Who Is Most At Risk For Chronic Disease
The likelihood that an HBV infection will become chronic depends upon the age at which a person becomes infected, with young children who become infected with HBV being the most likely to develop chronic infections.
About 90% of infants infected during the first year of life develop chronic infections 30% to 50% of children infected between one to four years of age develop chronic infections. About 25% of adults who become chronically infected during childhood die from HBV-related liver cancer or cirrhosis. About 90% of healthy adults who are infected with HBV will recover and be completely rid of the virus within six months.
What Is Hepatitis B
Hepatitis B is a liver infection caused by the hepatitis B virus . The abbreviation HBV can stand for either the virus or the infection it causes.
HBV can be a short-term or a long-term illness:
- Acute HBV occurs within 6 months after a person is exposed to HBV. In some people, acute HBV can lead to chronic HBV.
- Chronic HBV is a lifelong disease. Without treatment, chronic HBV can cause liver cancer or liver damage that leads to liver failure.
HBV is a contagious infection that can spread from person to person.
Impact Of Hiv On Liver Complication
Impaired immune response to HIV is an increased risk for liver-related disease progression among HBVHIV co-infected patients on HBV active ART regimen.7,28,38 Moreover, the rate of HBVHIV co-infection is increased in HIV patients with impaired immune response compared to individuals with optimum immune restoration.23,32,34,43 The proportion of liver-related mortality is higher among HBVHIV co-infected subjects than HBV mono-infected only.20 Likewise, HIV infection increased the risk of rapid progression of liver-related disease in patients with chronic HBV infection.5,20,25,26 The rate of acquiring chronic HBV infection among the HBVHIV co-infected individuals and those infected with HBV alone is 25% and 4% respectively.42 Unlike the above findings, one prospective study suggested HBVHIV co-infected patients are less likely to develop liver disease progression than HBV mono-infected, particularly among those with non-AIDS stages.17
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Key Facts About Hepatitis B
- Hepatitis B is a viral infection that attacks the liver and can cause both acute and chronic liver disease, including cancer.
- The virus is transmitted through contact with the blood or other body fluids of an infected person.
- About 2 billion people worldwide have been infected with the virus and about 370 million live with chronic infection and liver damage.
- Two thirds of those infected with HBV are unaware of their infection
- An estimated 800 000 people die each year due to HBV induced liver cancer or cirrhosis.
- Despite there being a vaccine, globally HBV kills one person every minute
- About 25% of adults who become chronically infected during childhood later die from liver cancer or cirrhosis caused by the chronic infection.
- The hepatitis B virus is 50 to 100 times more infectious than HIV.
- Hepatitis B is preventable with a safe and effective vaccine.
Other Tests And Procedures
Healthcare providers sometimes order further tests for people with chronic HBV: alpha-fetoprotein screening, ultrasound, and, sometimes, liver biopsy.
Cancerous liver cells produce high levels of alpha-fetoprotein in the blood. AFP screening can help detect the presence of a tumor early on, but AFP screening alone doesn’t provide enough information. An abdominal ultrasound, which is painless, may also be done. A transducer, which looks like a wand, is moved back and forth over the upper abdomen to get a sense of what the liver looks like and to see whether there are any abnormalities. Using AFP screening and ultrasound together is more likely to detect liver cancer than using either test alone. Some providers suggest that these tests be done every six months in people with chronic HBV who have a higher risk of developing liver cancer — older men , people with cirrhosis, people who consume a lot of alcohol, people with a family history of liver cancer, and people with HIV and/or chronic hepatitis C.
A liver biopsy may be recommended to determine the extent of liver damage. Not everyone with chronic hepatitis B needs a liver biopsy. Healthcare providers have different opinions as to when and whether it should be done. The need varies from person to person and, ideally, the decision should be made after discussion with your provider.
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Prevention Diagnosis And Treatment Of Hiv/hbv Co
In recent years, a lot has been written about hepatitis C virus infection in people who also have HIV . HCV is a significant problem for many people with HIV, but it isn’t the only virus that can cause hepatitis . HIV/hepatitis B virus is another common co-infection and, like HIV/HCV co-infection, can cause severe liver damage and death.
HIV/HBV co-infection is relatively common because the viruses are transmitted similarly, although HBV is transmitted more easily. Through blood-to-blood contact, for example, HBV is 100 times more infectious than HIV and 10 times more infectious than HCV. And HBV is much more likely to be transmitted through unprotected sex than HCV. In the U.S. and Europe, most people with HIV either have had HBV at some time in the past or are currently co-infected.
HBV can cause both short-term and long-term infection. Our immune system usually fights off HBV within six months of initial infection, but this doesn’t always happen. If the immune system doesn’t clear the virus within six months, a person is considered to have chronic HBV. In chronic infection, the virus continues to reproduce in the liver, which can cause severe liver damage over time, such as cirrhosis and liver cancer .
Hepatitis B Virus More Infectious Than Hiv
Do get the blade changed while visiting a hair stylist change needle at a tattoo centre and if there is even a small injury on the hair stylists hand make them wear gloves or at least a medicated tape.
Globally more than 240 million people are affected with chronic liver infection caused by Hepatitis.
About 7,80,000 people die every year due to acute consequences of hepatitis.
In India, over 40 million people are carriers of hepatitis B.
Every year, over 1,00,000 Indians die of hepatitis B related complications.
Addressing a press conference on Wednesday to mark the World Hepatitis Day to be observed on July 28, Dr Sumit Rungta and Dr Ajay Kumar of the King Georges Medical University said that in Uttar Pradesh it is estimated that there are 8 million hepatitis and 2.5 million hepatitis C patients.
Hepatitis B virus is spread by contact with blood or body fluids of an infected person. Hepatitis B virus is 50 to 100 times more infectious than HIV, said Dr Rungta.
Experts say hepatitis virus can survive outside body for hours, hence it is risky to use the same blade for two persons even if they are relatives, as status of someone being carrier is often unknown.
Doctors said both hepatitis B and hepatitis C are easily treatable with oral medicines but the fact is hepatitis is a largely silent but persistent epidemic. The WHO has aimed at eradication of hepatitis by 2030 so that it ceases to be a major public health problem.
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Can Hbv Infection Be Prevented
Yes. The best way to prevent HBV is to get the hepatitis B vaccine.
CDC recommends that people with HIV and people who are at risk for HIV get the HBV vaccine . The housemates and sexual partners of people with HBV should get the HBV vaccine, too.
People, including people with HIV, can also take the following steps to reduce their risk of HBV infection:
- Use condoms during sex to reduce the risk of HBV infection and infection with other sexually transmitted diseases, such as gonorrhea and syphilis.
- Do not inject drugs. But if you do, do not share needles, syringes, or other drug injection equipment.
- If you get a tattoo or body piercing, make sure the instruments used are sterile.
Hepatitis B More Infectious Than Hiv Expert
Dr. Bello Kumo, a consultant Gastroenterologist with Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria, says Hepatitis B Virus is more infectious than HIV.
Kumo stated this in a paper entitled Face to Face with Hepatitis B: Cost and Burden, presented at a public lecture organised by Kashim Ibrahim Fellows in Kaduna on Thursday.
The consultant, who expressed concern that not many people have knowledge about the disease, added that multitude of patients were not identified early enough and managed.
He explained that the virus could be transmitted through contact with blood and body fluid, adding that it could infect nearly everyone that came into contact with anyone suffering from it through sharp objects and open wounds.
According to him, there is no known cure for chronic HBV, stressing that prevention remains the best option.
He added that but to prevent, people must first know their status so that if they are negative, they can be vaccinated, which gives up to 95 per cent prevention.
And those who tested positive can begin treatment and managing the virus to avoid its spread.
Dr. Muhammad Saleh, a medical doctor, described HBV as a silent killer, stressing the need for massive awareness campaign.
Saleh said in his lecture on Hepatitis B: Finding the Missing Millions, that not much would be achieved if infected persons were not located and placed on treatment.
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How Can I Catch Hbv
Hepatitis B virus is transmitted between people by contact with the blood or other body fluids of an infected person. In Africa the virus is mainly transmitted early in life, from mother-to-child or between children. HBV is spread through a break in the skin , or through sexual intercourse. HBV is 50 to 100 times more infectious than HIV. Unlike HIV, HBV can survive outside the body for at least 7 days. During that time, the virus can still cause infection if it enters the body of a person who is not infected.
Unless vaccinated at the time of birth, these babies can become chronic carriers, which means they are infected with the virus for life. Of children who become infected with the virus between one and five years of age, 30-50 percent become carriers.
In many developed countries , patterns of transmission are different than those mentioned above. Today, the majority of infections in these countries are transmitted during young adulthood by sexual activity and injecting drug use. HBV is a major infectious occupational hazard of health workers.
HBV is not spread by contaminated food or water, and cannot be spread casually in the workplace.
The virus incubation period is 90 days on average, but can vary from about 30 to 180 days. HBV may be detected 30 to 60 days after infection and persist for widely variable periods of time.
Viral Suppression And Hbv Reactivation
Many findings indicated that HIVHBV co-infected individuals have shown lower CD4 cell count compared to HIV infected alone.22,32,34,35 However, the roles of low CD4 cell count and HIV viremia in HBVHIV co-infected individuals are unclear with many study findings.32,34,35 But one large prospective study described that HIV viral suppression at 6 months and greater with HBV active ART regimen reduced the risk of liver complications in HBVHIV co-infected individuals after ART administration compared to those with elevated HIV RNA.38 This emphasizes the importance of suppressed HIV RNA for reducing liver-related complication. Likewise, early initiation of ART and optimum HIV viral suppression reduced the risk of developing end stage liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma.38
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Hiv And Hepatitis B And Hepatitis C Coinfection
Hepatitis B and hepatitis C are liver infections caused by a virus. Because these infections can be spread in the same ways as HIV, people with HIV in the United States are often also affected by chronic viral hepatitis.
Viral hepatitis progresses faster and causes more liver-related health problems among people with HIV than among those who do not have HIV. Liver disease, much of which is related to HBV or HCV, is a major cause of non-AIDS-related deaths among people with HIV.
Given the risks of hepatitis B or hepatitis C coinfection to the health of people living with HIV, it is important to understand these risks, take steps to prevent infection, know your status, and, if necessary, get medical care from someone who is experienced in treating people who are coinfected with HIV and HBV, or HIV and HCV.
The Silent Epidemic Killing More People Than Hiv Malaria Or Tb
Nuru was prepared for the worst when she went to get screened for HIV eight years ago. After caring for her mother in Uganda, who died as a result of the virus, Nuru moved to the United Kingdom to study, and decided to take her health into her own hands. I was ready to be told I had HIV, she says. I felt, Thats okay. Ive looked up to my mother.
What she didnt expect was to be diagnosed with a different viral infection altogether: hepatitis B. The way the health worker delivered it to me, it was like, Its worse than HIV. I was confused, I was suicidal, says Nuru . I just didnt understand what it was because no one ever talks about hep B they talk about HIV. Thats well researched, its well talked about, well documented. Its all over the television. But hep B is not.
The hepatitis B virus , which spreads through blood and bodily fluids and invades liver cells, is thought to kill just under 1 million people every year around the world, mostly from cancer or scarring of the liver. HBV is less likely to be fatal than HIV, and many people who carry the virus dont have symptoms. But because more than 250 million people live with chronic HBV infections, more than 7 times the number with HIV, its global death toll now rivals that of the more-feared virus.
Source: Global Health Estimates 2016
Source: WHO Hepatitis B dashboard
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Treatment Options For Hepatitis B
Acute hepatitis B usually doesnt require treatment. Most people will overcome an acute infection on their own. However, rest and hydration will help you recover.
Antiviral medications are used to treat chronic hepatitis B. These help you fight the virus. They may also reduce the risk of future liver complications.
You may need a liver transplant if hepatitis B has severely damaged your liver. A liver transplant means a surgeon will remove your liver and replace it with a donor liver. Most donor livers come from deceased donors.
What Is Chronic Infection With Hepatitis B
Early in the infection, most people will clear the virus without treatment and develop protective immunity. However, in 5-10% of adults hepatitis B continues to reproduce in the body long after infection. These people become chronically infected with hepatitis B, meaning that they continue to be infectious although they may not experience any symptoms at all, or not for many years.
People living with HIV, especially if they have a low CD4 cell count, are less likely to clear the virus naturally than people without HIV.
Without treatment, some people with chronic hepatitis B eventually develop cirrhosis of the liver. About one in 20 people with cirrhosis will go on to develop cancer of the liver.
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Hepatitis B Virus Is Considered As One Of The Most Infectious Disease And People With Hiv Are Also Infected With Hepatitis Virus
Recent data shows that one out of 20 people in the United States will get infected with hepatitis B some time during their lives. Hepatitis B is 100 times more infectious than HIV.
So what is HBV and how can you get it? What are the symptoms and how can you make sure that youll be treated if you are infected?
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Detection And Treatment Of Hbv
There are many different blood tests available to diagnose hepatitis B.
- Serological testing is performed to determine the presence of antibodies in response to a hepatitis B infection
- Molecular tests determine the amount of HBV in the blood at baseline and as a response to treatment and can be powerful tools for making proper treatment decisions
Treatment can be tailored precisely to an individual patients needs. There is no medication available to treat acute hepatitis B. People with chronic hepatitis B should be monitored regularly for signs of liver disease and evaluated for possible treatment.
Roche continues to search for new and innovative ways to prevent, diagnose and treat HBV, while working to further enable access to those in need. Our portfolio of highly sensitive and accurate assays plays a critical role in screening blood, plasma and organ donors and supports clinicians in the effective management of chronic HBV infections.
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What Is The Connection Between Hiv And Hbv
Both HIV and HBV spread from person to person in semen, blood, or other body fluids. For this reason, the main risk factors for HIV and HBV are the same: having sex without a condom and injection drug use.
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention , approximately 10% of people with HIV in the United States also have HBV. Infection with both HIV and HBV is called HIV/HBV coinfection.
Chronic HBV advances faster to cirrhosis, end-stage liver disease, and liver cancer in people with HIV/HBV coinfection than in people with only HBV infection. But chronic HBV does not appear to cause HIV to advance faster in people with HIV/HBV coinfection.
Beware Of Hepatitis The Silent Epidemic More Deadly Than Hiv
HEALTH & SCIENCE
Dr Eric Rutto of Reale Hospital administers a Viral Hepatitis B vaccination to a patient at the Eldoret District Hospital on the 22nd July 2014. The vaccination drive is a partnership between the Kenya Medical Research Institute , Ministry of Health and other stakeholders in awareness campaigns to combat Viral Hepatitis B prevalence in the country.
NAIROBI: Kenyans in their millions dread HIV, the infectious virus responsible for Aids. However, the dreaded scourge is being shoved aside by a more lethal virus infecting Kenyans and putting millions of lives at great risk.
It is now official that Hepatitis, which primarily attacks the liver causing cancer or liver failure, is three times more infectious than HIV, which was declared a national disaster in Kenya more than a decade ago.
As Kenya joins other countries in marking the World Hepatitis Day tomorrow, there is growing concern that far more people are being infected with the virus than with HIV. Like HIV, strains of Hepatitis are spread through sex, contact with infected blood and medical equipment or transmitted from mother to child during childbirth. Other strains are spread through consuming food or water contaminated by the virus.
According to Elijah Songok, the head of the Infectious and Parasitic Diseases Research Programme at Kemri, this means Hepatitis, especially Hepatitis B, has surpassed HIV in terms of infections since the figures largely reflect the situation in the general population.
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