Prevent Hepatitis B Infections In Newborns
If you are pregnant and have hepatitis B, talk with your doctor about lowering the risk that the infection will spread to your baby. Your doctor will check your virus levels during pregnancy. If virus levels are high, your doctor may recommend treatment during pregnancy to lower virus levels and reduce the chance that hepatitis B will spread to your baby. Your doctor may refer you to a liver specialist to find out if you need hepatitis B treatment and to check for liver damage.
When it is time to give birth, tell the doctor and staff who deliver your baby that you have hepatitis B. A health care professional should give your baby the hepatitis B vaccine and HBIG right after birth. The vaccine and HBIG will greatly reduce the chance of your baby getting the infection.
What Treatments Are Available For Chronic Hepatitis B If Medications Dont Work
If you have advanced hepatitis B, you might also become a candidate for a liver transplant. This path does not always result in a cure because the virus continues in your bloodstream after a transplant. To prevent being infected again after your transplant, you may be prescribed hepatitis B immunoglobulin with an antiviral agent.
The Antiretroviral Pregnancy Registry
The Antiretroviral Pregnancy Registry has been tracking spontaneously reported maternal and fetal outcomes in women receiving oral nucleoside drugs since 1989. As of January 31, 2008, 9889 pregnancies wherein the mother had received an oral nucleoside analog were reported. To date, 94.5% of the enrolled women had HIV infection and only 0.6% were infected with HBV alone. The overall prevalence of birth defects in infants exposed to any antiretroviral agent during the first trimester of 3.0 per 100 live births or any trimester 2.8 per 100 live births was not significantly different from that reported in the general U.S. population of 2.72 per 100 live births. In addition, only infants exposed to didanosine had a significantly higher rate of birth defects than expected. The prevalence of birth defects with lamivudine exposure in the first trimester of 3.1% and with tenofovir of 2.2% were similar to population controls. However, there are inadequate data regarding the risk of birth defects in the small number of pregnancies associated with entecavir, adefovir, and telbivudine use .
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Can Entecavir Cause Problems
Along with their useful effects, most medicines can cause unwanted side-effects although not everyone experiences them. The table below contains some of the more common ones associated with entecavir. The best place to find a full list of the side-effects which can be associated with your medicine, is from the manufacturer’s printed information leaflet supplied with the medicine. Alternatively, you can find an example of a manufacturer’s information leaflet in the reference section below. Speak with your doctor or pharmacist if you develop any side-effects. This is because some of the common side-effects of entecavir are similar to the symptoms of lactic acidosis – a much less common but more serious problem.
|Common entecavir side-effects||What can I do if I experience this?|
|Feeling sick or being sick , indigestion||Stick to simple meals – avoid fatty or spicy food. If it continues, speak with your doctor|
|If troublesome, speak with your doctor|
|Changes to some blood tests||Your doctor will check for these|
Your doctor will discuss with you the possibility of this medicine causing a problem called lactic acidosis. Let your doctor know straightaway if you develop the following symptoms:
- Feeling sick or being sick , tummy pain, loss of appetite, loss of weight, feeling weak or dizzy, and fast or gasping breathing.
If you experience any other symptoms which you think may be due to the medicine, speak with your doctor or pharmacist for further advice.
Preferred Initial Hbv Therapy
When initiating treatment for chronic HBV, the recommended approach, in most circumstances, is to use a potent oral antiviral that has a high genetic barrier to resistance, typically with long-term administration of the medication. Three oral antivirals are recommended as a preferred option for initial therapy: entecavir, tenofovir alafenamide, or tenofovir DF. For most individuals undergoing treatment for chronic HBV, any one of these three agents can be used. Some special situations, as outlined below, warrant preference of one of these agents over another. Combination therapy, including use of two oral antivirals, one antiviral plus peginterferon, or two antiviral is not recommended for initial treatment.
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What Causes Hepatitis B
HBV is a tiny organism found in high concentrations in the liver and blood of infected individuals. It is transmitted through contact with infected blood or contact with secretions contaminated with blood cells. For example:
- intravenous drug users acquire the infection through sharing dirty needles
- health care workers can acquire hepatitis B through accidental needle sticks from infected patients
- because the virus is present in semen and vaginal fluid, sexual intercourse can also transmit the infection
- one of the major routes of infection is from an infected mother to her newborn child. Although these infants may not get very sick, they are very likely to become chronic carriers of the virus and to suffer complications of the infection in later life. Fortunately, prompt vaccination of newborns and other measures can provide significant protection for infants at risk.
Important: How To Use This Information
This is a summary and does NOT have all possible information about this product. This information does not assure that this product is safe, effective, or appropriate for you. This information is not individual medical advice and does not substitute for the advice of your health care professional. Always ask your health care professional for complete information about this product and your specific health needs.
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Side Effects Not Requiring Immediate Medical Attention
Some side effects of hepatitis b adult vaccine may occur that usually do not need medical attention. These side effects may go away during treatment as your body adjusts to the medicine. Also, your health care professional may be able to tell you about ways to prevent or reduce some of these side effects.
Check with your health care professional if any of the following side effects continue or are bothersome or if you have any questions about them:
- pain at the injection site
- unusual tiredness or weakness
Applies to hepatitis b adult vaccine: intramuscular solution, intramuscular suspension
What Is The Outlook For People With Hepatitis B
The outlook for people with HBV is better now than ever before. You are certainly able to live a full life and help yourself stay healthy. You should make sure to have regular check-ups with a healthcare provider who is qualified to treat hepatitis B, possibly a liver doctor.
Make sure you are vaccinated against hepatitis A. Check with your healthcare provider or pharmacist before taking other medications or over-the-counter products, including supplements and natural products. These could interfere with your medication or damage your liver. For instance, taking acetaminophen in large doses may harm your liver.
Follow the usual guidelines for living a healthy life:
- Eat nutritious foods, choosing from a variety of vegetables, fruits and healthy proteins. It is said that cruciferous vegetables are especially good at protecting the liver.
- Exercise regularly.
- Dont smoke and dont drink. Both tobacco and alcohol are bad for your liver.
- Do things that help you cope with stress, like journaling, talking with others, meditating and doing yoga.
- Avoid inhaling toxic fumes.
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What Other Information Should I Know
Do not let anyone else take your medication. Ask your pharmacist any questions you have about refilling your prescription.
Keep a supply of tenofovir on hand. Do not wait until you run out of medication to refill your prescription.
It is important for you to keep a written list of all of the prescription and nonprescription medicines you are taking, as well as any products such as vitamins, minerals, or other dietary supplements. You should bring this list with you each time you visit a doctor or if you are admitted to a hospital. It is also important information to carry with you in case of emergencies.
Antiviral Medication For Hepatitis C
For people with hepatitis C, the goal of treatment with antiviral medication is to prevent the virus from replicating, or copying itself, and to eliminate the virus from the bloodstream. If the hepatitis C virus has been in the body for more than six months, the infection is considered chronic. Without treatment, most people with acute hepatitis C develop the chronic form of the disease.
Your doctor decides which antiviral medicationor combination of medicationsto prescribe based on the results of a blood test called a genotype test. There are six genotypes, or strains, of the hepatitis C virus, and people with certain genotypes respond more quickly to medical treatment.
For many years, the standard treatment for chronic hepatitis C consisted of the antiviral medications pegylated interferon and ribavirin. Ribavirin is taken by mouth every day, and interferon is an injection that you or a caregiver can administer once a week at home.
In 2013 and 2014, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved a group of new medications for the treatment of hepatitis C. These medications, which include sofosbuvir, are very effective and have fewer side effects than older medications, particularly interferon.
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Approved Drugs For Adults
There are currently 7 approved drugs in the United States for adults living with chronic hepatitis B infection. These include 5 types of antiviral drugs that are taken as a pill once a day for 1 year or longer. And there are 2 types of immune modulator drugs called interferon that are given as an injection for 6 months to 1 year.
It is important to know that not everyone needs to be treated. A liver specialist should evaluate your health through a physical exam, blood tests, and an imaging study of your liver . Then you can discuss together whether you are a good candidate for treatment since the approved drugs are most effective when there are signs of active liver disease. In addition, talk to your provider about HBV Clinical Trials since there are several new drugs being tested that are available for infected adults.
All adults, however, should be seen regularly by a liver specialist whether they are on treatment or not.
What Is The Safety And Efficacy Of The Nucleoside Analogs In Hbv
The safety and efficacy of the oral agents alone or in combination in patients with chronic hepatitis B and renal insufficiency or renal failure are largely unknown. Therefore, patients with chronic HBV infection and renal insufficiency should be treated with a single agent or combination regimen and prospectively assessed for efficacy, drug resistance, and safety. Collection of a baseline DNA sample and other biological samples during treatment is advisable. Additional studies using prophylactic phosphate supplementation or other agents to minimize nephrotoxicity may prove worthwhile in renally impaired patients.
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Living With Hepatitis B
If you have hepatitis, you should:
- avoid having unprotected sex, including anal and oral sex, unless you’re sure your partner has been vaccinated against hepatitis B
- avoid sharing needles used to inject drugs with other people
- take precautions to avoid the spread of infection, such as not sharing toothbrushes or razors with other people
- eat a generally healthy, balanced diet there’s no special diet for people with hepatitis B
- avoid drinking alcohol this can increase your risk of developing serious liver problems
- speak to your doctor if you’re thinking of having a baby
People with hepatitis B can usually have a healthy pregnancy, but it’s a good idea to discuss your plans with a doctor first as you may need extra care and your medications may need to be changed.
There’s a risk of pregnant women with hepatitis B passing the infection on to their child around the time of the birth, but this risk can be reduced by ensuring the baby is vaccinated shortly after they’re born.
Page last reviewed: 30 January 2019 Next review due: 30 January 2022
What Are The Side Effects Of Hepatitis C Treatment
Hepatitis C virus is a stubborn but common virus that attacks the liver. About 3.5 million people in the United States have chronic, or long-term, hepatitis C.
It can be difficult for the human immune system to fight HCV. Fortunately, there are several drugs available to treat hepatitis C. Read on to learn more about hepatitis C treatments and their side effects.
The main types of HCV medications prescribed today are direct-acting antivirals and ribavirin. In rare cases where DAAs are not accessible, interferons may be prescribed.
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Tips And Remedies To Help With Side Effects
There are things you can do to ease many of the side effects from hepatitis C treatment.
Remember that these side effects will typically go away once you’re cured, so stick with your treatment. Work with your doctor on your treatment plan so that you can manage any problems and try to get the virus out of your body as soon as possible
Strategies To Improve The Efficacy Of Ifn
Given the unique advantages of but relatively low response rates to IFN therapy, there is an urgent need to improve its efficacy .
Predictors and strategies for improvement of the efficacy of IFN-based therapy for chronic hepatitis B.
In addition to type I IFN, type III IFNs, consisting of four IFN- subtypes , has been considered as an alternative in treatment of CHB . IFN-III signals through a heterodimeric receptor composed of IFN- receptor-1 and interleukin-10 receptor subunit beta . IFNLR1 is expressed primarily on epithelial cells, such as hepatocytes, and on select immune cells, including pDCs and some B-lymphocytes, which may indicate better cell-type specific activity . One of the most impactful findings about IFN- is the strong association of IFN- polymorphisms with chronic HCV clearance during the acute stage of infection and of achieving HCV cure with IFN-I-based therapy in chronic infection . Unfortunately, the similar association cannot be identified in HBV patients with high confidence and good reproducibility among various studies . Although IFN- can activate IFN signaling pathways and lower HBV viral load, pegylated IFN-1 was less efficient than PEG-IFN-2 24 weeks post-treatment because fewer patients achieved HBeAg seroconversion .
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Reduce Your Chance Of Infection
You can reduce your chance of hepatitis B infection by
- not sharing drug needles or other drug materials
- wearing gloves if you have to touch another persons blood or open sores
- making sure your tattoo artist or body piercer uses sterile tools
- not sharing personal items, such as toothbrushes, razors, or nail clippers
- using a latex or polyurethane condom during sex
Hepatitis B Symptoms & Treatment
- Hepatitis B is a virus found in infected blood, semen and vaginal fluids.
- Its a sexually transmitted infection that can be passed on through unprotected sex. You can also get it from contaminated needles and syringes. Its also commonly passed on from a mother to her baby during birth.
- There is a vaccine to prevent hepatitis B, which is routinely offered to infants as well as at-risk groups.
- You can prevent hepatitis B by practising safer sex, never sharing needles and syringes, and avoiding unlicensed tattoo parlours and acupuncturists.
- Most people dont need treatment for acute hepatitis B. If the infection becomes chronic, there is no cure, but it can be managed with treatment.
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How Is Hepatitis B Diagnosed
There are three main ways to diagnose HBV infection. They include:
- Blood tests: Tests of the blood serum shows how your bodys immune system is responding to the virus. A blood test can also tell you if you are immune to HBV.
- Abdominal ultrasound: An ultrasound uses sound waves to show the size and shape of your liver and how well the blood flows through it.
- Liver biopsy: A small sample of your liver tissue is removed though a tiny incision and sent to a lab for analysis.
The blood test that is used to diagnose hepatitis B is not a test that you get routinely during a medical visit. Often, people whove become infected first learn they have hepatitis B when they go to donate blood. Blood donations are routinely scanned for the infection.
The virus can be detected within 30 to 60 days of infection. About 70% of adults with hepatitis B develop symptoms, which tend to appear an average of 90 days after initial exposure to the virus.
Hepatitis B And Pregnancy
If youâre pregnant, you might pass the virus to your baby at birth. Itâs less likely to happen during your pregnancy.
If your baby gets the virus and isnât treated, they could have long-term liver problems. All newborns with infected mothers should get hepatitis B immune globulin and the vaccine for hepatitis at birth and during their first year of life.
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