Thursday, June 16, 2022

Can Hepatitis B Be Cured

What Treatments Are Available For Chronic Hepatitis B If Medications Dont Work

Can Hepatitis B be cured 100% by homeopathy? – Dr. Sanjay Panicker

If you have advanced hepatitis B, you might also become a candidate for a liver transplant. This path does not always result in a cure because the virus continues in your bloodstream after a transplant. To prevent being infected again after your transplant, you may be prescribed hepatitis B immunoglobulin with an antiviral agent.

Lack Of Impact Of Na On Covalently Closed Circular Dna

A major hurdle to HBV cure is the presence of cccDNA in the hepatocyte nucleus in a non-integrated form or episome. cccDNA serves as the template for transcription of all viral RNAs including pregenomic RNA and thus plays a key role in the viral lifecycle. There are two sources of cccDNA: incoming virions and re-cycling of encapsidated DNA from the hepatocyte cytoplasm. The half-life of cccDNA is long thus explaining why it is difficult to cure HBV infection and why HBV can reactivate either spontaneously or following immune suppression, many years after clearance of HBsAg. Chain terminating NAs block the reverse transcription of pregenomic RNA to HBV DNA but they have marginal effect on cccDNA production, stability or transcription. Continued transcription from cccDNA and integrated viral genomes may explain the relatively minor decrease in serum HBsAg levels during NA therapy despite undetectable serum HBV DNA levels.33 Unfortunately, current assays for circulating HBsAg cannot distinguish the transcription of HBsAg from cccDNA versus integrated HBV DNA.

How Can You Prevent Hepatitis B And Hepatitis C

Hepatitis B: Vaccination is the best way to prevent all of the ways that hepatitis B is transmitted. People with HIV who do not have active HBV infection should be vaccinated against it. In addition to the 3-dose series of hepatitis B vaccine given over 6 months, as of 2017, there is a 2-dose series given over 1 month.

Hepatitis C: No vaccine exists for HCV and no effective pre- or postexposure prophylaxis is available. The best way to prevent hepatitis C infection is to never inject drugs or to stop injecting drugs by getting into and staying in drug treatment. If you continue injecting drugs, always use new, sterile needles or syringes, and never reuse or share needles or syringes, water, or other drug preparation equipment.

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How Common Is Hepatitis B

The number of people who get this disease is down, the CDC says. Rates have dropped from an average of 200,000 per year in the 1980s to around 20,000 in 2016. People between the ages of 20 and 49 are most likely to get it.

About 90% of infants and 25-50% of children between the ages of 1-5 will become chronically infected. In adults, approximately 95% will recover completely and will not go on to have a chronic infection.

As many as 1.2 million people in the U.S. are carriers of the virus.

Defintion Of Hbv Cure

Hepatitis B cure: Several investigational drugs shoot at ...

The goal of developing new therapies is to achieve HBV cure, i.e. elimination of HBV, thereby allowing treatment to be stopped with no risk of virological relapse and no risk of liver disease progression. However, a true cure may not be feasible because HBV DNA is integrated into the host genome even among persons who recovered from acute HBV, viral covalently closed circular DNA can be detected in the liver explaining the reactivation of HBV replication when these recovered persons are profoundly immunosuppressed. However, the observation that hepatitis B surface antigen may become undetectable in serum after clinical recovery from acute hepatitis B, spontaneously during the course of chronic HBV infection, and during or after nucleoside analogue or interferon therapy, despite the likelihood of persistent integrated HBV genomes, argues for the feasibility of achieving undetectable levels of HBsAg.

The vast majority of survey respondents selected functional cure as the goal for new HBV therapies. This selection was endorsed by other participants and the expert panel as a feasible goal. In addition, functional cure offers several other advantages: it is easy to assess and tests are widely available, it is associated with improved clinical outcomes and lower rates of disease reactivation and once achieved, there is no further requirement for therapy.

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Goals Of Treatment And Efficacy Assessment

The goals of HBV therapy are to prevent the development of cirrhosis, hepatic decompensation, HCC and death from HBV-related liver disease. The eventual clinical outcomes of chronic hepatitis B, requires years if not decades of surveillance therefore, biochemical , virological , serological and histological markers have been used as surrogates for clinical outcomes: cirrhosis, hepatic decompensation, HCC and HBV-related mortality and to assess indications for treatment, response and prognosis. The durability of responses after treatment discontinuation is variable.

How Do You Get Hepatitis B

Hepatitis B is really contagious. Its transmitted through contact with semen , vaginal fluids, and blood. You can get it from:

  • having vaginal, anal, or oral sex

  • sharing toothbrushes and razors

  • sharing needles for shooting drugs, piercings, tattoos, etc.

  • getting stuck with a needle that has the Hep B virus on it.

Hepatitis B can also be passed to babies during birth if their mother has it.

Hepatitis B isnt spread through saliva , so you CANT get hepatitis B from sharing food or drinks or using the same fork or spoon. Hepatitis B is also not spread through kissing, hugging, holding hands, coughing, sneezing, or breastfeeding.

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Hepatitis B And Pregnancy

If youâre pregnant, you might pass the virus to your baby at birth. Itâs less likely to happen during your pregnancy.

If your baby gets the virus and isnât treated, they could have long-term liver problems. All newborns with infected mothers should get hepatitis B immune globulin and the vaccine for hepatitis at birth and during their first year of life.

What Is Hepatitis B

Symptoms & complications of Hepatitis B Can Hepatitis B be cured? – Dr. Ramakrishna Prasad

Hepatitis B is caused by a virus that infects the liver. It is one of the most common vaccine-preventable diseases affecting travellers and can cause either acute or chronic infection.

About 90 to 95 percent of adults with acute hepatitis B infection will clear the virus on their own within six months, and develop lifelong protection against it.

Some people are unable to clear the virus, and develop chronic hepatitis B. Untreated chronic hepatitis B can later develop into serious health problems. Children under four years old are at particular risk of chronic hepatitis B, because only up to 10% will clear the virus.

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Reducing The Risk Of Hepatitis B

Simple steps that everyone can take to protect themselves against hepatitis B include:

  • Making sure you and your children are immunised this is the best protection.
  • Using condoms every time you have anal or vaginal sex with new partners until you both get a check-up .
  • Avoiding oral sex if you or your partner have herpes, ulcers or bleeding gums it is unlikely that you will contract hepatitis through oral sex unless blood is present.
  • Choosing to have any body piercing or tattooing done by an experienced practitioner who follows good sterilisation and hygiene practices, and who works at premises registered by the local council.
  • Wearing single-use gloves if you give someone first aid or need to clean up blood or body fluids.
  • Never sharing needles and syringes or other equipment , if you inject drugs. Always use sterile needles and syringes. These are available from needle and syringe programs and some pharmacists. Always wash your hands before and after injecting.

If you have hepatitis B:

If you think you have been exposed to hepatitis B, see a doctor immediately. Your doctor can give you treatment in some instances, which greatly reduces the risk of you becoming infected with hepatitis B.

Antiviral Medication For Hepatitis B

Doctors may recommend antiviral medication for people with chronic hepatitis B, which occurs when the virus stays in your body for more than six months.

Antiviral medication prevents the virus from replicating, or creating copies of itself, and may prevent progressive liver damage. Currently available medications can treat hepatitis B with a low risk of serious side effects.

NYU Langone hepatologists and infectious disease specialists prescribe medication when they have determined that without treatment, the hepatitis B virus is very likely to damage the liver over time. People with chronic hepatitis B may need to take antiviral medication for the rest of their lives to prevent liver damage.

There are many different types of antiviral medications available, and your doctor recommends the right type for you based on your symptoms, your overall health, and the results of diagnostic tests. A doctor may take a wait-and-see approach with a person who has a healthy liver and whose blood tests indicate a low viral load, the number of copies of the hepatitis B virus in your bloodstream.

Someone with HIV infection or AIDS may have a weakened immune system and is therefore more likely to develop liver damage. The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention strongly recommends that people with HIV infection who are diagnosed with hepatitis B immediately begin treatment with antiviral medication.

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How Are Hepatitis B And Hepatitis C Spread From Person To Person

Like HIV, the hepatitis B and hepatitis C viruses spread:

  • From mother to child: Pregnant women can pass these infections to their infants. HIV-HCV coinfection increases the risk of passing on hepatitis C to the baby.
  • Sexually: Both viruses can also be transmitted sexually, but HBV is much more likely than HCV to be transmitted sexually. Sexual transmission of HCV is most likely to happen among gay and bisexual men who are living with HIV.

Are Alternative Medicines Available

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Some people believe certain forms of alternative medicine help cure hepatitis C.

However, the National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health reports that there are no effective, research-proven forms of alternative treatment or complementary medicine for hepatitis C.

Silymarin, also known as milk thistle, is an herb commonly suggested to help cure hepatitis C liver disease. But a rigorous did not find any beneficial effects from this supplement.

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What Should You Know About Pregnancy And Hepatitis B

A pregnant woman who has hepatitis B can pass the infection to her baby at delivery. This is true for both vaginal and cesarean deliveries.

You should ask your healthcare provider to test you for hepatitis B when you find out you are pregnant. However, while it is important for you and your healthcare provider to know if you do have hepatitis B, the condition should not affect the way that your pregnancy progresses.

If you do test positive, your provider may suggest that you contact another healthcare provider, a liver doctor, who is skilled in managing people with hepatitis B infections. You may have a high viral load and may need treatment during the last 3 months of your pregnancy. A viral load is the term for how much of the infection you have inside of you.

You can prevent your infant from getting hepatitis B infection by making sure that your baby gets the hepatitis B vaccine in the hours after they are born along with the hepatitis B immunoglobulin. These two shots are given in two different locations on the baby. They are the first shots needed.

Depending on the type of vaccine used, two or three more doses must be given, usually when the baby is 1 month old and then 6 months old, with the last by the time the baby is 1 year old. It is critical that all newborns get the hepatitis B vaccination, but even more important if you have hepatitis B yourself.

How Is Acute Hepatitis B Treated

Acute hepatitis B doesnt always require treatment. In most cases, a doctor will recommend monitoring your symptoms and getting regular blood tests to determine whether the virus is still in your body.

While you recover, allow your body to rest and drink plenty of fluids to help your body fight off the infection. You can also take an over-the-counter pain reliever, such as ibuprofen , to help with any abdominal pain you have.

See a doctor if your symptoms are severe or seem to be getting worse. You may need to take a prescription antiviral medication to avoid potential liver damage.

Like acute hepatitis B, chronic hepatitis B may not require medical treatment to avoid permanent liver damage. In some patients, monitoring symptoms and getting regular liver tests is appropriate.

Treatment generally involves antiviral medications, such as:

  • peginterferon alfa-2a injections
  • antiviral tablets, such as tenofovir or entecavir

Antiviral medications can help to reduce symptoms and prevent liver damage. But they rarely completely get rid of the hepatitis B virus. Instead, the goal of treatment is to have the lowest viral load possible. Viral load refers to the amount of a virus in a blood sample.

Theres no cure for hepatitis B, but the condition is easily preventable by taking a few precautions. Hepatitis B is often spread through sexual contact, shared needles, and accidental needle sticks.

You can reduce your risk of developing hepatitis B or spreading the virus to others by:

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What Is The Difference Between Acute And Chronic Hbv

Acute HBV lasts for a short time. A person has chronic HBV when they have had the infection for 6 months or more. A person with chronic HBV might carry the infection indefinitely.

Acute HBV can develop into chronic HBV. A persons risk of developing chronic HBV is relative to the age at which they first developed the infection.

Newborns and young children with HBV have a higher risk of developing a chronic infection. According to the :

  • around 9 in 10 infants with acute HBV will develop chronic HBV
  • roughly 1 in 3 children who contract the infection before the age of 6 will develop chronic HBV
  • almost all adults and children older than 6 with HBV will recover completely
  • eating a nutritious diet

People with more severe symptoms may need to go to the hospital.

Doctors recommend having regular blood tests to check whether the infection has resolved or developed into chronic HBV.

What Will I Need To Do If I Am On Hepatitis B Medications

Is there a cure for hepatitis?
  • Take oral medications every day to avoid developing resistance.
  • See your provider on a regular basis
  • If you have cirrhosis or high risk of liver cancer, get liver imaging on time as prescribed by your provider
  • Have periodic laboratory tests to monitor HBV viral load and liver enzymes to monitor disease activity and response to medications
  • You may need blood tests every 3-6 months initially and at least once a year thereafter if virus is undetected in blood.

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Whats The Prognosis For Hepatitis B

Your doctor will know youâve recovered when you no longer have symptoms and blood tests show:

  • Your liver is working normally.
  • You have hepatitis B surface antibody.

But some people don’t get rid of the infection. If you have it for more than 6 months, youâre whatâs called a carrier, even if you donât have symptoms. This means you can give the disease to someone else through:

  • Unprotected sex
  • Contact with your blood or an open sore
  • Sharing needles or syringes

Doctors donât know why, but the disease does go away in a small number of carriers. For others, it becomes whatâs known as chronic. That means you have an ongoing liver infection. It can lead to cirrhosis, or hardening of the organ. It scars over and stops working. Some people also get liver cancer.

If youâre a carrier or are infected with hepatitis B, donât donate blood, plasma, body organs, tissue, or sperm. Tell anyone you could infect — whether itâs a sex partner, your doctor, or your dentist — that you have it.

Show Sources

CDC: âHepatitis B Questions and Answers for Health Professionals,â âHepatitis B Questions and Answers for the Public.â

Mayo Clinic: âHepatitis B.â

UpToDate: âHepatitis B virus: Screening and diagnosis.â

CDC.

HealthyPeople.gov: âHepatitis B in Pregnant Women: Screening.â

Annals of Internal Medicine: âScreening for Hepatitis B Virus Infection in Nonpregnant Adolescents and Adults: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement.â

Living With Hepatitis B

If you have hepatitis, you should:

  • avoid having unprotected sex, including anal and oral sex, unless you’re sure your partner has been vaccinated against hepatitis B
  • avoid sharing needles used to inject drugs with other people
  • take precautions to avoid the spread of infection, such as not sharing toothbrushes or razors with other people
  • eat a generally healthy, balanced diet there’s no special diet for people with hepatitis B
  • avoid drinking alcohol this can increase your risk of developing serious liver problems
  • speak to your doctor if you’re thinking of having a baby

People with hepatitis B can usually have a healthy pregnancy, but it’s a good idea to discuss your plans with a doctor first as you may need extra care and your medications may need to be changed.

There’s a risk of pregnant women with hepatitis B passing the infection on to their child around the time of the birth, but this risk can be reduced by ensuring the baby is vaccinated shortly after they’re born.

Page last reviewed: 30 January 2019 Next review due: 30 January 2022

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What Is My Risk

Your risk depends of several factors: destination, length of stay, what you do when you are travelling and whether you have direct contact with blood or other body fluids. In certain destinations, your risk may be higher, as some areas have higher numbers of people with chronic hepatitis B in the general population.

The risk increases with certain activities, such as unprotected sex, sharing needles, tattooing and acupuncture.

Aid and health care workers and anyone who receives medical or dental care with unsterilized or contaminated equipment in a country where hepatitis B occurs are also at greater risk.

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