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Hepatitis B Versus Hepatitis C

What Are The Symptoms Of Hepatitis B And C

Viral Hepatitis: Comparing Hepatitis A, B, C, D, and E

In most patients, hepatitis B develops slowly over the course of several decades, and thus most patients have no symptoms. People who have advanced liver disease such as cirrhosis of the liver may experience complications and symptoms that reflect liver failure. Other symptoms include:

  • A buildup of fluid within the abdominal cavity
  • Confusion and tremors , which are complications due to the inability of the liver to filter out toxins that are normally cleaned out by a healthy liver
  • Vomiting of blood, or blood within the stool . This is a complication in which enlarged veins within the esophagus or stomach bleed as a consequence of increased pressure around the diseased liver.

Most patients with chronic hepatitis C infection report no symptoms. But some patients may have very nonspecific symptoms related to fatigue and discomfort on the right side of the abdomen. Often, symptoms that lead to a diagnosis of hepatitis C are noticeable only at the end stage of liver disease, when the patient has developed liver cirrhosis and liver failure.

Because hepatitis B and C typically have no specific symptoms, many people who have the viruses dont even know it.

Hepatitis And Liver Transplant

Any form of hepatitis can cause liver damage. If the liver becomes severely damaged, a liver transplant is necessary.

With more than 14,000 Americans on the waiting list for a liver transplant, patients often wait years for a transplant. Living donor transplantation allows a transplant to take place before the disease progresses further.

To reduce time on the transplant waiting list, you can choose to find a living donor. During a living-donor liver transplant, the surgeon takes a small part of the donors healthy liver and transplants it into the recipient. This process is possible because of the livers unique ability to regenerate, or regrow.

Helpful Tips While Taking Hepatitis C Medications

  • Always follow your health care providers advice, particularly the instructions on taking your medicine.
  • If you have to cancel an appointment, call your provider and schedule a new one as soon as possible.
  • Take good care of yourself. Eat well, drink 8 to 10 glasses of water each day, and try to get a full nights sleep.
  • Learn about the hepatitis C medications you are taking. This includes special risks and warnings.
  • If taking ribavirin, use sunscreen, wear long sleeves and a hat, and limit sun exposure.
  • Write down your doctors name and phone number. Carry this information with you at all times.
  • Write the names and amounts of the medicines you are taking. Carry this information with you at all times.

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How Is It Spread

Hepatitis A is spread when a person ingests fecal mattereven in microscopic amountsfrom contact with objects, food, or drinks contaminated by feces or stool from an infected person.

  • Birth to an infected mother
  • Sex with an infected person
  • Sharing equipment that has been contaminated with blood from an infected person, such as needles, syringes, and even medical equipment, such as glucose monitors
  • Sharing personal items such as toothbrushes or razors
  • Poor infection control has resulted in outbreaks in health care facilities

Hepatitis C is spread when blood from a person infected with the Hepatitis C virus even in microscopic amounts enters the body of someone who is not infected. The hepatitis C virus can also be transmitted from:

  • Sharing equipment that has been contaminated with blood from an infected person, such as needles and syringes
  • Receiving a blood transfusion or organ transplant before 1992
  • Poor infection control has resulted in outbreaks in health care facilities
  • Birth to an infected mother

Hcc And Ifn Maintenance Therapy

Know The ABC

Because IFN has anti-fibrotic and anti-carcinogenic properties the use of IFN as maintenance therapy in patients who were non-responders to prior treatment provided the rationale for several clinical trials. In a randomized trial of 53 patients Shiffman et al. found that maintenance IFN therapy with 3 MU three times a week reduced fibrosis stage with a decrease in stage from 2.5 at baseline to 1.7 after 30 months of therapy compared to essentially no change in fibrosis score in the group that stopped IFN . The study was not designed to detect significant differences in rates of HCC between the groups. In a clinical trial that included 90 patients randomized to IFN-alpha 6 million units for 12 to 24 weeks or symptomatic treatment , followed for 2 to 7 years, 2 patients in the IFN group and 17 patients in the control group developed HCC, P=0.002 . Data from these studies provided rationale to consider prescribing IFN maintenance therapy in HCV patients with advanced fibrosis who were non-responders.

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How Is Hepatitis Diagnosed

The first step in diagnosing a hepatitis infection is to receive a medical exam from your doctor. The doctor will perform a physical to look for signs of the illness. All the varieties of hepatitis present with a very similar set of symptoms, which includes:

You may also experience jaundice or a yellowing of the skin and eyes and bowel movements that appear gray. Michael says, Fortunately, most patients are asymptomatic. If you have hepatitis B and its an active condition, meaning youre sick from it, your skin and eyes are going to have a yellow tint.

The doctor will look for these telltale signs and then order blood work to spot the viral load for the type of hepatitis and whether the infection is dormant or active. If the virus is active, you are contagious. The blood test can also determine if the infection is acute or chronic .

If the blood test confirms hepatitis, the doctor may also order an ultrasound of the liver to see if it is inflamed. The ultrasound should also show if the liver is scarred with cirrhosis. You may also have a CT or MRI to look more closely at the liver or signs of liver cancer. This is especially important if you have a family history of the disease.

Finally, in the unusual event that the imaging tests arent shedding light on the situation, the clinician may order a liver biopsy.

Signos Y Sntomas De La Hepatitis A

En el 70% de los casos, la Hepatitis es completamente asintomática, pero cuando los síntomas están presentes aparecen aproximadamente 15-45 días después del contacto con el virus y tienden a desaparecer espontáneamente en 2 meses.

El síntoma más frecuente de la hepatitis es la astenia, es decir, una debilidad intensa.

Otros síntomas que suelen informar los pacientes con esta hepatitis son pérdida de apetito, dolor abdominal, náuseas y vómitos, fiebre, dolor de cabeza, dolor muscular, ictericia , valores elevados de transaminasas y bilirrubina.

A medida que avanza la enfermedad, también pueden aparecer comezón, heces pálidas y orina oscura.

En epidemias y en niños puede ser completamente asintomático.

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Is There A Possibility Of Coinfection

Both hepatitis B and C can be present at the same time. Hepatitis C may become more dominant, reducing hepatitis B levels in the bloodstream to low or undetectable levels.

Prior to starting hepatitis C treatment, people should have their blood tested for hepatitis B using the three-part blood test . According to the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases treatment guidelines, people who are currently infected with hepatitis B or who have recovered from a previous infection should be managed carefully to avoid dangerous elevations in liver enzymes that can lead to liver failure.

Getting Tested Is The Only Way To Know If You Have Hepatitis C

What is Hepatitis B and C? – Dr. Robert S. Brown

A blood test called a hepatitis C antibody test can tell if you have been infected with the hepatitis C viruseither recently or in the past. If you have a positive antibody test, another blood test is needed to tell if you are still infected or if you were infected in the past and cleared the virus on your own.

  • Are 18 years of age and older
  • Currently inject drugs

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How Does It Affect The Body

The incubation period for hepatitis B can range from . However, not everyone who has acute hepatitis B will experience symptoms.

About 95 percent of adults completely recover from hepatitis B. However, hepatitis B can also become chronic.

The risk of chronic hepatitis B is greatest in those who were exposed to HBV as young children. Many people with chronic hepatitis B dont have symptoms until significant liver damage has occurred.

In some people whove had hepatitis B, the virus can reactivate later on. When this happens, symptoms and liver damage may occur. People with a weakened immune system and those being treated for hepatitis C are at a higher risk for HBV reactivation.

Hcc In Patients Treated With Ifn Based Therapy

The risk of HCC in HCV patients who achieve SVR is markedly reduced, but patients remain at risk for HCC, especially patients who have bridging fibrosis or cirrhosis . Although eradication of HCV virus in the serum 12 weeks after therapy is terminated serves as a surrogate to eradicating virus in the liver, studies have shown that HCV RNA persists in the liver and peripheral blood mononuclear cells in some sustained viral responder . A study in nine sustained viral responders found that peripheral blood mononuclear cells from three of these individuals elicited productive infection in vitro . The association of persistent viral RNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells or in the liver and the risk of HCC is unknown.

Among patients who develop HCC after virologic cure, HCV RNA can be found in hepatic tissue . Microscopic pathologic features of HCC are similar between patients who have achieved virologic cure and non-responders. At the molecular level, however, alterations in mitochondrial DNA and methylation status are less frequent in HCCs from those with virologic cure than HCCs from patients with chronic HCV . The implications of these differences in molecular alterations in HCCs from those cured and chronic HCV patients are unknown.

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Quin Est En Riesgo De Contraer El Virus De La Hepatitis A

Aunque cualquiera puede contraer hepatitis, ciertas categorías de personas corren un mayor riesgo de entrar en contacto con el virus de la hepatitis A.

Éstos incluyen:

  • personas con enfermedad hepática crónica
  • viajeros a países donde la hepatitis A es endémica
  • aquellos que practican sexo sin protección
  • personas que trabajan en entornos donde es posible el contacto con el virus o que cohabitan o cuidan a personas con hepatitis A.

Isg15 Rs1921 Variant And Isg15 Serum Levels

Living Well: What you need to know about hepatitis

We analyzed the association of the ISG15 rs1921 variant with ISG15 serum levels in HBV patients and controls. ISG15 serum levels in HBV patients with the genotype rs1921GG were marginally higher than those in HBV patients with either rs1921AA or rs1921GA genotypes . Among controls, ISG15 levels did not differ among individuals with the various genotypes .

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What Are The Types Of Hepatitis

The three most common types of hepatitis in the United States are A, B, and C, but there are five types in total. All of these forms of hepatitis target the livers ability to function. Here are the differences between them:

  • Hepatitis A is caused by the hepatitis A virus, which spreads through the blood and stool of people infected by the virus.
  • Hepatitis B is also caused by a virus spread through bodily fluids from an infected person however, it can be prevented through the use of vaccines.
  • Hepatitis C is also a viral form of hepatitis. It can be short-term or long-term. As a chronic infection, it can cause life-threatening health issues like cirrhosis or liver cancer.
  • Hepatitis D, also known as delta hepatitis, only occurs concurrently within people who also have the hepatitis B virus.
  • Hepatitis E,though not particularly common in the United States, can spread from eating raw or undercooked pork, shellfish, or wild game.

If I Have Hepatitis How Can I Avoid Giving It To Someone Else

For hepatitis A, one of the best things you can do is wash your hands a lot. That will keep the virus out of food and drinks.

If you have hepatitis B and C, you need to find ways to keep others from making contact with your blood. Follow these tips:

  • Cover your cuts or blisters.
  • Carefully throw away used bandages, tissues, tampons, and sanitary napkins.
  • Don’t share your razor, nail clippers, or toothbrush.
  • If your blood gets on objects, clean them with household bleach and water.
  • Don’t breastfeed if your nipples are cracked or bleeding.
  • Don’t donate blood, organs, or sperm.
  • If you inject drugs, don’t share needles or other equipment.

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What Causes Hepatitis C

The hepatitis C virus causes hepatitis C. The hepatitis C virus spreads through contact with an infected persons blood. Contact can occur by

  • sharing drug needles or other drug materials with an infected person
  • getting an accidental stick with a needle that was used on an infected person
  • being tattooed or pierced with tools or inks that were not kept sterilefree from all viruses and other microorganismsand were used on an infected person before they were used on you
  • having contact with the blood or open sores of an infected person
  • using an infected persons razor, toothbrush, or nail clippers
  • being born to a mother with hepatitis C
  • having unprotected sex with an infected person

You cant get hepatitis C from

  • being coughed or sneezed on by an infected person
  • drinking water or eating food
  • hugging an infected person
  • shaking hands or holding hands with an infected person
  • sharing spoons, forks, and other eating utensils
  • sitting next to an infected person

A baby cant get hepatitis C from breast milk.18

How Is Hepatitis B Diagnosed

Viral Hepatitis: Hepatitis A, Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C, HBsAg HBeAg Vaccine HCV HBV HBsAb

Blood tests are used to diagnose hepatitis B. Blood tests can tell your doctor whether your liver is working properly, and they can also be used to monitor your condition during treatment.

Your doctor may want to look at your liver with an ultrasound exam or X-rays. You may also need a liver biopsy. During a liver biopsy, a small piece of the liver is removed and looked at under a microscope. A liver biopsy can help your doctor diagnose your illness and see the condition of your liver directly.

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What Are Dosages Of Hepatitis B Vaccine

Dosages of Hepatitis B Vaccine:

Dosage Considerations Should be Given as Follows:

  • Engerix B: 1 mL intramuscularly at 0, 1, and 6 months
  • Recombivax HB: 1 mL intramuscularly at 0, 1, and 6 months
  • Adults receiving dialysis or other immunocompromising conditions
  • Recombivax HB : 40 mcg intramuscularly at 0, 1, and 6 months, OR
  • Engerix-B : 40 mcg intramuscularly at 0, 1, and 6 months

Routine vaccination

Catch-up vaccination

  • Unvaccinated children should complete a 3-dose series
  • Children aged 11-15 years: 2-dose series of adult formulation Recombivax HB is licensed for use in children aged 11 through 15 years

Dosing Considerations

Pediatric:

Suspected adverse events after administration of any vaccine may be reported to Vaccine Adverse Events Reporting System , 1-800-822-7967

This document does not contain all possible side effects and others may occur. Check with your physician for additional information about side effects.

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How Is It Treated

Hepatitis A is treated using supportive methods. These can include things like rest, fluids, and healthy foods. Medications can also help to ease some symptoms like fever, aches, and pains.

Theres a vaccine available to protect against infection with HAV. This is typically recommended for children as well as for people at an increased risk for contracting the virus.

Also, receiving a single dose of the hepatitis A vaccine may prevent you from becoming ill if youve been exposed to HAV. For it to be effective, the vaccine needs to be given of exposure.

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Demographics Age Distribution And Underlying Comorbidities

A total of 149 HCC patients were enrolled during the study period: 89 with HBV-associated cancers, 38 with HCV-associated cancers, 4 with cancers associated with both HBV and HCV, and 18 patients with cancers not associated with either hepatitis virus . HCC patients with HBV and HCV co-infection, as well as those without underlying viral hepatitis were excluded from the present analysis. HCC developed more commonly among males in both groups, however the association to male gender was stronger in the HBV group. Only 5% of HBV-associated HCCs developed in female patients compared with 21% of HCV-associated HCCs . The majority of HBV-associated HCC patients were of Asian race , compared with only 5% in HCV-associated HCC patients .

Figure 1

HCC incidence according to underlying etiology . Underlying risk factors for HCC in current series closely resembles global demographic: worldwide epidemiologic data estimate HCC due to HBV in 53-54% of total cases, and due to HCV in 25%-31% of cases

As a group, patients who developed HCC associated with underlying HBV had fewer systemic comorbidities than those with underlying HCV. A mean of 1.0 underlying systemic comorbidity was present in HBV patients at the time of initial cancer diagnosis, compared with a mean of 2.9 associated systemic comorbidities in HCV patients . A coincident history of alcohol abuse was also less frequent in the HBV group , as was the frequency of HIV co-infection .

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