What Is Hepatitis B
Hepatitis B is an infectious liver disease. It is caused by the hepatitis B virus . Infections of hepatitis B occur only if the virus is able to enter the blood stream and reach the liver. Once in the liver, the virus reproduces and releases large numbers of new viruses into the bloodstream.
To combat the disease, the body has several defenses. White blood cells, which protect the body from infections, attack and destroy the infected liver cells. The body also produces antibodies which circulate in the blood to destroy the virus and protect against future infections of hepatitis B. During the infection and recovery process, the liver may not function normally causing illness that affects the entire body.
For reasons that are not completely understood, 10 percent of people who develop hepatitis B become carriers of the disease. Their blood remains infected for months, years, sometimes for life. Seventy percent of carriers develop chronic persistent hepatitis B. Most do not appear to be ill. The remaining 30 percent of carriers experience continuous liver disease. This condition often progresses to cirrhosis and then, after 30 to 40 years, possibly to liver cancer. At present, there is no way of curing carriers. The risk of becoming a chronic carrier is related inversely with a person’s age when infected. For example, the risk of an infant becoming a carrier is 90-95% whereas the risk of an adult becoming a carrier is 3-10%.
Is Hepatitis B Contagious
Hepatitis B is highly contagious. Its transmitted through contact with blood and certain other bodily fluids. Although the virus can be found in saliva, its not transmitted through sharing utensils or kissing. Its also not transmitted through sneezing, coughing, or breastfeeding.
Symptoms of hepatitis B may not appear for 3 months after exposure. Symptoms can last for several weeks.
But even without symptoms, you can still transmit the infection to others. The virus can live outside the body and remains infectious for at least
Hepatitis B is a highly contagious condition. Its associated with many serious complications, some of which can be life threatening.
But there are many treatment options available and multiple ways you can prevent infection, including getting vaccinated.
If you suspect you may have been exposed to hepatitis B, its important to talk with a doctor to prevent infection and determine the best course of treatment for you.
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Transmission Of Hbv By Tears
The level of HBV DNA in tear specimens collected from a 10-month-old girl were 7.1 log copies/mL. The final concentration of HBV DNA in filter-sterilized tear specimens was 6.1 copies/mL. A total of 100 µL of the filter-sterilized tear specimen was injected intravenously into 2 chimeric mice. One week after inoculation, both chimeric mice became positive for HBV DNA in serum . The levels of HBV DNA in serum from the chimeric mice gradually increased with time. Seven weeks after inoculation, the levels of HBV DNA in serum from the chimeric mice increased to 9 log copies/mL and remained at this level thereafter . Saliva and lacrimal fluids were collected using FTA cards at day 80 and day 91 . Although HBV DNA was extracted from a very small spot , the levels of HBV DNA were 4.4 log copies/mL and 4.5 copies/mL in mouse 101 and 4.0 log copies/mL and 4.3 log copies/mL in mouse 102. The remaining chimeric mouse was orally inoculated with 100 µL of the filter-sterilized tear specimen. Unfortunately, we had to discontinue oral administration because of the deterioration of the mouse’s health 35 days after inoculation. The chimeric mouse had been inoculated orally twice before discontinuation. Real-time PCR performed 6 times detected no HBV DNA in serum.
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Can Hep C Survive Outside Body
According to a recent study conducted by Yale School of Medicine and Public Health researchers, the hepatitis C virus can remain infectious on surfaces for up to six weeks, significantly longer than previously thought.
We will be able to find solutions. Despite the fact that the disease cannot be cured, there are some medications that can help to control it. Antiviral drugs, which prevent the virus from replicating, and immune systemboosting therapies, which aid in the bodys ability to fight the virus more effectively, are two examples of drugs that help the body fight the virus. It is not necessary to avoid people with hepatitis C, because they are only likely to become infected through blood contact. Washing and rinsing the washing machine and dishes as usual is not required, and boiling is not. To combat the disease, an antiviral drug and a immunosuppressive therapy are used.
Hbv Dna Detection In Body Fluids
All patients were positive for HBV DNA in serum by the COBAS TaqMan HBV DNA test. The levels of serum HBV DNA ranged from 2.1 log copies/mL to > 9 log copies/mL. The median HBV DNA level in serum was > 9 log copies/mL. HBV DNA was detected in 73.7% of urine specimens , 86.8% of saliva specimens , 100% of tear specimens , and 100% of sweat specimens . In patients with a high viral load , HBV DNA was detected in 85.7% of urine samples , 100% of saliva samples , 100% of tear samples , and 100% of sweat samples . Although the frequency of HBV DNA detection in urine was slightly lower than that in other body fluids, there were no significant differences in the frequency of HBV DNA detection among body fluids.
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Sweat May Spread Hepatitis B Virus
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NEW YORK – Findings from a study of Olympic wrestlers indicate that hepatitis B virus is found in the sweat of infected individuals, and so sweating might be a way that the virus could be passed between participants in contact sports.
Bleeding wounds and mucous membranes have been implicated in hepatitis B transmission during contact sports, but until now no study had looked to see if sweat carries the virus.
Dr. S. Bereket-Yucel, from Celal Bayar University in Izmir, Turkey, tested for DNA of the hepatitis B virus in blood and sweat samples from 70 male Olympic wrestlers.
The results indicated that 9 of the wrestlers had the hepatitis B virus in their blood. However, these were deemed occult infections because no antibodies to the virus were detected in any of the wrestlers, according to the investigators report released Thursday ahead of print by the British Journal of Sports Medicine.
In eight of the nine participants whose blood tested positive, DNA for hepatitis B was also detected in sweat.
Based on these results, Evidence is emerging that the incidence of occult HBV in Olympic wrestling is higher than expected and that transmission of HBV may also occur through sweat, the researcher concludes.
The advice of sports organizations about HBV testing should be changed, they recommend, making it obligatory for all participants involved in contact sports and playing under adult rules to be vaccinated against hepatitis B.
Hiv And Hepatitis B And Hepatitis C Coinfection
Hepatitis B and hepatitis C are liver infections caused by a virus. Because these infections can be spread in the same ways as HIV, people with HIV in the United States are often also affected by chronic viral hepatitis.
Viral hepatitis progresses faster and causes more liver-related health problems among people with HIV than among those who do not have HIV. Liver disease, much of which is related to HBV or HCV, is a major cause of non-AIDS-related deaths among people with HIV.
Given the risks of hepatitis B or hepatitis C coinfection to the health of people with HIV, it is important to understand these risks, take steps to prevent infection, know your status, and, if necessary, get medical care from a health care provider who is experienced in treating people who are coinfected with HIV and HBV, or HIV and HCV.
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Viruses Are Unlikely To Be Transmitted Through Sweat
Our bodies are filled with microbes, and our hands are particularly germy, says Joseph Comber, PhD, a biologist who studied immunology and microbial pathogenesis at Villanova University. And even though our hands have sweat glands, Comber says it’s unlikely that sweat can transfer disease-causing germs.
Comber notes that the early 2003 SARS-coronavirus, a virus similar to COVID-19, was found in the sweat glands of people who had died. But sweat was not how the virus spread like COVID-19, these viruses mostly spread through respiratory secretions, such as the droplets from sneezes or coughs.
Though some types of viruses can spread through bodily fluids like mucus or saliva, these viruses including ebola or hepatitis B virus are also unlikely to be spread through sweat.
Overall, Comber says sweat won’t carry germs unless it passes over an open cut or infection, as the sweat could pick up the germs from the wound. Otherwise, “it’s really not something that has been demonstrated to be a major way that pathogens get transmitted,” says Comber.
According to an interview with infectious diseases expert Leong Hoe Nam, sweat transfer alone isn’t likely to spread illness. It’s only if sweat mixes with secretions from someone’s nose or throat like a cough or sneeze or blood that it could transmit a virus.
Check If You Have Hepatitis B
Symptoms of hepatitis B infection include:
- a high temperature
- pain in your upper tummy
- feeling sick or being sick
- patches of raised skin that may be itchy
- yellowing of the skin and whites of the eyes
The infection usually lasts for 1 to 3 months and most people either have no symptoms or mild symptoms. If the infection lasts longer than 6 months it is called chronic hepatitis B.
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Immunostaining For Hbv Surface Antigen And Hbv Core Antigen
Immunostaining for HBsAg and HBcAg was performed on frozen sections, using the Ventana i VIEW DAB detection kit and the Dako Envision kit , respectively. Primary monoclonal antibodies to HBsAg , at a 1:100 dilution, and polyclonal antibodies to HBcAg , at a 1:500 dilution, were used. Liver tissue was taken from mice after they were euthanized, and the tissue was stored at 80°C.
Where Is The Hepatitis B Virus Found And How Is It Transmitted
Blood is the major source of the hepatitis B virus in the workplace. It can also be found in other tissues and body fluids, but in much lower concentrations. The risk of transmission varies according to the specific source. The virus can survive outside the body for at least 7 days and still be able to cause infection.
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Transmission Of Hepatitis B
The hepatitis B virus is transmitted through blood and sexual fluids. This can most commonly occur in the following ways:
Direct contact with infected blood
From an infected pregnant person to their newborn during pregnancy and childbirth
Needles and other medical/dental equipments or procedures that are contaminated or not sterile
Use of illegal or street drugs
Body piercing, tattooing, acupuncture and even nail salons are other potential routes of infection unless sterile needles and equipment are used. In addition, sharing sharp instruments such as razors, toothbrushes, nail clippers, earrings and body jewelry can be a source of infection.
Hepatitis B is NOT transmitted casually. It cannot be spread through toilet seats, doorknobs, sneezing, coughing, hugging or eating meals with someone who is infected with hepatitis B.
Hbv Dna Extraction And Real
HBV DNA in serum was measured by COBAS TaqMan HBV DNA test, version 2.0 . HBV DNA was extracted from 200 µL of urine, using the QIAamp DNA Blood Mini Kit . HBV DNA was extracted from saliva, tear, and sweat specimens that were spotted on FTA cards, using QIAamp DNA Mini kit . Three circles were punched from the FTA card by use of a single-hole paper puncher and were used for HBV DNA extraction. The extracted DNA was dissolved in 100 µL of elution buffer.
Quantification of HBV DNA in urine, saliva, tear, and sweat samples was performed using an in-house TaqMan real-time assay. The real-time PCR was performed using a genotype-independent method described previously . PCR was performed in an MX3000P , and the results were analyzed with MxPro software . The lower limit of detection was > 100 copies/mL. All assays were performed in duplicate with negative control samples. This assay was standardized using HBV DNA samples of known concentrations measured by the COBAS TaqMan HBV DNA test and recombinant plasmid controls. In this study, the standard of qualification is based on the result of COBAS TaqMan HBV DNA test. Therefore, the conversion factor between HBV copies/mL and HBV IU/mL is considered to be 5.82 copies/IU. Genotyping of HBV was determined by the PCR-Invader assay .
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Return To School Or Child Care
- Your child may return to normal daily activity when the childs doctor or the doctor who discharges him or her from the hospital says it is OK. This will be when your child is no longer jaundiced or vomiting.
- A child who scratches, bites or “gets into fights, has an overall skin condition, or a bleeding problem should probably not attend child care while he or she has hepatitis. Your childs doctor can help you make this decision.
If you have any questions, be sure to ask your childs doctor or nurse.
HH-I-43 10/76, Revised 10/15 Copyright 1976, Nationwide Childrens Hospital
Tear Specimen For Experimental Transmission
For experimental transmission, a tear specimen was collected from a 10-month-old girl with chronic HBV infection. The source of her HBV infection was mother-to-child transmission due to the failure of prophylactic treatment. A total of 200 µL of tears were gently collected from her face when she cried, using a 1.0-mL syringe. The 200-µL tear specimen was diluted with 1300 µL of sterile saline, yielding a total volume of 1500 µL. The specimen underwent filter sterilization with a 0.2-µm filter.
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How To Get Tested
Oftentimes, people with hepatitis B dont have symptoms. That’s why it’s important to get tested if you had unprotected sex or shared a needle with someone who may have been infected. Hepatitis B is detected by a blood test and is usually included in routine sexually transmitted infection screenings.
What Is The Risk
Because universal vaccination of newborns has been recommended since 1991, rates of Hepatitis B in the United States have been going down. But certain groups are still at higher risk, including:
- Infants born to mothers with hepatitis B
- People born outside the United States, or those who travel to areas like Asia or sub-Saharan Africa, where hepatitis B is more common
- Sexual partners of people with hepatitis B
- Men who have sex with men
- People who inject drugs and share needles or syringes
- People who live with someone who has hepatitis B
- Abdominal pain, nausea, or vomiting
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Sweat Can Kill Germs On Your Own Body
Sweating is the body’s natural response when your temperature gets too high. It leaves the skin through pores, or tiny openings in your skin, which allows your sweat to evaporate and cool you down. Sweat is mostly made from water, but it also contains ammonia, salts, and proteins, which are essentially waste products that your body gets rid of through your pores.
Sweat can also kill pathogens, which is a scientific term for microbes that cause disease. For example, dermcidin, produced when we sweat, is a type of antimicrobial peptide that can puncture the outer membranes of bacteria or viruses.
Scientists believe that sweat produces 1,700 types of natural antibiotics that can “rapidly and efficiently kill invaders” after an injury. These natural substances may also be more effective long-term than prescribed antibiotics, since bacteria and viruses can’t quickly develop an immunity to them.
Other Body Fluids And Tissues
Synovial fluid , amniotic fluid, cerebrospinal fluid, and peritoneal fluid can contain the hepatitis B virus, but the risk of transmission to workers is not known.
Feces, nasal secretions, sputum, sweat, tears, urine, and vomit have not been implicated in the spread of hepatitis B. Unless they are visibly contaminated with blood, the risk of contracting hepatitis B from these fluids in the workplace is very low.
Hepatitis B is not transmitted by casual contact. For example, hospital employees who have no contact with blood, blood products, or blood-contaminated fluids are at no greater risk than the general public. However, the virus can spread through intimate contact with carriers in a household setting, possibly because of frequent physical contact with small cuts or skin rashes. The virus can also spread through biting and possibly by the sharing of toothbrushes or razors. It is not spread through sneezing, coughing, hand holding, hugging, kissing, breastfeeding, sharing eating utensils, water or food.
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What Is The Treatment For Hepatitis B
Prevention is recommended by receiving a vaccine for HBV.
Receiving an injection of the hepatitis B immune globulin within 12 hours of coming in contact with the virus may help prevent the development of the disease.
At present, there is no specific treatment for patients with acute hepatitis B. Acute infection is usually short and will often resolve on its own. Your health care provider may recommend rest, and adequate nutrition and fluids to help your body fight the infection. Hospitalization may be required for patients who suffer from severe vomiting and who are unable to maintain adequate nutritional levels. It may also be required to prevent the development of complications.
While chronic infection cannot be cured, there are two standard treatments in Canada that may control the virus and prevent further damage to the liver.
- Antiviral medications can fight the virus and slow damage to the liver.
- Interferon which may be given for short periods and if effective, results in suppression of the virus.