Sunday, January 29, 2023

Hepatitis B Vaccination Schedule For Adults

Hepatitis B Vaccine Schedule: Standard Accelerated And Combination

Pediatrics Hepatitis B A Vaccination Vaccine Jaundice Immunization Schedule Dose

Getting poked with a needle is never fun, but its an extremely important part of protecting yourself and others from infectious diseases! The hepatitis B vaccine is known to be one of the most effective vaccines in the world and very safe too! As a blood-borne disease that typically has no symptoms, hepatitis B can easily be spread by accident simply because people are unaware that they have it! Modes of transmission include mother-to-child during birth, unprotected sex, injection drug use, unsafe medical procedures, and the sharing of personal items that may contain blood remnants, such as body jewelry, razors, and toothbrushes. Although certain precautions can be taken to prevent transmission, the only way to completely protect yourself is to get vaccinated. Once you have been vaccinated, you are protected for life!

There are a few options for receiving the hepatitis B vaccination. In most countries, the vaccine is available through a doctors office or a health clinic. The most common option is the standard three-dose vaccine. This consists of three separate doses of the vaccine given through intramuscular injections. In order for the vaccine to be effective, there must be a minimum amount of time between doses. If the minimum amount of time is not followed, the vaccine will not provide full, long term protection from the infection.

3 Dose Schedule:

2-Dose Schedule :

  • 1st shot At any given time
  • 2nd shot At least 28 days after the first shot.

Persons New To Canada

Health care providers who see persons newly arrived in Canada should review the immunization status and update immunization for these individuals, as necessary. In many countries outside of Canada, HB vaccine is in limited use.

All persons from a country that is endemic for HB should be assessed and vaccinated against HB if not immune and not infected. Individuals born in developing countries are more likely to be carriers of HB, necessitating vaccination of their sexual and household contacts based on review of their serologic test results. HB vaccine is recommended for all household contacts whose families have immigrated to Canada from areas in which there is a high prevalence of HB and who may be exposed to HB carriers through their extended families or when visiting their country of origin.

Children adopted from countries in which there is a high prevalence of HB infection should be screened for HBsAg and, if positive, household or close contacts in the adopting family should be immunized before adoption or as soon as possible thereafter. Adults going to pick-up children from these countries should be vaccinated before departure. Refer to Immunization of Persons New to Canada in Part 3 for additional information.

Babies And Hepatitis B Vaccination

Pregnant women have a routine blood test for hepatitis B as part of their antenatal care.

Babies born to mothers infected with hepatitis B need to be given a dose of the hepatitis B vaccine within 24 hours of their birth, followed by further doses at 4, 8, 12 and 16 weeks of age, plus a final dose when they’re 1 year old.

Babies of mothers identified by the blood test as particularly infectious might also be given an injection of HBIG at birth on top of the hepatitis B vaccination to give them rapid protection against infection.

All babies born to mothers infected with hepatitis B should be tested at 1 year of age to check if they have become infected with the virus.

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How Common Is Hepatitis B

One U.S. study following trends in hepatitis B infection over a three-year periodfound that 4.3% of the population had a past or present HBV infection.

Estimates suggest that about 240 million people around the world have chronic hepatitis B. Up to 1.89 million people in the United States have a chronic HBV infection.

Which Adults Should Be Vaccinated Against Hepatitis B

Notice to Readers: Recommended Adult Immunization Schedule

According to CDC recommendations, adults in the following groups are recommended to receive hepatitis B vaccine:

General

  • All people age 18 years and younger.
  • Anyone 19 years and older who wants to be protected from hepatitis B.

People at risk for infection by sexual exposure

  • Sex partners of people who are hepatitis B surface antigen -positive.
  • Sexually active people who are not in long-term, mutually monogamous relationships.
  • People seeking evaluation or treatment for a sexually transmitted disease.
  • Men who have sex with men.

People at risk for infection by percutaneous or permucosal exposure to blood or body fluids

  • Current or recent illegal injection drug users.
  • Household contacts of people who are HBsAg-positive.
  • Residents and staff of facilities for developmentally challenged people.
  • Healthcare and public safety workers with reasonably anticipated risk for exposure to blood or blood-contaminated body fluids.
  • People with end-stage renal disease, including predialysis, hemo-, peritoneal- and home-dialysis patients.

Others

  • International travelers to regions with intermediate or high levels of endemic HBV infection.
  • People with chronic liver disease.
  • People with HIV infection.
  • People with diabetes who are age 19 through 59 years. For those age 60 and older, clinicians should make a determination of need for
  • vaccination based on their patients’ situation.

In a future issue, we will review the various hepatitis B serologic tests, who needs testing, and when they need it .

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Accelerated Us Children And Adult Hepatitis B Vaccine Schedules

*Please note that the first dose should be given as soon as possible. Additional doses require minimum time intervals between doses in order for the vaccine to be effective.

In some instances, it may be necessary to vaccinate within a short period of time to ensure protection before travel. There are accelerated schedules to provide the highest level of protection over a short period of time. Individuals who need an accelerated schedule must have a booster dose at 1 year to ensure long-term protection. Note that the 2-dose Heplisav-B vaccine will also ensure maximum protection over a 1-month period without the need for a booster dose at 1 year.

4-Dose Vaccine Series for Children and Adults

Engerix-B is a 3-dose vaccine that can be given on an accelerated, four-dose schedule, with 3 shots administered within 2 months, and a booster dose at 1 year to provide maximum long-term protection.

4-Dose Combination Hepatitis A and B Vaccine Series

Twinrix is a 4-dose vaccine that can be given on an accelerated schedule to provide protection against hepatitis A and B. Three doses are administered within 1 month, followed by a booster shot at 1 year. This is a common choice of vaccine for those travelling on short-notice outside the U.S. It is important to complete the booster dose at 1 year, to ensure long-term protection.

2-Dose Vaccine Series

Additional Resource Links:

Hepatitis B Vaccine Side Effects

Most people only experience mild, short-term side effects from the hepatitis B vaccine. Common side effects include:

  • Pain, redness, or swelling at the site of injection

Severe allergic reactions to the hepatitis B vaccine are very rare. If you have symptoms of an allergic reaction shortly after getting the HepB vaccinesuch as difficulty breathing, facial swelling, or hivesseek medical help immediately.

The hepatitis B vaccine is safe and effective for most people. However, there are certain people who should not get the HepB vaccine, including:

  • People who are moderately or severely ill at the time of vaccination
  • People who have had a severe allergic reaction to yeast
  • People who have had a severe allergic reaction to a hepatitis B vaccine in the past

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What Hepatitis B Immunisation Involves

Full protection involves having 3 injections of the hepatitis B vaccine at the recommended intervals.

Babies born to mothers with hepatitis B infection will be given 6 doses of hepatitis B-containing vaccine to ensure long-lasting protection.

If you’re a healthcare worker or you have kidney failure, you’ll have a follow-up appointment to see if you have responded to the vaccine.

If you have been vaccinated by your employer’s occupational health service, you can request a blood test to see if you have responded to the vaccine.

Many People With Hbv Dont Know They Have It

Child & Adolescent Immunization, Adult Immunization Schedule and Hepatitis A Vaccine

HBV infections are becoming less common in the United States. But HBV is still widespread in other parts of the world. Around 257 million people living around the world currently have HBV, and many of them dont know it. Chronic HBV is often asymptomatic, and even when it isnt, it can take months for symptoms to show up.

HBV can be transmitted through sexual contact and the use of IV drugs , and other risk factors. Although rare, there

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How And When Do Doctors Give Vaccines

For the hepatitis A vaccine:

You should get two doses, given as shots, 6 months apart for complete protection. The virus in the vaccine is killed .

Children should get the first dose between 12 and 23 months of age. Children older than age 2 can get the first dose at their next doctors visit.

If you need the vaccine because of upcoming travel, get it at least 1 month before you go.

For the hepatitis B vaccine:

For long-lasting immunity, you need three to four doses, depending on which type of vaccine is used. You get them as shots.

Children should get their first dose at birth and complete the series by age 6 months. Usually, the baby would get a second dose at 1 month old and the third dose at 6 months.

Babies born to women who have hepatitis B need a shot of hep B antibodies, as well as their first hep B vaccine shot, when theyre born. They will also need follow-up blood tests to make sure theyre OK.

Catch-up vaccinations are recommended for children and teens who were never vaccinated or who did not get all three shots.

If you’re an adult who wants to be vaccinated, you should talk about it with your doctor or pharmacist. If you are considering both vaccines, ask your doctor about vaccines that combine hep A and B.

Here is a rule to remember the minimum time in between shots in the series:

Dose 2 should be separated by dose 1 by at least one month

Dose 3 should be separated by dose 2 by at least 2 months AND from dose 1 by at least 4 months .

Screen For Contraindications And Precautions

  • Do not administer Heplisav-B to individuals with a history of severe allergic reaction after a previous dose of any hepatitis B vaccine or to any component of Heplisav-B, including yeast.
  • Consult the package insert for precautions, warnings, and contraindications and Hepatitis B Vaccine Safety for additional information and possible side effects.
  • See Vaccine Administration and SIRVA infographic for more information about proper IM vaccine administration.
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    What To Do If You Miss A Scheduled Dose

    The recommended schedule for the HBV vaccine follows a three-dose pattern, with all doses complete within 6 months. The good news is that if you miss a dose, you dont need to start the series of shots all over.

    If you missed getting the second dose 1 month after the first, make an appointment as soon as possible. If you miss the third dose, you should also try to get it as quickly as possible. Keep in mind that the second and third doses

    International Hepatitis B Vaccine Schedules

    Recommended Adult Immunization Schedule
    *Please note that the first dose should be given as soon as possible. Additional doses require minimum time intervals between doses in order for the vaccine to be effective.

    The hepatitis B vaccine is an injection that is generally given in the arm and as a three-dose series. The World Health Organization recommends a 0, 1, and 6-month vaccine schedule, though schedules may vary based on a countrys national immunization program. Completing the hepatitis B vaccine series, preferably beginning at birth, will ensure protection against hepatitis B, hepatitis delta and lower the lifetime risk of liver cancer. Greater than 90% of babies and up to 50% of young children who are not vaccinated and are infected with hepatitis B will have lifelong infection, which makes the birth dose essential to their protection. Please note that the vaccine brand name, manufacturer and associated schedules for adults, children and infants may be unique to different countries, though there is a list of WHO prequalified vaccines.

    3-Dose Vaccine Series for Infants

    The World Health Organization recommends all infants receive the first dose of the hepatitis B vaccine within 24 hours of birth and to complete the vaccine series with additional shots at 1 month and 6 months of age. Beginning the hepatitis B vaccine at birth will ensure protection against hepatitis B for life.

    3-Dose Vaccine Series for Children and Adults

    4-Dose Combination Vaccine Series for Infants

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    Routine Administration Schedule For Hepatitis B Vaccine In Adults

    • The dosing schedule is 0, 1 to 2 months, and 4 to 6 months.
    • There is some flexibility in the schedule, but be sure to keep in mind the minimum intervals between doses:
      • At least four weeks between doses #1 and #2
      • At least eight weeks between doses #2 and #3
      • At least 16 weeks between doses #1 and #3
    • If your patient falls behind on the hepatitis B vaccination schedule , continue vaccinating from where your patient left off. The series does NOT need to be restarted.

    Who Should Receive The Hepatitis B Vaccine

    Vaccination is the most reliable way to prevent getting hepatitis B or developing serious related medical complications.

    The CDCs Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommends that people in all age groups get the hepatitis B vaccine, including:

    • All infants within 24 hours after birth
    • Children and teens who have not previously been vaccinated against hepatitis B
    • Adults ages 19 to 59
    • Adults ages 60 and older with at least one risk factor for hepatitis B

    Adults over 60 who are not at risk of developing hepatitis B can also receive the HepB vaccine if they choose.

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    Emergency Hepatitis B Vaccination

    If you have been exposed to the hepatitis B virus and have not been vaccinated before, you should get immediate medical advice, as you may benefit from having the hepatitis B vaccine.

    In some situations, you may also need to have an injection of antibodies, called specific hepatitis B immunoglobulin , along with the hepatitis B vaccine.

    HBIG should ideally be given within 48 hours, but you can still have it up to a week after exposure.

    A Note About Sex And Gender

    Federal Implementation of Updated Hepatitis B Vaccination Recommendations | May 23rd 2022

    Sex and gender exist on spectrums. This article will use the terms male, female, or both to refer to sex assigned at birth. .

    It is important that infants who are born to females with hepatitis B receive accurate doses of the hepatitis B vaccine. They may also be required to receive hepatitis B immunoglobulin if it is available.

    The WHO also recommends using antiviral prophylaxis to help prevent hepatitis B transmission.

    The table below outlines the two recommended hepatitis B vaccine schedules for infants born to those who have hepatitis B:

    Vaccine series

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    Measles Mumps & Rubella

    Measles, mumps, and rubella are infections that can lead to significant illness. More than 95% of children receiving the MMR vaccine will be protected from the three diseases throughout their lives.

    • All children should get the first dose of MMR vaccine at age 12 to 15 months and second dose at age 4 to 6 years.
    • All adults with no evidence of immunity should get 1 dose the MMR vaccine and 2 doses if in the high-risk group.

    General Information About Vaccination Outside The Us

    In developing countries, the pentavalent vaccine, a combination 5-in-one vaccine that protects against five diseases, diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus, Hib and hepatitis B, may be given to babies more than 6 weeks of age, and can be given up to 1 year of age. The first dose is given at 6 weeks, and the second and third doses are given at 10 and 14 weeks of age. The pentavalent vaccine may be made available free of charge with the support of GAVI, the vaccine alliance. Check the GAVI country hub to see the resources and immunizations that may be available:

    For babies born to mothers with hepatitis B, waiting for the first dose of the pentavalent vaccine is too late and will NOT protect the baby from vertical or horizontal transmission of hepatitis B. Babies born to a mother with hepatitis B have a greater than 90% chance of developing chronic hepatitis B if they are not properly treated at birth.

    WHO recommends the hepatitis B vaccine within 24 hours of birth for ALL babies. Plan ahead and inquire about the availability and cost of the monovalent , birth dose of the vaccine, as it is not a GAVI provided immunization. This is particularly important to women who are positive for hepatitis B.

    If you are unsure of your hepatitis B status, please be sure your doctor tests you for hepatitis B!

    *WHO does not recommend a birth dose of HBIG, which may not be available in all countries. Talk to your doctor if you have questions.

    Page updated September 2022.

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    How To Get Vaccinated Against Hepatitis B

    All babies in the UK born on or after 1 August 2017 are given 3 doses of hepatitis B-containing vaccine as part of the NHS routine vaccination schedule.

    These doses are given at 8, 12 and 16 weeks of age.

    Babies at high risk of developing hepatitis B infection from infected mothers are given extra doses of the hepatitis B vaccine at birth, 4 weeks and 1 year of age.

    If you think you’re at risk and need the hepatitis B vaccine, ask your GP to vaccinate you, or visit any sexual health or genitourinary medicine clinic.

    If your job places you at risk of hepatitis B infection, it’s your employer’s responsibility to arrange vaccination for you, rather than your GP. Contact your occupational health department.

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