Questions For Your Doctor About Test Results
Patients may find it helpful to ask questions about their hepatitis B test results. Questions that may be helpful include:
- What was my test result?
- Do I have an acute or chronic hepatitis B infection?
- Does the test result suggest that I have immunity for hepatitis B?
- Would I benefit from hepatitis B vaccination?
- Do I need any follow-up tests based on my hepatitis B test results?
What Is Hepatitis D And How Is It Associated With Hepatitis B
Hepatitis D is another virus that can cause liver infections, but only if hepatitis B is also present. A person may become infected with both viruses at the same time or may first be infected with hepatitis B and then become infected with HDV . In the U.S., the incidence of HDV is low. There is no vaccine for HDV, but since it causes infections only in the presence of HBV, it may be prevented with the HBV vaccine.
Sample Collection And Analysis
Better2Knows instant Hepatitis B test uses a small blood sample. This will normally be taken by a lancet finger pricking device. Your sample will be applied to the test cassette by your doctor. Two lines will appear if your test is reactive, and only one line will appear if the Hepatitis B test is negative.
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Hepatitis B Surface Antibody Test
This test checks whether a person is immune to HBV or whether the body has developed resistance to the virus.
Those who are immune to hepatitis B receive a positive result. A positive result may indicate that the person is vaccinated or is recovering from acute hepatitis B.
According to the Hepatitis B Foundation , people who are immune to HBV cannot contract the virus from other people or contaminated areas and therefore cannot spread HBV to others.
Where To Get Tested For Hepatitis B
See below for a list of Sydney-based sexual health clinics that specialise in hepatitis B testing.
For regional areas, contact the Cancer Council 13 11 20 Information and Support.
|RPA Sexual Health Clinic, Building 21, RPA Hospital||25 Lucas Street CAMPERDOWN 2050||9515 3131|
|Above the Darlinghurst Fire Station, Victoria Street KINGS CROSS 2010||9360 2766|
|Nepean Sexual Health Clinic, Court Building, Nepean Hospital||Derby Street KINGSWOOD 2747|
|Short Street Centre Sexual Health Clinic, St George Hospital||Ground Floor Pritchard Wing, Short Street KOGARAH 2217||9113 2742|
|Corner of Elizabeth and Bigge Streets LIVERPOOL 2170||9827 8022|
|Mount Druitt Sexual Health Clinic, Mount Druitt Community Health Centre||Kelly Close MOUNT DRUITT 2770||9881 1733|
|Parramatta Sexual Health Clinic, Parramatta Health Service||162 Marsden Street PARRAMATTA 2150||9843 3124|
|Clinic 16, Royal North Shore Community Health Centre||Level 5, 2C Herbert Street ST LEONARDS 2065||9462 9500|
|150-154 Albion Street SURRY HILLS 2010||9332 9600|
|South Zone Sexual Health Centre Community Health Caringbah, The Sutherland Hospital||430 The Kingsway CARINGBAH 2229||9522 1000 9113 2742|
|Sydney||Sydney Sexual Health Centre, Sydney Hospital, Nightingale Wing||Macquarie Street SYDNEY 2000|
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Preparation Prior To Transport
Label the specimen container with the patients full name, date of collection and one other unique identifier such as the patients date of birth or Health Card Number. Failure to provide this information may result in rejection or testing delay.
Centrifuge if using SST. Place specimen in biohazard bag and seal. Specimens should be stored at 2-8°C following collection.
Specimens more than the following number of days post collection will not be tested:
- > 6 days for Hepatitis B surface antigen
- > 7 days for Hepatitis B e Antigen and Hepatitis B e Antibody
- > 10 days for Hepatitis B core Antigen and Hepatitis B surface Antibody
Can I Take The Test At Home
Samples for hepatitis B testing can be collected at home. At-home hepatitis B testing requires a patient to collect a blood sample, typically from a fingerstick using a very small needle provided in the test kit. Once a blood sample is collected, it is prepared according to the instructions contained in the test kit and mailed to a laboratory for testing.
Because there are numerous types of tests for HBV, it is important to look closely at the specific components of any at-home test kit. Many at-home test kits only look for hepatitis B surface antigen .
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How Hepatitis B Is Spread
The hepatitis B virus is found in the blood and bodily fluids, such as semen and vaginal fluids, of an infected person.
It can be spread:
- from a mother to her newborn baby, particularly in countries where the infection is common
- within families in countries where the infection is common
- by having sex with an infected person without using a condom
- by having a tattoo, body piercing, or medical or dental treatment in an unhygienic environment with unsterilised equipment
Hepatitis B is not spread by kissing, holding hands, hugging, coughing, sneezing or sharing crockery and utensils.
Better2knows Instant Hepatitis B Test
Better2Knows Instant STI testing services are performed in line with the highest international standards of quality and care. Better2Knows instant Hepatitis B test is a fast, confidential and accurate way to determine your Hepatitis B status. It combines confidential and anonymous STI testing with the support and guidance from Better2Knows sexual health advisory team.
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How Is Hepatitis B Treated
Anyone with acute hepatitis B should be assessed by a doctor. You may not need any treatment for the infection itself, but may need some relief from the symptoms, such as pain relief.
If you have chronic hepatitis B, you will need to be seen by a specialist in liver disease may need to take medication to prevent liver damage and have regular tests. There are now very effective medications that can suppress the virus over many years.
The Treatment Programs Role In The Screening Process
Medical staff members at substance abuse treatment programs might assume the primary role for screening individuals for and explaining the screening process and test results. Opioid treatment programs with medical staff members should screen for and C at intake and periodically as indicated. In programs without onsite medical staff, clients may be referred elsewhere for screening with minimal involvement of the substance abuse treatment program.
Regardless of the type of program, counselors should have a basic understanding of the importance of screening, the screening process, and the meaning of the results. Counselors can encourage clients referred for screening to follow through and complete the screening and evaluation process . Clients might feel anxious about being diagnosed with hepatitis, and they might delay or avoid getting screened.
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Common And Local Adverse Events
HB vaccine is well tolerated. Reactions are generally mild and transient, and include: irritability, headache, fatigue and injection site reactions in 10% or more of recipients.
There is no increase in adverse events when HAHB vaccine is compared with HA vaccine given alone or concomitantly with HB vaccine at a different injection site. When the adult formulation of HAHB vaccine is given to children in the 2 dose schedule, there is no increase in adverse events compared with those occurring after administration of the pediatric formulation of HAHB vaccine.
Reactions are usually mild and transient, and include fever, irritability, restlessness and injection site reactions .
Headache, diarrhea, fever, urticaria, angioedema and injection site reactions may occur.
Instant Hepatitis B Test
- We now offer a COVID-19 Home Test. Our highly accurate PCR test requires a combined nose/throat swab.
Better2Knows confidential instant Hepatitis B test is available at our private sexual health clinics throughout the UK. Our popular instant STI tests provide rapid results for your choice of up to seven sexually transmitted infections, including Hepatitis B. It is important to get tested for Hepatitis B, if you are in any doubt about your Hepatitis B status. Hepatitis B is a major global health problem. If left undetected and untreated, Hepatitis B causes chronic infection and the condition can develop into cirrhosis or liver cancer.
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Educating Clients About Viral Hepatitis
Clients may believe they know about viral , but their understanding of the disease may not be accurate. It is easy to confuse the three main types of viral , B, and C. Clients may have formed impressions based on limited or incorrect information. Counselors should briefly describe hepatitis A, B, and C, including their prevalence, , and relationship to drug use, as well as to other infections, such as HIV and sexually transmitted diseases. Specific strategies for speaking with clients include:
- Speak clearly and keep the message simple, focused, and brief.
- Use language, examples, and concepts that the client understands.
- Use appropriate visual aids.
- Frame numerical statements in terms that are easy to visualize. Say 5 out of 100 people rather than 5 percent of the population say more than half instead of the majority.
- Repeat the information at different times in different ways. The average client retains only approximately one-third of what he or she is told. Summarize essential points.
- Pay attention to a clients response to the information. For example, if a client stiffens his or her posture, consider saying, I notice that this topic seems to make you uncomfortable. It does for a lot of people. Please tell me what youre feeling right now. Id really like to help you with this.
- Use the opportunity to describe the potential detrimental effects of alcohol and other substance use on the liver of a person who is infected with HCV.
What Other Stis Should I Get Tested For
Instant testing at Better2Knows private sexual health clinics is also available for six other sexually transmitted infections. Aside from Hepatitis B, you can also receive anonymous instant testing for HIV, Syphilis, Hepatitis C, Herpes 1 and 2, Chlamydia and Gonorrhoea. Better2Knows instant screens will provide an instant picture of your STI status.
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Get Vaccinated For Hepatitis B
Understanding Your Status
Before becoming vaccinated for hepatitis B, it is important to understand your status. You can test through a simple triple panel blood test for HBsAg, HBcAb total and HBsAb. This will tell you if you have a current infection, have recovered from a past infection and if you need to be vaccinated. More details about the blood tests can be found here. Many people with hepatitis B do not look or feel sick so it is important to get tested. Learning your status early can help manage your hepatitis B and identify at-risk close contacts who can then be vaccinated and protected against hepatitis B.
Why You Should Be Vaccinated
The hepatitis B vaccine is the first anti-cancer vaccine because it successfully prevents a hepatitis B infection which is the leading cause of liver cancer worldwide. Its important for people to receive the vaccine since most people with hepatitis B are not aware they are infected. Hepatitis B is known as a silent infection as many people can live with hepatitis B for years without knowing they are infected. With chronic hepatitis B, when symptoms do finally present, often the infection may have already caused severe liver damage. The hepatitis B vaccine can prevent hepatitis B and also the health consequences that can come from hepatitis B, including the increased risk for cirrhosis, liver failure and liver cancer
Hepatitis B is a preventable virus so why not take steps to become a healthier you!
Chronic Hbv Carriers At Greatest Risk Of Hepatic Sequelae
Sustained elevations in ALT, although an imperfect marker for hepatic damage, can help identify chronic HBV carriers at greatest risk of sequelae and those most likely to benefit from current treatments . Chronically infected patients with sustained ALT elevations greater than the upper limit of normal may be candidates for treatment and should undergo additional prognostic hepatitis marker testing as outlined below. Chronic carriers whose ALT is within the normal range should be tested for this marker periodically because ALT levels can fluctuate with this illness. Determination of ALT levels and HBV serological and nucleic acid markers, although valuable in following infection, is not adequate to assess the severity of infection and the resulting liver damage. Before appropriate treatment can be initiated, consultation with a specialist and assessment of the disease through histological examination of a liver biopsy is strongly recommended.
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Are There Blood Tests For Hepatitis B
Yes. Many chronically infected persons show no outward signs of hepatitis B infection. Therefore, screening for hepatitis B is important and necessary. Ask your doctor for the following blood tests:
HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGEN : Tells if you have chronic hepatitis B. Only the HBsAg blood test can tell if you have chronic hepatitis B.
HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIBODY : Tells if you are protected against hepatitis B.
|Chronic HBV infection|
The Hep B Blood Tests
There are 3 hep B tests called HBsAg, anti-HBs, and anti-HBc. You should make sure your doctor does all three hep B tests. Our hep B testing chart can explain each test and help you to make sure your doctor does all the tests you need.
These three tests tell you if you have hep B, if you are protected against hep B , and if you have ever come into contact with hep B. Getting all three tests is important to helps you and our doctor understand your hep B status.
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Persons With Inadequate Immunization Records
Evidence of long term protection against HB has only been demonstrated in individuals who have been vaccinated according to a recommended immunization schedule. Independent of their anti-HBs titres, children and adults lacking adequate documentation of immunization should be considered susceptible and started on an immunization schedule appropriate for their age and risk factors. Refer to Immunization of Persons with Inadequate Immunization Records in Part 3 for additional information.
Recommended Tests To Investigate Chronic Hbv Infection And The Interpretation Of Results
Chronic HBV infection is defined by the continued presence of HBsAg in the blood for longer than six months. Figure and Table outline the tests used to diagnose most cases of chronic HBV. Test selection should be based on the person’s risk factors, vaccination history and findings from previous tests .
Diagnostic tests for acute or chronic hepatitis B virus infection . ALT Alanine aminotransferase Anti-HAV-IgM Immunoglobulin M class antibody to HAV Anti-HCV Antibody to HCV antigens HBsAg Hepatitis B surface antigen
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Outlook For Hepatitis B
The vast majority of people infected with hepatitis B in adulthood are able to fight off the virus and fully recover within 1 to 3 months.
Most will then be immune to the infection for life.
Babies and children with hepatitis B are more likely to develop a chronic infection.
Chronic hepatitis B affects around:
- 90% of babies with hepatitis B
- 20% of older children with hepatitis B
- 5% of adults with hepatitis B
Page last reviewed: 30 January 2019 Next review due: 30 January 2022
How Long Do Hepatitis B Test Results Take
Fettle is committed to delivering your results within 72 hours of receiving your samples.
If your result is reactive, a Fettle clinician will call you to discuss your diagnosis, treatment options and help you find your nearest clinic.
If your result is negative, well let you know by text message as soon as your results are available.
We deliver resultswithin72 hours
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Detection Of Antiviral Resistance
Lamivudine monotherapy has been reported to be associated with the rapid emergence of antiviral resistance in 15% to 60% of treated individuals . Resistant HBV genomes have mutations in codon 552 within the YMDD motif of the reverse transcriptase/polymerase where a valine or isoleucine replaces the methionine. Resistance is typically clinically manifested by significant elevations in ALT after an initial decline in response to treatment. Prolonged treatment after development of the YMDD mutant is controversial, although improvement in liver pathology with decreased fibrosis may occur with continuation of treatment. Concerns about disease flares after stopping lamivudine have been raised . The development of genotypic resistance can be documented by molecular sequencing or by the INNO-LiPA HBV DR assay , which involves hybridization of amplified HBV-DNA fragments onto specific nucleotide probes that have been immobilized on nitrocellulose strips .
Transmission Symptoms And Treatment
How is HBV transmitted?
HBV is transmitted through activities that involve percutaneous or mucosal contact with infectious blood or body fluids , including
- sex with an infected partner
- injection-drug use that involves sharing needles, syringes, or drug-preparation equipment
- birth to an infected mother
- contact with blood from or open sores on an infected person
- exposures to needle sticks or sharp instruments and
- sharing certain items with an infected person that can break the skin or mucous membranes , potentially resulting in exposure to blood.
How long does HBV survive outside the body?
HBV can survive outside the body and remains infectious for at least 7 days .
What should be used to clean environmental surfaces potentially contaminated with HBV?
Any blood spills should be disinfected using a 1:10 dilution of one part household bleach to 10 parts of water. Gloves should be worn when cleaning up any blood spills.
Who is at risk for HBV infection?
The following populations are at increased risk for becoming infected with HBV:
- Infants born to infected mothers
- Sex partners of infected people
- Men who have sex with men
- People who inject drugs
- Household contacts or sexual partners of known people with chronic HBV infection
- Health-care and public-safety workers at risk for occupational exposure to blood or blood-contaminated body fluids
- Hemodialysis patients
Who should be screened for HBV?
CDC recommends that the following people be screened for HBV :
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