Wednesday, November 30, 2022

Hepatitis C How To Get It

Can You Have Hep C And Not Know It

How Do You Get Hepatitis C?

We said this illness is sneaky, and in fact, most people with hepatitis C dont have any symptoms at the time they are diagnosed, says Dr. Goff. That makes it difficult to trace exactly where and when someone contracted the virus. Unfortunately, it also gives the virus time to wreak havoc on the liver before you feel sick enough to seek treatment.

Until we started actively screening the population, patients could be infected with hepatitis C and have absolutely no idea they had it, Dr. Fox says. Weve had to change our screening recommendations over time so that were not only testing people who self-report a history of a risk factor.

Currently, the CDC recommends all adults get screened for hepatitis C at least once in their lifetime, and pregnant women should be screened during each pregnancy. For people with ongoing risk factorsfor example, for people who regularly inject drugs or share needlesmore frequent testing is recommended.

Effective Treatments Are Available For Hepatitis C

New medication to treat for HCV have been approved in recent years. These treatments are much better than the previously available treatment because they have few side effects and do not need to be injected. There are several direct-acting antiviral HCV treatments that cure more than 95% of people who take them in 8 to 12 weeks. HCV treatment dramatically reduces deaths among people with HCV infection, and people who are cured of HCV are much less likely to develop cirrhosis or liver cancer.

Take Action! CDCs National Prevention Information Network Service Locator helps consumers locate hepatitis B and hepatitis C prevention, care, and treatment services.

Living With Hepatitis C

Coping with hepatitis C isnt easy. You may feel sad, scared, or angry. You may not believe you have the disease. These feelings are normal, but they shouldnt keep you from living your daily life. If they do or if they last a long time you may be suffering from depression. People who are depressed have most or all of the following symptoms nearly every day, all day, for 2 weeks or longer:

  • Feeling sad, hopeless and having frequent crying spells.
  • Losing interest or pleasure in things you used to enjoy .
  • Feeling guilty, helpless, or worthless.
  • Thinking about death or suicide.
  • Sleeping too much or having problems sleeping.
  • Loss of appetite and unintended weight loss or gain.
  • Feeling very tired all the time.
  • Having trouble paying attention and making decisions.
  • Having aches and pains that dont get better with treatment.
  • Feeling restless, irritated, and easily annoyed.

Talk to your doctor if you notice any of these symptoms. Your doctor can help by recommending a support group or a therapist. He or she may also prescribe a medicine for you to take.

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Can Hepatitis C Be Prevented Or Avoided

The only way to prevent hepatitis C is to avoid coming in contact with an infected persons blood. Always have protected sex . Dont do intravenous drugs. Dont share personal care items with a person who has hepatitis C. If youre a health care worker, follow your workplaces standard safety practices.

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How Is Hepatitis C Spread

Conquering Hepatitis C

The hepatitis C virus is spread through contact with infected blood and bodily fluids, such as semen and vaginal fluid. You will only be infected if the virus enters your bloodstream.

In Canada, most people are infected by:

  • using or sharing drug paraphernalia contaminated with infected blood, including:
  • pipes
  • receiving body services that use unclean tools or work practices, such as:
  • tattooing
  • sharing personal care items with an infected person, such as:
  • razors
  • If you have hepatitis C, you can pass the virus to your baby during:

    • pregnancy
    • childbirth
    • breastfeeding if your nipples are cracked and bleeding, and your baby also has bleeding in or on the mouth
    • it can be hard to tell if a baby has bleeding in or on the mouth
    • cracked nipples may not be bleeding but may begin to during breastfeeding

    You can also be infected if you receive contaminated:

    • blood
    • organs
    • blood products

    Although rare, hepatitis C can also be spread through unprotected sex especially if it involves blood contact, such as:

    • contact with:
    • open sores, cuts or wounds
    • semen or vaginal fluid if blood is present
  • through rough sex, including:
  • bondage and sexual satisfaction through pain
  • inserting a fist inside the vagina or anus
  • Unprotected sex means having sex without using a condom or other barrier safely.

    Hepatitis C is not spread through:

    • breast milk

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    Who Is At Risk Of Hepatitis C

    Anyone can get hepatitis C. It is important for peopleat high risk of infection to be tested and treated forhepatitis C. In the U.S., you are at a higher risk if you:

    • Have ever used a needle to inject drugs, even if once and long ago
    • Had a blood transfusion or organ transplant before 1992
    • Are a health care worker who had blood exposure to mucous membranes or to non-intact skin, or a needlestick injury
    • Have ever been on kidney dialysis
    • Were born of a mother who had hepatitis C at the time
    • Are a Vietnam-era Veteran
    • Had contact with hepatitis-C-positive blood to nonintact skin or to mucous membranes
    • Received tattoos or body piercings in non-regulated settings
    • Have ever snorted drugs or shared drug equipment
    • Have liver disease
    • Have a history of alcohol abuse
    • Have hemophilia and received clotting factor before 1987
    • Have had a sexual partner with hepatitis C, now or in the past
    • Have had 10 or more lifetime sexual partners
    • Have HIV infection

    The only way to know if you haveHepatitis C is to be tested. VA offershepatitis C testing and treatment toenrolled Veterans.

    Chronic Hepatitis C Symptoms

    If you donât get diagnosed and treated, you could have the disease for years and not know it. Doctors call this the chronic form, because it lasts a long time. Some people whove had it for a while get scarring of the liver, which is called cirrhosis. or liver cancer.

    In addition to the above symptoms, signs that your liver isnât working the way it should include:

    • Ascites fluid buildup in your belly
    • Easy bleeding

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    Possible Complications Of Hepatitis C

    Theres one main complication of acute hepatitis C: It could become chronic.

    If you go on to develop chronic hepatitis C, you could eventually experience a number of health complications, including:

    • Cirrhosis. With cirrhosis, scar tissue gradually replaces healthy tissue in your liver, blocking blood flow and disrupting liver function. Cirrhosis can eventually lead to liver failure.
    • Liver cancer. Having chronic hepatitis C raises your risk for eventually developing liver cancer. If you develop cirrhosis or your liver is very damaged before treatment, youll still have a higher risk for cancer after getting treated.
    • Liver failure. It takes a long time for your liver to fail. Liver failure, or end-stage liver disease, happens slowly over months, often years. When your liver becomes unable to function properly, youll need a transplant.

    If you believe you contracted the hepatitis C virus, a good next step involves reaching out to a healthcare professional. Getting timely treatment can lower your risk for experiencing serious complications.

    The sooner you get a diagnosis, the sooner your healthcare professional can start a treatment plan.

    research continues.

    Currently, the best way to protect yourself from the hepatitis C virus is to avoid using any items that may have come into contact with someone elses blood.

    You can do this by:

    Treatment Of Hepatitis C

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    Hepatitis C is treated with antiviral medications that aim to clear the virus from your body.

    New all-tablet treatments have greatly improved the outcomes for people with hepatitis C. These treatments can cure more than 95% of individuals with chronic hepatitis C. There are several new tablets that are used in combination to treat all hepatitis C strains . They are effective for people with no liver damage and those who have more advanced liver damage or cirrhosis.

    These new tablet medications are available and subsidised on the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme, and can be prescribed by specialists, general practitioners and specialised nurse practitioners.

    There are no restrictions on accessing treatment it is available for all adults with a Medicare card. People under 18 are able to access treatment and it is recommended they are referred to a pediatrician experienced in the treatment of hepatitis C.

    For more information on the new medications for the treatment of hepatitis C, see our video: Hepatitis C Cure what it means for Victorians.

    If your doctor does not know about the new treatments, you can call the LiverLine on for information, and to find a GP who can help you.

    Talk with your doctor about treatment options and the potential for interactions with other medications, herbal preparations and other drugs. If you take prescribed medication this will be managed so you can access treatment.

    In general, if you have hepatitis C you will feel better if you:

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    How Is Hepatitis C Diagnosed

    Symptoms alone generally dont offer enough information for a doctor to diagnose hepatitis C. Whats more, you might not have symptoms or notice any signs of the condition.

    Thats why its so important to connect with a doctor or other healthcare professional and ask about getting tested if youve been exposed to the hepatitis C virus.

    The also recommend hepatitis C testing for people who have abnormal liver tests, along with those who are:

    A healthcare professional can order a few different tests to help diagnose hepatitis C. These include:

    • Blood tests. They may order a series of blood tests to check for the virus, starting with a hepatitis C antibody test. A PCR test can tell your healthcare professional whether the virus is currently active, and viral load testing can measure the amount of virus in your blood.
    • Genotype test. This test can reveal which hepatitis C genotype you have. This information will help your healthcare professional find an effective treatment approach.
    • Liver function test. If blood test results suggest chronic hepatitis C or your healthcare professional believes you could have liver damage, theyll order a liver function test. This test checks your blood for signs of heightened enzymes from your liver.
    • Liver biopsy.This procedure can also help check for liver damage. A biopsy involves taking a small piece of tissue from your liver and testing it for cell abnormalities.

    Hepatitis C Testing And Diagnosis

    Doctors will start by checking your blood for:

    Anti-HCV antibodies: These are proteins your body makes when it finds the hep C virus in your blood. They usually show up about 12 weeks after infection.

    It usually takes a few days to a week to get results, though a rapid test is available in some places.

    The results can be:

    • That may mean you donât have hep C.
    • If youâve been exposed in the last 6 months, youâll need to be retested.
  • Reactive, or positive:
  • That means you have hep C antibodies and youâve been infected at some point.
  • Youâll need another test to make sure.
  • If your antibody test is positive, youâll get this test:

    HCV RNA: It measures the number of viral RNA particles in your blood. They usually show up 1-2 weeks after youâre infected.

    • The results can be:
    • Negative: You donât have hep C.
    • Positive: You currently have hep C.

    You might also get:

    Liver function tests: They measure proteins and enzyme levels, which usually rise 7 to 8 weeks after youâre infected. As your liver gets damaged, enzymes leak into your bloodstream. But you can have normal enzyme levels and still have hepatitis C. Learn the reasons why you should get tested for hepatitis C.

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    Treatments For Hepatitis C

    Hepatitis C can be treated with medicines that stop the virus multiplying inside the body. These usually need to be taken for several weeks.

    Until recently, most people would have taken 2 main medicines called pegylated interferon and ribavirin .

    Tablet-only treatments are now available.

    These new hepatitis C medicines have been found to make treatment more effective, are easier to tolerate, and have shorter treatment courses.

    They include sofosbuvir and daclatasvir.

    Using the latest medications, more than 90% of people with hepatitis C may be cured.

    But it’s important to be aware that you will not be immune to the infection and should take steps to reduce your risk of becoming infected again.

    How To Prevent Hepatitis C

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    There is currently no vaccine for hepatitis C. Avoiding contact with infected blood is the only way to prevent the condition.

    The most common way for people to contract hepatitis C is by injecting street drugs. Because of this, the best way to prevent hepatitis C is to avoid injecting.

    Treatments can help many people quit. People in the U.S. can call the National Helpline for help with finding treatments.

    If a person finds it difficult to stop, they can reduce the risk of contracting hepatitis C by never sharing drug equipment, ensuring a clean, hygienic environment, and always using new equipment, including syringes, ties, alcohol swabs, cottons, and cookers.

    People who may come into contact with infected blood, such as healthcare workers and caretakers, should always wash the hands thoroughly with soap and water after any contact, or suspected contact, with blood. They should also wear gloves when touching another persons blood or open wounds.

    People can also reduce their risk by making sure that any tattoo artist or body piercer they visit uses fresh, sterile needles and unopened ink.

    The risk of contracting hepatitis C through sexual contact is low. Using barrier protection, such as condoms, reduces the risk of most sexually transmitted infections.

    People who have hepatitis C can reduce the risk of transmitting it to others by:

    There are many misconceptions about how hepatitis C spreads. People cannot transmit or contract the virus through:

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    Hepatitis C And Injecting Drugs

    If you inject drugs, avoid sharing needles, syringes or other equipment such as tourniquets, spoons, swabs or water.

    Where possible, always use sterile needles and syringes. These are available free of charge from needle and syringe programs and some pharmacists. To find out where you can obtain free needles, syringes and other injecting equipment, contact DirectLine

    Try to wash your hands before and after injecting. If you cant do this, use hand sanitiser or alcohol swabs from a needle and syringe program service.

    What Are The Different Types Of Hepatitis C

    Hepatitis C can be acute or chronic. How long you experience symptoms will depend on the type you have.

    Acute hepatitis C involves more short-term symptoms that typically last 6 months or less but acute hepatitis often leads to chronic hepatitis. When hepatitis C lasts longer than 6 months, its considered chronic.

    Without treatment, you may have chronic hepatitis your whole life, since your body often cant get rid of the virus easily. Some people do get better without treatment, although treatment can go a long way toward improving the outlook.

    Hepatitis C wont necessarily become chronic.

    As a matter of fact, for anywhere from 15 to 45 percent of people with acute hepatitis C, the virus will clear up without treatment. In other words, if you dont have any symptoms, hepatitis C could improve on its own before you ever know you have it.

    However, if your body cant get rid of the hepatitis C virus, the infection wont go away. Instead, it will become chronic, or long-term.

    Experts arent sure why some people develop the chronic form of the disease and others dont. But more than half of all people with the hepatitis C virus will eventually develop the chronic form, according to the

    Since hepatitis C symptoms can resemble those of other health conditions, your symptoms alone if you have any may not make it clear that you have hepatitis C.

    A doctor or other healthcare professional may recommend getting tested if you:

    • daclatasvir

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    What Are Signs Of Hepatitis C

    When you first get hepatitis C, it is called acutehepatitis C. About 15% of people who have acutehepatitis C infection clear the virus from their bodies.The other 85% of people develop a chronic hepatitis C infection. Of these, 50 to 80%, if treated,may be cured.

    Acute hepatitis C: Most people with acutehepatitis C do not have any signs. If signs occur, theaverage time is 6-7 weeks after exposure, but can beless or more. Some people can have mild to severesigns including:

    • Yellow skin or eyes
    • Tiredness
    • A longer than normal amount of time for bleeding to stop

    How Is Hepatitis C Transmitted

    Do You Need to Get Screened for Hepatitis C?

    Because HCV is primarily spread through contact with infected blood, people who inject drugs are at increased risk for HCV infection. HCV can also be transmitted from an infected mother to child at the time of birth, from unregulated tattoos or body piercings, and from sharing personal items that may be contaminated with infected blood, even in amounts too small to see. Much less often, HCV transmission occurs through sexual contact with an HCV-infected partner, especially among people with multiple sex partners and men who have sex with men. Currently in the United States, health care related transmission of HCV is rare, but people can become infected from accidental needle sticks and from breaches in infection control practices in health care facilities.

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    Who Is More Likely To Get Hepatitis C

    People more likely to get hepatitis C are those who

    • have injected drugs
    • have been on kidney dialysis
    • have been in contact with blood or infected needles at work
    • have had tattoos or body piercings
    • have worked or lived in a prison
    • were born to a mother with hepatitis C
    • are infected with HIV
    • have had more than one sex partner in the last 6 months or have a history of sexually transmitted disease
    • are men who have or had sex with men

    In the United States, injecting drugs is the most common way that people get hepatitis C.13

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