Friday, December 2, 2022

Hepatitis C How Do You Catch It

How Can I Protect Myself From Hepatitis C Infection

How Do You Catch Hepatitis C?

If you dont have hepatitis C, you can help protect yourself from hepatitis C infection by

  • not sharing drug needles or other drug materials
  • wearing gloves if you have to touch another persons blood or open sores
  • making sure your tattoo artist or body piercer uses sterile tools and unopened ink
  • not sharing personal items such toothbrushes, razors, or nail clippers

Hepatitis C can spread from person to person during sex, but the chances are low. People who have multiple sex partners, have HIV or other sexually transmitted diseases, or who engage in rough or anal sex have a higher chance of getting hepatitis C. Talk with your doctor about your risk of getting hepatitis C through sex and about safe sex practices, such as using a latex or polyurethane condom to help prevent the spread of hepatitis C.

If you had hepatitis C in the past and your body fought off the infection or medicines cured the infection, you can get hepatitis C again. Follow the steps above, and talk with your doctor about how to protect yourself from another hepatitis C infection.

If you think you may have been exposed to the hepatitis C virus, see your doctor as soon as possible. Early diagnosis and treatment can help prevent liver damage.

What Occupations Have Increased Risk Of Hepatitis C

The risk of acquiring hepatitis C from the workplace depends on the amount of exposure to human blood or blood products and needlestick injuries. In general, occupational groups with increased risk include workers such as healthcare workers, dentists, and laboratory personnel who are repeatedly exposed to human blood and who are at risk of needlestick injuries.

What Is The Treatment For Hepatitis

Each type of hepatitis is treated differently.

Hepatitis A often goes away on its own and home treatment is all that is needed to help the liver recover, such as:

  • Rest
  • Avoiding alcohol
  • Avoiding certain medicines that can be harmful to the liver

Hepatitis B often goes away on its own in about 6 months, and can also be treated at home with the above remedies. Other treatments for hepatitis B include:

Treatment for hepatitis C is effective on certain forms of the hepatitis C virus. The choice of medications depends on the type of hepatitis C you have, whether you have been treated for the illness before, how much liver damage has occurred, any other underlying medical issues, and other medicines you take. Treatment for hepatitis C usually involves 8 to 12 weeks of oral antiviral medications, such as:

  • Elbasvir-grazoprevir

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I Have Hepatitis C And I’m Thinking About Having Children What Should I Know

Hepatitis C does not prevent a man or woman from having children.

The hepatitis C virus infection does not cause infertility in either sex–it does not affect a woman’s ovarian or uterine function, or a man’s sperm production or sperm characteristics.

If you are a woman with hepatitis C, talk to your provider about treatment before pregnancy. Treatment before pregnancy can help reduce the risk of hepatitis C transmission to your baby. If you are already pregnant, treatment will usually take place after pregnancy and you may need to be tested for hepatitis C again prior to starting treatment.

If you are a man with hepatitis C, talk to your provider about being treated prior to conceiving. Although the risk of transmission during sex is low, it is still important to treat hepatitis C for your personal health.

Who Can Be Treated For Hepatitis C

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Treatment decisions should be made by both you and your provider. Current treatments for hepatitis C are very successful and can cure most people of the virus.

  • Treatment regimens exist for all genotypes.
  • Treatment regimens exist for HCV-HIV coinfection.
  • Treatment regimens exist for all stages of disease .
  • Treatment regimens exist for patients who have taken treatment in the past but were not successful.
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    Can You Get Hepatitis From Kissing

    All possibilities must be considered in trying to determine how unknown sources of Hepatitis C infection took place. Although Hepatitis C has been detected in saliva, the necessary conditions render it unlikelybut not impossibleto be transmitted by kissing or through the sharing of a toothbrush.

    Before anybody panics about these potential risks, remember that there are conditions accompanying these possible modes of transmission:

    • The person with the virus must have a viral load over one million.
    • Both parties involved have gum disease.

    While experts view the risk of transmitting this disease through saliva as extremely low, it is recommended to maintain good oral hygiene, and toothbrushes be used solely by their owners.

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    What Is Hepatitis

    Hepatitis is an infection and inflammation of the liver, an organ located on the upper right side of the abdomen.

    There are several types of infectious hepatitis, caused by different viruses. They can cause similar symptoms but can affect the liver in different ways. The three main viral types are:

    • Hepatitis A: This is a short-term infection and most patients recover without treatment within about 2 months. It can be prevented with a vaccine.
    • Hepatitis B: This can cause acute or chronic infection. Most patients recover within 6 months but some patients develop a long-term infection that can result in liver damage. It can be prevented with a vaccine.
    • Hepatitis C: This can cause acute or chronic infection that can lead to liver damage and severe scarring of the liver and an increased risk of liver cancer. There’s no vaccine to prevent it.

    Other types of viral hepatitis include hepatitis D, which only develops in people who have hepatitis B, and hepatitis E, which is more common in parts of the developing world where there is poor sanitation.

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    How Hbv Is Spread

    It is possible for the hepatitis B virus to be spread through the bodily fluids of an infected person, which is to say that the virus can be transmitted through the blood, sweat, tears, saliva, semen, vaginal secretions, menstrual blood, and breast milk of an infected person. That said, having hepatitis B does not necessarily mean that you are infectious only some people with HBV are actually contagious.

    Opportunities for exposure can include sharing a syringe or getting tattoos or body piercings with infected tools. But it also means that it is possible to be exposed during childbirth as well as sexual contact and intercourse. In fact, nearly two-thirds of acute cases of hepatitis B in the United States are caused by sexual exposure.

    Though HBV can be spread through blood, there is generally very little risk of contracting the virus through blood transfusions as most countries began screening for it by 1975.

    What Is The Difference Between Relapse And Nonresponse

    How is Hepatitis C spread? — Mayo Clinic

    The goal of treating chronic hepatitis C is to completely clear the virus. This means that your âviral loadâ is zero or so low that the virus canât be detected with standard blood tests.

    Without treatment, the hepatitis C virus in liver cells constantly makes copies of itself, and the virus ends up not just in liver cells but also in the bloodstream. Treatment is intended to completely stop reproduction of the virus so that it doesnât continue to enter the bloodstream or cause any more injury to liver cells.

    Successful treatment results in a âsustained virological response.â This means the virus becomes completely undetectable before the treatment is finished, and it remains undetectable for 6 months after treatment is stopped.

    A ârelapseâ means the viral load drops to an undetectable level before treatment is completed, but becomes detectable again within 6 months after treatment is stopped. Even if the virus returns at a level that is lower than it was before treatment, a relapse is still considered to have occurred. A relapse can be determined if the viral load starts to rise during treatment, or at any time after the virus becomes undetectable.

    A ânonresponseâ means the viral load never drops significantly and the virus remains detectable throughout the course of treatment.

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    What Happens In Your Body With Hep C

    Once the virus enters your bloodstream, it heads for your liver. Hepatitis C is a viral infection, and its a virus that lives primarily in the liver, says Dr. Goff. The reason it causes trouble is our immune system tries to get rid of it, but the virus mutates quite quickly, so it keeps alluding being caught. The liver gets caught in the crossfire.

    Over time, the chronic infection can lead to serious liver scarring and damage, increasing the risk of life-threatening liver failure and cancer, Dr. Fox says.

    Hepatitis C Symptoms And Treatment

    Hepatitis C is part of a group of hepatitis viruses that attack the liver. It is commonly found in infected blood. It is also rarely found in semen and vaginal fluids.

    The virus is usually passed on through using contaminated needles and syringes or other items with infected blood on them. It can also be passed on through unprotected sex, especially when blood is present.

    It often has no noticeable symptoms. Some peoples bodies can clear the infection on their own but others may develop chronic hepatitis C and will need to take antiviral treatment to cure the infection and prevent liver damage.

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    Parenteral Routes: Transmission Of Hepatitis B Hepatitis D And Hepatitis C

    Hepatitis B, C, and D viruses are all transmitted by what is known as the parenteral route. Parenteral simply means that these viruses can be introduced by all routes except through the intestinal tract, which leaves the door wide open in terms of possible exposure. Let’s look at the possible transmission routes for each of these types of hepatitis virus more closely.

    How Is Hepatitis C Spread

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    Hepatitis C spreads through contact with the blood of someone who has HCV. This contact may be through

    • Sharing drug needles or other drug materials with someone who has HCV. In the United States, this is the most common way that people get hepatitis C.
    • Getting an accidental stick with a needle that was used on someone who has HCV. This can happen in health care settings.
    • Being tattooed or pierced with tools or inks that were not sterilized after being used on someone who has HCV
    • Having contact with the blood or open sores of someone who has HCV
    • Sharing personal care items that may have come in contact with another persons blood, such as razors or toothbrushes
    • Being born to a mother with HCV
    • Having unprotected sex with someone who has HCV

    Before 1992, hepatitis C was also commonly spread through blood transfusions and organ transplants. Since then, there has been routine testing of the U.S. blood supply for HCV. It is now very rare for someone to get HCV this way.

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    What Foods Should I Avoid

    Everyone should avoid eating a lot of fat, cholesterol, salt and processed sugar, even if their liver is healthy. In addition, those with HCV should limit or avoid alcohol. Drinking alcohol will speed up liver damage.

    Eating properly can help decrease some of the symptoms of Hepatitis C, like feeling tired and sick. Drink lots of water for general health benefits. HCV is not a digestive disease diet will not affect the disease. Your provider may put you on a special diet if you have advanced liver disease.

    Meaning Of Hcv Viral Load

    The number of HCV RNA international units per milliliter of blood must be measured before treatment and during the course of treatment, to assess response. Before treatment, however, the HCV viral load is not related to the patients liver disease severity or HCV prognosis. This is important for patients and providers to understand.

    Note: In hepatitis B, unlike hepatitis C, a higher HBV DNA viral load does correlate with increased disease severity and increased likelihood of outcomes such as hepatocellular carcinoma.

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    Why Getting Tested Is Important

    A blood test is one of the only ways to confirm a diagnosis of hepatitis C. Additionally, hepatitis C often has no visible symptoms for many years.

    Because of this, its important to be tested if you believe youve been exposed to the virus. Getting a timely diagnosis can help ensure you receive treatment before permanent liver damage occurs.

    What Are The Chances Of Getting Hepatitis C From Sex

    Hepatitis C Screening

    Hepatitis C can spread through sexual intercourse, but it’s rare. And it’s extremely rare among monogamous couples. In fact, the CDC considers the risk of sexual transmission between monogamous couples so low that it doesn’t even recommend using condoms. Also, there’s no evidence that hepatitis C is spread by oral sex. But you should avoid sharing razors, toothbrushes, and nail clippers, and sex during menstruation.

    If you have HIV or if you have multiple partners, you should take precautions. Using condoms will protect you and your partners.

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    If You Have Hepatitis C Should You Get A Flu Shot

    Yes. Having chronic hepatitis C is actually a good reason to get the flu shot. Chronic hepatitis C is a condition that can increase your risk of complications if you do get influenza. That’s why it is recommended for people with hepatitis C, and most chronic liver diseases, to be vaccinated against the flu.

    To stay up to date with your influenza vaccinations, you need to be vaccinated every year–ideally, early in the flu season or as soon as the vaccine becomes available. Typically, flu season is considered to be October to March. It’s best to get vaccinated annually because the vaccine is designed differently each year to target the strains of influenza that are expected to circulate during that particular flu season.

    Should I Be Screened For Hepatitis C

    Doctors usually recommend one-time screening of all adults ages 18 to 79 for hepatitis C. Screening is testing for a disease in people who have no symptoms. Doctors use blood tests to screen for hepatitis C. Many people who have hepatitis C dont have symptoms and dont know they have hepatitis C. Screening tests can help doctors diagnose and treat hepatitis C before it causes serious health problems.

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    The A B Cs Of Viral Hepatitis

    Thursday is World Hepatitis Day. Honoring the birthday of Dr. Baruch “Barry” Blumberg , the World Health Organization and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention designated July 28 to raise awareness about viral hepatitis.

    Why Dr. Blumberg? “Dr. Blumberg discovered the hepatitis B virus in 1967, and two years later, he developed the first hepatitis B vaccine. These achievements culminated in Dr. Blumberg winning the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1976,” the CDC says.

    Over 354 million people worldwide are affected by viral hepatitis. The WHO and CDC chose this day to educate people about the burden of these infections and the actions people can take to avoid them. So today, I’ll do my part.

    I couldn’t help but wonder if Dr. Blumberg discovered hepatitis B, who found hepatitis A? The National Institutes of Health says that disease outbreaks resembling what today we call hepatitis A have been around “since antiquity.”

    Hepatitis means inflammation of the liver. “The liver is a vital organ that processes nutrients, filters the blood, and fights infections. When the liver is inflamed or damaged, its function can be affected,” the CDC explains.

    “Many people with hepatitis do not have symptoms and do not know they are infected,” CDC says. “If symptoms occur with an acute infection, they can appear anytime from two weeks to six months after exposure.

    Kathy Hubbard

    How Is Hepatitis C Infection Prevented

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    Unfortunately, there is no vaccine to prevent hepatitis C. To reduce your risk of getting hepatitis C:

    • Injection drug use is the most common way people get hepatitis C. Avoid injecting drugs to reduce your risk. If you do inject drugs, use sterile injection equipment. Avoid reusing or sharing.
    • Avoid sharing personal care items that might have blood on them
    • If you are a health care or public safety worker, follow universal blood/body fluid precautions and safely handle needles and other sharps
    • Consider the risks if you are thinking about tattooing, body piercing, or acupuncture are the instruments properly sterilized?
    • If youre having sex with more than one partner, use latex condoms correctly and every time to prevent the spread of sexually transmitted diseases, including hepatitis C.

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    Can You Get Hep C From Recreational Drug Use

    The main way hepatitis C is spread is blood-to-blood, says Rena Fox, M.D., a professor of medicine at the University of California, San Francisco, and an internist and hepatitis specialist at UCSF Health. So any activity where you might come in contact with another persons blood, like sharing needles, puts you at risk.

    In fact, sharing needles and syringes is the most common way hepatitis C is spread, says Dr. Fox. We started seeing the number of new cases per year rise again about four or five years ago, along with an increase in heroin use with the opioid epidemic, she says. If people become addicted to prescription opiates, but then lose access to them, she explains, they may turn to heroin which often involves sharing needles.

    How Does Hepatitis C Spread

    Hepatitis C is spread only through exposure to an infected person’s blood.

    High-risk activities include:

    • Sharing drug use equipment. Anything involved with injecting street drugs, from syringes, to needles, to tourniquets, can have small amounts of blood on it that can transmit hepatitis C. Pipes and straws to smoke or snort drugs can have blood on them from cracked lips or nosebleeds. Get into a treatment program if you can. At the very least, don’t share needles or equipment with anyone else.
    • Sharing tattoo or piercing tools. Nonsterile items and ink can spread contaminated blood.
    • Blood transfusions in countries that donât screen blood for hepatitis C.
    • Nonsterile medical equipment. Tools that arenât cleaned properly between use can spread the virus.
    • Blood or cutting rituals. Sharing the tools or exchanging blood can transmit hepatitis C.

    Medium-risk activities include:

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