaining a healthy weight.
You should also avoid alcohol because it can cause more liver damage.
Treatment For Chronic Hepatitis B
If blood tests show that you still have hepatitis B after 6 months, your doctor may recommend medication to reduce the risk of complications of hepatitis B and regular tests to assess the health of your liver.
Treatment is usually offered if:
- your immune system is unable to control the hepatitis B by itself
- there’s evidence of ongoing liver damage
Hepatitis B medications can help keep the virus under control and stop it damaging your liver, although they will not necessarily cure the infection and some people need lifelong treatment.
The main medicines for chronic hepatitis B include peginterferon alfa 2-a and antiviral medicines.
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What Are The Symptoms
- Symptoms can take 2 to 6 months to appear.
- Many people who are infected with hepatitis B have either no symptoms or only mild symptoms.
- Symptoms of acute hepatitis B can include fatigue, loss of appetite, joint pain, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, fever, and dark urine. A small number of people will develop jaundice .
- Some people develop chronic hepatitis B and most remain contagious for the rest of their lives. Chronic infection may lead to cirrhosis and/or liver cancer. Most people with chronic hepatitis B are unaware of their infection.
Hepatitis C Is Different From Hepatitis A And Hepatitis B
Hepatitis A and hepatitis B can also affect the liver. These viruses are easy to confuse with hepatitis C.
The main differences are:
- Most people clear hepatitis A and hepatitis B after a period of sickness, but people can have hepatitis C for years without knowing it.
- There are vaccines to protect against hepatitis A and hepatitis B, but there is no vaccine for hepatitis C.
For more on the different kinds of hepatitis virus, please see Other types of hepatitis.
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What Problems Can Hepatitis B Cause
Hepatitis B is a serious infection. It can lead to cirrhosis of the liver, liver failure, or liver cancer, which can cause severe illness and even death.
If a pregnant woman has the hepatitis B virus, her baby has a very high chance of having it unless the baby gets a special immune injection and the first dose of hepatitis B vaccine at birth.
Sometimes, HBV doesn’t cause symptoms until a person has had the infection for a while. At that stage, the person already might have more serious problems, such as liver damage.
What Are The Causes Of Hepatitis B
Hepatitis B is an infection that is spread by the virus known a Hepatitis B. This disease spreads through the blood of an infected person or contact with bodily fluids.
There are many causes of Hepatitis B.
- Hepatitis B is caused by using an infected needle or blade.
- Hepatitis B can spread from an infected mother to her baby during pregnancy.
- It can occur by using the same razor or toothbrush as used by an infected person.
- Using unsterilized needles for ear piercing or tattooing can also be a reason.
- Hepatitis B may also be caused by the transfusion of infected blood to another person without examination.
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What Other Problems Can Hepatitis B Cause
In rare cases, acute hepatitis B can cause liver failure.
If you have ever had hepatitis B, the virus may become active again, or reactivated, later in life. This could start to damage the liver and cause symptoms.
How Common Is Hepatitis B
The number of people who get this disease is down, the CDC says. Rates have dropped from an average of 200,000 per year in the 1980s to around 20,000 in 2016. People between the ages of 20 and 49 are most likely to get it.
About 90% of infants and 25-50% of children between the ages of 1-5 will become chronically infected. In adults, approximately 95% will recover completely and will not go on to have a chronic infection.
As many as 1.2 million people in the U.S. are carriers of the virus.
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National Institutes Of Health Recommendations
The National Institutes of Health recommends nucleoside therapy for the treatment of patients with acute liver failure, as well as cirrhotic patients who are HBV DNA positive and those with clinical complications, cirrhosis or advanced fibrosis with positive serum HBV DNA, or reactivation of chronic HBV during or after chemotherapy or immunosuppression. In addition, immunoglobulin and vaccination should be administered to newborns born to women positive for hepatitis B surface antigen .
In general, for hepatitis B e antigen -positive patients with evidence of chronic HBV disease, treatment is advised when the HBV DNA level is at or above 20,000 IU/mL and when serum ALT is elevated for 3-6 months.
For HBeAg-negative patients with chronic hepatitis B disease, treatment can be administered when the HBV DNA is at or above 2,000 IU/mL and the serum ALT is elevated for 3-6 months.
In patients coinfected with HBV and HIV, initiate therapy against HBV and administer antiretroviral therapy as well.
The NIH also indicates that immediate therapy is not routinely indicated for patients who have the following :
Chronic hepatitis B with high levels of serum HBV DNA but normal serum ALT levels or little activity on liver biopsy
Low levels of or no detectable serum HBV DNA and normal serum ALT levels
Positive serum HBV DNA but not HBsAg , unless the patient is undergoing immunosuppression