Effect Of Hepatitis B Virus Infection On Sperm Quality And Outcomes Of Assisted Reproductive Techniques In Infertile Males
- Department of Reproductive, The First Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin, China
Background: Hepatitis B virus infection is one of the health problems and has adverse effects on public health. However, the consequences of male HBV carriers for assisted reproductive techniques remain unclear.
Objective: To examine whether men with HBV would impact sperm quality and the intrauterine insemination / in vitro fertilization / intracytoplasmic sperm injection outcomes.
Methods: We retrospectively analyzed data from 681 infertile couples for IUI/IVF/ICSI fresh cycle outcomes. Case group was 176 infertile couples with male HBV infection undergoing embryo transfer in our center and 51 infertile couples for IUI. Negative control was 454 non-infected infertility couples, matched for female age, BMI and infertility duration .
Results: Sperm viability among infertile men with HBV infection was significantly lower than control group . Sperm motility was significantly decreased in HBV positive men in comparison to the control group . In IVF/ICSI cycles, two groups had similar results in two pronuclear fertilization rate, implantation rate, clinical pregnant rate and abortion rate . There was also no difference in the clinical pregnant rate and abortion rate in IUI cycles .
Men with HBV infection will affect their sperm quality, but not affect the outcomes of ART.
Hepatitis B And Hepatitis C
Hepatitis B can be defined as a viral infection of the liver. Jaundice, fever, fatigue, stomach issues and pain, joint pain, and light-colored poop include some of the symptoms of Hepatitis B and C. The symptoms of Hepatitis B can take up to 6 months to appear, whereas symptoms of Hepatitis B surface between 2 weeks to 6 months and more than a third of those infected do not feel anything. A blood test is often done for the diagnosis of Hepatitis B and C disorders.
Transmission Of Hbv Via The Cell Surface Of Female Germ Cells
Huang and colleagues, using cultured mouse oocytes, showed that HBV DNA plasmids can cross the zona in vitro, resulting in uptake of HBV DNA and integration in the host DNA . This may indicate that HBV sequences can be brought into embryos when oocytes containing integrated HBV DNA are fertilized with normal spermatozoa. In 1991, human embryos were accidentally exposed to HBV as a result of contamination of human serum present in the culture medium. All mothers experienced hepatitis B during the first trimester but no HBV DNA could be demonstrated by PCR in any of the children .
Read Also: What Is The Worst Hepatitis Ab Or C
Hepatitis B Vaccine Side Effects
The hepatitis B vaccine is considered a very safe and effective vaccine. Its made with an inactivated virus, so most types of the vaccine are even safe for pregnant people.
The hepatitis B vaccine may cause some mild side effects. The most common symptom is redness, swelling, or soreness where the injection was given. Some people also experience headache or fever. These effects usually last a day or two .
Rarely, some people have a serious and potentially life threatening allergic reaction to the vaccine. Call 911 or get to a hospital immediately if you experience any of the following symptoms after vaccination:
The Hepatitis B Vaccine
The hepatitis B vaccine is used to prevent hepatitis B. Its usually provided in three doses.
The first dose can be taken on a date you choose. The second dose must be taken 1 month later. The third and final dose must be taken 6 months after the first dose.
Some people may need two or four doses of this vaccine.
There is also a newer hepatitis B vaccine thats offered in two doses.
You May Like: Where Does The Hepatitis C Virus Come From
Couples Where The Man Has Hepatitis C
Hepatitis C is another type of hepatitis virus which also infects the liver. In couples where the man has hepatitis C and the woman does not, the risk of infecting your partner during unprotected sexual intercourse is thought to be low. However, you should have the opportunity to talk to both a fertility specialist and a hepatitis specialist before you make any decisions about trying to conceive. For men, this should include talking about treatment options to eliminate the virus from your body.
Who Should Not Get The Hepatitis B Vaccine
Hepatitis B is a safe vaccine that does not contain a live virus.
However, there are some circumstances in which doctors advise against getting the HBV vaccine.
You should not receive the hepatitis B vaccine if:
- youve had a serious allergic reaction to a previous dose of the hepatitis B vaccine
- you have a history of hypersensitivity to yeast or any other HBV vaccine components
Read Also: Can You Get Hepatitis C Through Intercourse
Couples Where The Man Is Hiv Positive
For a man who is HIV positive it is possible for you to conceive with an HIVnegative woman through unprotected sexual intercourse under specific circumstances.
If you are taking HIV drugs known as HAART the risk of infection during intercourse is minimal as long as all of these conditions are met:
You are taking your HIV drugs correctly.
Blood tests show that the virus has been undetected in your body for the past 6 months.
You have no other infections.
Unprotected sexual intercourse is limited to the time of the month when the woman is ovulating. Your doctors can help you determine the best days to try.
It is very important still to use protection during the times when you are not trying to conceive, to minimise the risk of passing on the infection.
If virus is detected in your blood, you are not taking your HIV drugs correctly, or you and your partner do not want to have unprotected sexual intercourse, you may instead be offered ‘sperm washing’. This involves separating the sperm from the semen, which reduces the chance of transmission because HIV is carried by the semen. The sperm is then used for intrauterine insemination or IVF.
If you can meet all the conditions in the list above, sperm washing may not reduce the risk of HIV infection any further it is never possible to guarantee that the sperm is completely free from the virus. Sperm washing may also reduce the likelihood of becoming pregnant compared with natural conception.
How Can Ivfaustralia Help Me Start My Family
For many Australian couples, the journey to parenthood does not always happen as quickly as they expect. Fortunately, advances in assisted conception treatments can make a real difference.
Whether you require a simple approach, such as Ovulation Induction or IUI , or more complex infertility treatment, such as IVF or ICSI, IVFAustralia can support you at every step of the way. We understand that many people do not have the opportunity to start their family until they are over 35 and their fertility has already started to decline, by circumstance rather than by choice.
At IVFAustralia, youll have the support of experienced local fertility specialists with access to the most advanced science and effective fertility treatments available in the world. Were dedicated to giving you the best possible chance of having a baby.
If youve been trying for 12 months or more , we recommend you seek advice from a fertility specialist.
The first step is to undergo a number of routine tests and procedures, to identify any specific issues before we develop a treatment plan for you.
Don’t Miss: Diagnostic Test For Hepatitis B
How Does Hepatitis Impact Fertility
We’ve discussed before how sexually transmitted diseases can hurt fertility here. When the average person is planning to get pregnant, they dont tend to consider how their liver may impact their ability to conceive. However, hepatitis – inflammation of the liver – can have an impact on fertility in some cases. Which forms of the disease might impact your chances of getting pregnant and how? Lets take a look.
What Is The Best Treatment For Hepatitis B
Hepatitis B cannot be cured, although it may go away on its own after a period of time. However, this disease can be prevented by vaccination.
In addition, treatments are available to reduce the likelihood of developing liver disease and to prevent transmission to others. These treatment options include antiviral drugs and interferon injections. In more severe cases, liver transplantation may be an option.
Recommended Reading: What Is Hepatitis C Ab
How You Prevent It
Practice safer sex, use condoms and lower the risk of getting hepatitis B or other STIs.
You can also protect yourself by getting the hepatitis B vaccine.
If you find out that you have hepatitis B, your partner need to be told that they could have an infection – even if there aren’t any symptoms. If you have concerns about telling your partner, contact a public health nurse.
The public health nurse can suggest ways to handle the situation or they will contact your partner for you. Of course, your name will be kept confidential.
One of the ways you can get hepatitis B is from having condomless vaginal, oral or anal sex with an infected person, since hepatitis B is spread through blood or bodily fluids.
Hepatitis B is highly contagious because it can be spread in so many other ways. Sharing needles, tattoo equipment or anything that cuts the skin and causes bleeding can transmit the infection. Plus, a pregnant woman can transfer it to her baby.
Clinical Guidelines For Adults
The standard recommendation for care is to schedule visits with a liver specialist every six months, but this can be more or less depending on your medical situation. During these check-ups, the following usually occurs to monitor your health and your liver:
- Physical exam
On July 27, 2020, the American Society of Clinical Oncology published provisional guidelines recommending that all people diagnosed with cancer be tested for hepatitis B before starting anticancer treatment. According to the ASCO statement, up to 90% of people diagnosed with cancer have at least one risk factor for hepatitis B. Cancer treatments can suppress the immune system and cause the virus to reactivate, which can lead to serious liver damage or liver failure. The guidelines discuss how to manage people undergoing cancer treatment who also have hepatitis B, to prevent viral flares.
Recommended Reading: Hepatitis C And Sexuality Activity
What Are The Options For A Man With Hepatitis B To Become A Father
Hepatitis B is a viral infection that primarily affects the liver. This virus is transmitted through contact with blood or other body fluids therefore, there is a high risk of contracting the virus in babies born to mothers with hepatitis B.
A man with hepatitis B does not have problems conceiving naturally because he has this infection, i.e. infertility is not a symptom of any type of hepatitis. However, there are some risks to consider when conceiving a baby, either naturally or through fertility treatment. First of all, there is the risk of infecting a partner through unprotected sex and thus infecting the fetus.
To prevent the couple from becoming infected and, therefore, to ensure that they can have a healthy baby, the best thing to do is to vaccinate them. It is also advisable to resort to an assisted reproduction treatment in which a seminal lavage is performed, the objective of which is to eliminate the virus from the sample previously taken. Normally, several seminal lavages are performed on the same sample and this washed semen is frozen for later use in fertilization.
There is no specific treatment recommended for these couples the ideal would be to perform a study to assess the fertility of both members and to determine the most appropriate treatment.
What It Can Do To You
Most people with hepatitis B fight off the infection. Once you’ve been infected, you can’t get it again. However, about 3% to 10% of people never recover and will have it for life. These people are called “carriers”. They will continue passing the infection on to others, and may develop cancer of the liver.
You May Like: How Can You Spread Hepatitis
The Effects Of Hepatitis B Virus Infection On Natural And Ivf Pregnancy: A Metaanalysis Study
- Biology, Medicine
- Journal of Viral Hepatitis
- Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics
- View 1 excerpt, cites background
- Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics
- View 1 excerpt, cites background
- Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
- View 1 excerpt, cites background
- Journal of obstetric, gynecologic, and neonatal nursing : JOGNN
How Can Pregnancy Be Achieved If The Man Is Healthy But The Woman Has Hepatitis B
In the event that the woman is seropositive and the man is seronegative, it is always advisable to vaccinate the man against hepatitis B before attempting a pregnancy. It is not recommended to have unprotected sexual relations until it is verified that the man has acquired immunity against the virus.
In addition, if it is necessary to resort to assisted reproduction, any technique is discouraged until:
- Submit the infection.
- HBeAg antigens is negative, since if the HBeAg is positive it would mean that there is hepatitis B infection.
- Serum viral load less than 1 million copies/mL.
Recommended Reading: Can You Get Rid Of Hepatitis C
Hepatitis Infections Are Linked With Both Poor Sperm Quality As Well As Reduced Fertility For Both Males And Females
Written by Editorial Team | Updated : July 21, 2022 11:03 AM IST
Hepatitis is a disorder that causes inflammation of the liver. Hepatitis can be infected in acute or chronic forms. It causes serious health complications, such as scarring of the liver, liver failure, or even liver cancer, depending on the severity of the case. Any indication of the hepatitis symptoms listed below, should immediately sprung you into action to rush to your doctor. Early detection and treatment can help prevent the development of these health complications.
Hepatitis can be transmitted from mother to child, through sexual contact through the exposure of infected blood, infection from needles, sharing personal care items, tattooing or piercing in an unsanitary condition. Out of its five variants, Hepatitis B and C viruses are linked to fertility problems in men and women.
Baseline Characteristics Of Participants
A total of 64 female HBV carriers were assessed for eligibility and recruited into the study. HBV DNA was detected in the follicular fluid of 28 of them, and the level of HBV DNA expressed in mean, median, and interquartile range in log10 copies/mL was 4.36, 4.45, 2.766.01 respectively. Women with detectable follicular fluid HBV DNA were significantly younger, lighter, and had a longer duration of infertility . There was however no difference in the incidence of primary
Recommended Reading: Which Hepatitis Can Be Cured
Insemination And Embryo Transfer
Oocytes were distributed randomly between the donor and one or more recipients. Each patient received 2-6 oocytes. Oocytes were fertilized by conventional insemination or ICSI depending on whether there was sever male factor infertility. Embryo transfer was performed on day 3 after sequential estrogen-progesterone preparation of the endometrium. Progesterone in oil was used for luteal support at a dose of 60 mg per day. Pregnancy was diagnosed by serum -hCG 14 days after embryo transfer. Clinical pregnancy was defined as identification of a gestational sac 2-3 weeks after the positive pregnancy test. The implantation rate was defined as the number of gestational sacs per embryo transferred.
Male Patients With Hbv
In male HBV patients, The Practice Committee of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine advises that sperm washing is not necessary to prevent sexual transmission risk unless the female partner has not been effectively vaccinated. However, in ART, sperm washing is routinely used . Theoretically, this could prevent introduction of the HBV into the oocyte in the case of ICSI.
Also Check: How Do You Catch Hepatitis
Hbv Infection In Women And Men
In women, HBV infection in women has been associated with increased risk of tubal and uterine infertility. Surprisingly, HBV infection in men was also linked to increased risk of tubal infertility in their partners. Both effects are believed to be due to the HBV virus lowering the womans immune system and increasing the chance of pelvic infection.
If you or your partner suffer from hepatitis B, you should consult with your doctor about possible problems getting pregnant.
Female Patients With Hbv
Concerning female HBV patients, the risk of maternal vertical HBV transmission during an IVF procedure is no different from spontaneous conception and pregnancy and therefore there is no reason to advise against an IVF procedure in chronic carriers of HBV . However, literature is less evident about the use of ICSI in a female chronic carrier of HBV, as presented in our case description.
Also Check: Hepatitis A Vaccine At Cvs
Clinical Guidelines For Children With Chronic Hepatitis B
In general, the clinical guidelines for children are the same as for adults – visits are usually scheduled every six months or once a year. Most children do not need drug treatment, but they still need to be monitored regularly to make sure they remain healthy and to detect any problems with their liver as soon as possible. Visits will include a physical exam, blood tests, and possibly an imaging study of the liver .
AASLD guidelines provide guidance for treating children under the Updated Recommendations on the Treatment of Patients With Chronic Hepatitis B, section 9A.
The Hepatitis B Foundation convened the first Pediatric HBV Workshop and invited the nations leading pediatric liver specialists to develop the first national recommendations for children living with hepatitis B to ensure that they receive the best care possible. These recommendations have been published in highly respected, peer-reviewed journals and provide expert guidance for the care of infected children.
Hepatitis B Foundations Clinical Guidelines for Pediatric HBV
HBF’s Pediatric HBV Screening and Monitoring Recommendations Published in Pediatrics in November 2009Haber BA, Block JM, Jonas MM, Karpen SJ, London WT, McMahon BJ, Murray KF, Narkewicz MR, Rosenthal P, Schwarz KB. Recommendations for screening, monitoring, and referral of pediatric chronic hepatitis B. Pediatrics 124:e1007-13.