Does Hepatitis B Vaccination Cause Ms
No. Hundreds of millions of people worldwide have received hepatitis B vaccine without developing MS or any other autoimmune disease. As with all vaccines and any disease, due to the large number of vaccinations administered worldwide, surveillance systems that monitor health concerns after vaccination do expect to receive reports of MS occurring after vaccination that happen by chance alone.
To further explore any possible connection between hepatitis B vaccination and MS, many scientific studies have been conducted, and have concluded that hepatitis B vaccination does not cause MS.
Examples of this scientific evidence are:
Your Baby Is Ill On The Day Of The Appointment
If your baby has a minor illness without a fever, such as a cold, they should have their immunisations as normal. If your baby is ill with a fever, put off the immunisation until they have recovered. This is to avoid the fever being associated with the vaccine, or the vaccine increasing the fever your child already has.
If your baby:
- has a bleeding disorder
- has had a fit not associated with fever
Speak to your doctor, practice nurse or health visitor before your child has any immunisation.
Dtap Hepatitis B Poliovirus And Haemophilus B Vaccine Side Effects
Along with its needed effects, a medicine may cause some unwanted effects. Although not all of these side effects may occur, if they do occur they may need medical attention.
Check with your doctor or nurse immediately if any of the following side effects occur:
- Fever over 100.4 degrees F
- Prolonged crying lasting more than 3 hours
- unusual drowsiness, dullness, tiredness, weakness, or feeling of sluggishness
Incidence not known
- joint pain, stiffness, or swelling
- large, hive-like swelling on the face, eyelids, lips, tongue, throat, hands, legs, feet, or genitals
- redness of the skin
- swelling of the eyelids, face, lips, hands, or feet
- tightness in the chest
- troubled breathing or swallowing
Some side effects may occur that usually do not need medical attention. These side effects may go away during treatment as your body adjusts to the medicine. Also, your health care professional may be able to tell you about ways to prevent or reduce some of these side effects. Check with your health care professional if any of the following side effects continue or are bothersome or if you have any questions about them:
- Bleeding, blistering, burning, coldness, discoloration of the skin, feeling of pressure, hives, infection, inflammation, itching, lumps, numbness, pain, rash, redness, scarring, soreness, stinging, swelling, tenderness, tingling, ulceration, or warmth at the injection site
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Meningitis Immunization Requirement For New Students Living In Any University Of Memphis Residence
The State of Tennessee requires all new students under the age of 22 who will be living in a University of Memphis residence to be immunized against meningococcal disease on or after their 16th birthday and provide proof of receiving this immunization before moving into their residence. Meningococcal immunizations may be submitted on the Certificate of Immunization Form. If this documentation is not provided before move-in day, students may not be able to move into their residence.
Meningococcal disease is a rare but potentially fatal bacterial infection, expressed as either meningitis or meningococcemia . Meningococcal disease strikes about 3,000 Americans each year and is responsible for about 300 deaths annually. The disease is spread by airborne transmission, primarily by coughing. The disease can onset very quickly and without warning. Rapid intervention and treatment is required to avoid serious illness and/or death. There are five different subtypes of the bacterium that causes Meningococcal Meningitis. The current vaccine does not stimulate protective antibodies to Serogroups B, but it does protect against the most common strains of the disease, including Serogroups A, C, W, and W-135. The duration of protection is approximately three to five years. The vaccine is very safe and adverse reactions are mild and infrequent, consisting primarily of redness and pain at the site of the injection lasting up to two days.
Vaccine Damage Payment Scheme
Current immunisations are extremely safe but, very rarely, an individual may suffer from a problem after vaccination. The Vaccine Damage Payment Scheme is designed to ease the present and future burdens of the person who, on that very rare occasion, may be affected by the vaccination. There are several conditions that need to be met before a payment can be made.
If you need more information, please contact:
Vaccine Damage Payments Unit
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Shingles Vaccine: Important After 60
The virus that gave you chickenpox as a child can strike again as shingles or “herpes zoster” when you’re an adult. Most common after age 60, the painful, blistering shingles rash can damage your eyes and cause long-term pain called postherpetic neuralgia. If you get this rash, you can also infect others with chickenpox. The two-dose Shingrix vaccine is recommended to prevent shingles for any one 50 or older, as well as in those 18 or older who are immunodeficient or immunosuppressed.
Case Study : A Baby With Meningitis
Assessment and diagnosis
Katherine brings her children into the consultation room for further assessment. Jacob has been more unsettled than usual and does not want to feed as much as normal. Upon examination, Jacob has a rash on his stomach and back, which his mother says was not present this morning. His rash looks like red blotches and does not fade with the glass test. Owing to his age, Jacob is too young to have received any vaccinations.
It is important to remain calm and inform Katherine that you think Jacob may have meningitis, as he has the characteristic rash, as well as other known symptoms. Jacob needs to be taken to hospital for emergency assessment and an ambulance is called.
On arrival at the hospital, Jacob has blood tests taken and a lumbar puncture. He is started on intravenous cefotaxime with amoxicillin with full-volume maintenance fluids and enteral feeds as tolerated. Corticosteroids must not be used in children aged younger than three months with suspected or confirmed bacterial meningitis.
Jacob has hourly observations initially for heart rate, blood pressure, respiratory rate, oxygen saturation, fluid balance and Glasgow Coma Scale . The GCS is a neurological scale used to describe the level of consciousness in a person following a traumatic brain injury the lower the number, the more severe the brain injury. Public Health England is also informed that Jacob may have meningitis.
Advice and recommendations
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Case Study : A Toddler With Mild Meningitis
Eva is a three-year-old girl who is on holiday with her grandparents. Eva is unusually tired and is complaining that her legs are aching. This morning, Evas grandparents noticed a very small purple rash on her leg, and so they have to come to the pharmacy for advice. Eva has no fever or any other symptoms, but her grandmother has a cold sore.
Assessment and diagnosis
The rash does not fade under pressure when a glass is pressed against it.
Petechiae and purpura are significantly more common with invasive meningococcal infection than with pneumococcal meningitis, which rarely presents with a rash. However, although the glass test is widely promoted in patient information leaflets, the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence has found no evidence on its use. The test is not promoted in the NICE guidelines. Consequently, the glass test should not be used as the only test for diagnosing the condition. Public Health England is also informed that Eva may have meningitis, and 999 is called.
Advice and recommendations
Eva is treated with antibiotics for ten days and her grandparents are both prescribed rifampicin as chemoprophylaxis. Antibiotic prophylaxis should be given as soon as possible after the diagnosis of the index case.
Travel Advice For Children
If your child is going abroad, make sure their routine immunisations are up to date. Your child may also need extra immunisations and you may also need to take other precautions.
Contact your doctors surgery or a travel clinic well in advance for up-to-date information on the immunisations your child may need.
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Hepatitis B Meningitis Immunization Health History Form
The State of Tennessee mandates that The University of Memphis provide information concerning the Hepatitis B infection to all students entering The University of Memphis for the first time. The law does not require that you receive the Hepatitis B immunization for enrollment. The Meningitis vaccine is not required but is strongly recommended for students living off-campus. Student Health Center urges students to be immunized.
Students must complete the Hepatitis B – Meningitis Immunization Health History Form before they can register. This form is embedded in the registration process. Please note that you must meet with your academic advisor before beginning the registration process. If you are under the age of 18, a parent or legal guardian must sign your completed form.
Persons With Inadequate Immunization Records
Children and adults lacking adequate documentation of immunization should be considered unimmunized and started on an immunization schedule appropriate for their age and risk factors. Conjugate meningococcal vaccine, as appropriate for age, may be given regardless of possible previous receipt of the vaccine, as adverse events associated with repeated immunization have not been demonstrated. Refer to Immunization of persons with inadequate immunization records in Part 3 for additional general information.
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Reasons Why Your Baby Should Not Be Immunised
There are very few reasons why babies cannot be immunised.
Vaccines should not be given to babies who have had:
- a confirmed anaphylactic reaction to a previous dose of the vaccine
- a confirmed anaphylactic reaction to neomycin, streptomycin, or polymyxin B
In general, children who are immunosuppressed should not receive live vaccines. Children who are immunosuppressed include those:
whose immune system does not work properly because they are undergoing treatment for a serious condition such as a transplant or cancer
who have any condition which affects the immune system, such as severe primary immunodeficiency. Primary immunodeficiencies are very rare diseases that mean you are more likely to catch infections. They are usually caused by a faulty gene and are diagnosed soon after birth
If this applies to your child, you must tell your doctor, practice nurse or health visitor before the immunisation. They will need to get specialist advice on using live vaccines such as MMR, rotavirus vaccine and Bacillus CalmetteGuérin vaccine . There are no other reasons why vaccines should definitely not be given.
Guidance On Reporting Adverse Events Following Immunization
To ensure the ongoing safety of vaccines in Canada, reporting of AEFIs by vaccine providers and other clinicians is critical, and in some jurisdictions, reporting is mandatory under the law.
Vaccine providers are asked to report AEFIs, through local public health officials, and to check for specific AEFI reporting requirements in their province or territory. In general, any serious or unexpected adverse event felt to be temporally related to vaccination should be reported.
For additional information about AEFI reporting, please refer to Adverse events following immunization. For general vaccine safety information, refer to Vaccine safety and pharmacovigilance in Part 2.
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Watch Out For Meningitis And Septicaemia
Both meningitis and septicaemia are very serious. It is important that you recognise the signs and symptoms and know what to do if you see them. Early symptoms of meningitis and septicaemia may be similar to a cold or flu .
However, people with meningitis or septicaemia can become seriously ill within hours, so it is important to act fast.
Meningitis is an infection of the lining of the brain. Meningitis can be caused by several types of bacteria including pneumococcus, meningococcus and Haemophilus influenzae or by viruses.
The bacteria that cause meningitis and septicaemia , can also cause pericarditis and arthritis and other serious infections.
In babies, the main symptoms of meningitis may include:
- a high-pitched, moaning cry
- being irritable when picked up
- a bulging fontanelle
- feeling drowsy and not responding to you, or being difficult to wake
- being floppy and having no energy
- stiff with jerky movements
- refusing feeds and vomiting
- having skin that is pale, blotchy or turning blue
- a fever
- a fever
- diarrhoea and stomach cramps
The glass test
Press the side of a clear drinking glass firmly against the rash so you can see if the rash fades and loses colour under pressure. If it doesnt change colour, contact your doctor immediately.
The following charities provide information, advice and support:
Meningitis Research Foundation
What Research Has Been Conducted On Vaccines And Other Autoimmune Diseases
CDC takes concerns about vaccines and immune system diseases and disorders very seriously. Researchers at CDC and elsewhere have conducted studies to examine the possible link between vaccines and autoimmune conditions like MS, diabetes, and asthma. These studies have been reassuring, providing no evidence to suggest a link between vaccines and autoimmune conditions.
As part of ongoing vaccine safety surveillance, CDC continues to conduct research to examine the effects vaccines may have on the immune system.
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Common And Local Adverse Events
Conjugate meningococcal vaccines
Injection site reactions occur in up to 59% of vaccinees. Fever is reported in up to 5% of recipients and systemic reactions, such as headache and malaise, are reported in up to 60% of recipients.
Mild reactions, including injection site reactions , occur in up to 50% of vaccine recipients. Irritability occurs in up to 80% of infants and fever in up to 9% when other vaccines were administered. Headaches and malaise occur in up to 10% of older children and adults. These reactions last no more than a few days.
Serogroup B Meningococcal vaccines
Solicited local and systemic reactions have been commonly reported in clinical trials and include injection site tenderness, induration, sleepiness and irritability. Higher rates of fever have been observed with simultaneous administration of 4CMenB vaccine and routine infant vaccines therefore, routine prophylactic administration of acetaminophen or separating 4CMenB vaccination from routine vaccination schedule has been proposed for preventing fever in infants and children up to three years of age.
Solicited local and systemic reactions have been commonly reported in clinical trials and include injection site tenderness, induration and irritability.
Stay Ahead Of Chickenpox
If you’ve avoided chickenpox so far, don’t push your luck. You can still get it by being in a room with someone who has it. Adults with chickenpox have a higher risk of complications, hospitalization, and death. For example, varicella pneumonia may be more severe in pregnant women and is a medical emergency. Untreated, almost half of pregnant women with varicella pneumonia die. Since chickenpox puts you at risk for shingles, chickenpox vaccine may offer some protection against shingles, too. It also reduces risk of infection in the community, especially among those who are susceptible but can’t be vaccinated, such as pregnant women. Two doses of the vaccine are administered four to eight weeks apart to people 13 and older.
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Hepatitis B And Meningitis
Wisconsin State Statue 36.25 requires that all students who will be residing in a campus residence hall receive yearly information regarding the risks associated with Hepatitis B and Meningococcal disease and the effectiveness of the vaccines available to prevent these diseases. The student who resides in a campus housing must affirm whether they have received vaccinations against Meningococcal disease and/or Hepatitis B, and must provide the dates of the vaccinations, if any. The parents of minor students must provide this information.
Lawrence University requires that the Hepatitis B vaccine be initiated as a condition for enrollment. Immunizations for Meningitis is strongly encouraged. Both vaccines are available on campus at the Landis Health Center, but it is recommended that you receive them prior to coming to campus.
Persons New To Canada
Health care providers who see persons newly arrived in Canada should review the immunization status and update immunization for these individuals. Review of meningococcal vaccination status is particularly important for persons from areas of the world where sickle cell disease is present as persons with sickle cell disease are at risk of serious meningococcal infections. In many countries outside of Canada, conjugate meningococcal vaccines are in limited use. Information on vaccination schedules in other countries can be found on the World Health Organization website. Refer to Immunization of Persons New to Canada in Part 3 for additional general information.
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Principles For Developing Pregnancy Recommendations
Formulating policy to guide vaccination of women during pregnancy and breastfeeding is challenging because the evidence-base to guide decisions is extremely limited. In 2008, CDC published Guiding Principles for Developing ACIP Recommendations for Vaccination During Pregnancy and Breastfeeding to provide guidance to help standardize both the process of policy formulation and the format and language of recommendations for pregnant and breastfeeding women to CDC workgroups or subject matter experts developing vaccine statements subsequent to that date.
Hepatitis And Meningitis Notification
What is Hepatitis?
HAV is a liver disease caused by the hepatitis A virus. In the United States, HAV can occur in situations ranging from isolated cases of disease to widespread epidemics. Good handwashing and proper sanitation can help prevent spread. Vaccines are also available for long-term prevention of HAV infection in persons 2 years of age and older. Immune globulin is available for short-term prevention of hepatitis A.
HBV is a serious disease caused by a virus that attacks the liver. HBV can cause lifelong infection, cirrhosis of the liver, liver cancer, liver failure, and death. HBV can affect anyone. Each year in the United States, more than 200,000 people of all ages get hepatitis B and close to 5,000 die of sickness caused by HBV. If you have had other forms of hepatitis, you can still get hepatitis B. Vaccines are available for long-term protection of HBV infection. Hepatitis B immune globulin is available for post exposure protection.
HCV is a liver disease caused by the hepatitis C virus, which is found in the blood of persons who have this disease. HCV is serious for some persons, but not for others. Some do not feel sick from the disease. Most persons who get HCV carry the virus for the rest of their lives and have some liver damage. Others may develop cirrhosis of the liver and liver failure, but this process can take many years.
How can I get it?
Hepatitis C virus is not spread by:
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