Friday, December 2, 2022

How Dangerous Is Hepatitis B Virus

What Is The Best Way To Prevent Hepatitis B

Which amongst Hepatitis B or C is more dangerous & how are they transmitted?

The best way to prevent hepatitis B is by getting vaccinated. You must complete the series of shots for full protection. All infants should receive their first dose of the hepatitis B vaccine within 24 hours of birth, followed by a second dose at 1 to 2 months, and a third dose at 6 to 18 months. Infants who did not receive a birth dose should begin the series as soon as possible.

All unvaccinated children and adolescents younger than 19 years of age should get vaccinated.

All adults 19 through 59 years of age are recommended to get vaccinated.

Adults 60 years and older with risk factors should get vaccinated.

A combination vaccine that provides protection against both hepatitis A and B is available for those age 18 years and older. This vaccine is a series of 3 shots over a period of 6 months.

Immune globulin gives short-term prevention of hepatitis B in people of all ages recently exposed to hepatitis B, but the vaccine is preferred for long-term prevention.

Whats The Prognosis For Hepatitis B

Your doctor will know youâve recovered when you no longer have symptoms and blood tests show:

  • Your liver is working normally.
  • You have hepatitis B surface antibody.

But some people don’t get rid of the infection. If you have it for more than 6 months, youâre whatâs called a carrier, even if you donât have symptoms. This means you can give the disease to someone else through:

  • Unprotected sex
  • Contact with your blood or an open sore
  • Sharing needles or syringes

Doctors donât know why, but the disease does go away in a small number of carriers. For others, it becomes whatâs known as chronic. That means you have an ongoing liver infection. It can lead to cirrhosis, or hardening of the organ. It scars over and stops working. Some people also get liver cancer.

If youâre a carrier or are infected with hepatitis B, donât donate blood, plasma, body organs, tissue, or sperm. Tell anyone you could infect — whether itâs a sex partner, your doctor, or your dentist — that you have it.

Show Sources

CDC: âHepatitis B Questions and Answers for Health Professionals,â âHepatitis B Questions and Answers for the Public.â

Mayo Clinic: âHepatitis B.â

UpToDate: âHepatitis B virus: Screening and diagnosis.â

CDC.

HealthyPeople.gov: âHepatitis B in Pregnant Women: Screening.â

Annals of Internal Medicine: âScreening for Hepatitis B Virus Infection in Nonpregnant Adolescents and Adults: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement.â

Who Is Most At Risk For Chronic Disease

The likelihood that an HBV infection will become chronic depends upon the age at which a person becomes infected, with young children who become infected with HBV being the most likely to develop chronic infections.

About 90% of infants infected during the first year of life develop chronic infections 30% to 50% of children infected between one to four years of age develop chronic infections. About 25% of adults who become chronically infected during childhood die from HBV-related liver cancer or cirrhosis. About 90% of healthy adults who are infected with HBV will recover and be completely rid of the virus within six months.

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Is There A Vaccine For Hepatitis

There are vaccines for hepatitis A and hepatitis B that are available in the U.S. There is no vaccine for hepatitis C. Since you can only get hepatitis D if you have hepatitis B, getting the vaccine against B should protect you against hepatitis D. There is no FDA approved vaccine against hepatitis E, but vaccines against hepatitis E exist overseas .

Prevent Infection After Contact With The Virus

LAC Dept of Public Health VPDC

If you think you have been in contact with the hepatitis B virus, see your doctor right away. Doctors typically recommend a dose of the hepatitis B vaccine to prevent infection. In some cases, doctors may also recommend a medicine called hepatitis B immune globulin to help prevent infection. You must get the vaccine dose and, if needed, HBIG shortly after coming into contact with the virus, preferably within 24 hours.

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Quantitation Of Igm Anti

Differentiating between an acute and chronic hepatitis B infection was often difficult. Large clinical studies initiated by Reiner Thomssen in the 1970s showed that the interpretation of the IgM anti-HBc results obtained by the author was not as straightforward as most clinical virologists had expected. Since the anti- capture assay is very sensitive, some patients who resolved acute HB remained positive for years and even patients who had chronic HB without known acute phase were positive. Only an accurate well standardized quantitation allowed distinction of clinically apparent acute from chronic HB . Not all clinical virologists liked this differentiated evaluation and made the test artificially insensitive leading to the problem that mild acute infections were no longer recognized.

One reason why IgM anti-HBc remains moderately positive in chronic HBV infections was detected by David Milich . HBcAg is an unusual T cell-independent antigen which can activate B cells to produce IgM anti-HBc . The strong B cell immunogenicity of HBcAg may be part of the immune evasion strategy of HBV because it may interfere with the activation of HBcAg specific cytotoxic T cell reactions. The IgG anti-HBc found in resolved or inactive cases is induced by the normal T cell-dependent class switch.

Hepatitis B And Pregnancy

If youâre pregnant, you might pass the virus to your baby at birth. Itâs less likely to happen during your pregnancy.

If your baby gets the virus and isnât treated, they could have long-term liver problems. All newborns with infected mothers should get hepatitis B immune globulin and the vaccine for hepatitis at birth and during their first year of life.

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How Hepatitis B Is Spread

The hepatitis B virus is found in the blood and bodily fluids, such as semen and vaginal fluids, of an infected person.

It can be spread:

  • from a mother to her newborn baby, particularly in countries where the infection is common
  • within families in countries where the infection is common
  • by having sex with an infected person without using a condom
  • by having a tattoo, body piercing, or medical or dental treatment in an unhygienic environment with unsterilised equipment

Hepatitis B is not spread by kissing, holding hands, hugging, coughing, sneezing or sharing crockery and utensils.

Who Should Get The Hbv Vaccine

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The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends that children should get their first hepatitis B vaccine at birth and complete the doses by 6 to 18 months of age. However, the HBV vaccine is still recommended for all children if they havent already gotten it, from infanthood up to 19 years old. Most U.S. states require a hepatitis B vaccine for school admittance, however.

Its also recommended for adults at an increased risk of catching the HBV infection, or anyone who fears they have or will be exposed to it in the near future.

The HBV vaccine is even safe to administer to pregnant women.

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What Is Viral Hepatitis

Viral hepatitis is an inflammation of your liver that’s caused by a virus. There are five types, but the most common ones in the U.S. are hepatitis A, B, and C. All of them affect your liver. Some of the symptoms are similar, but they have different treatments.

Hepatitis A. This type won’t lead to long-term infection and usually doesn’t cause any complications. Your liver heals in about 2 months. You can prevent it with a vaccine.

Hepatitis B. Most people recover from this type in 6 months. Sometimes, though, it causes a long-term infection that could lead to liver damage. Once you’ve got the disease, you can spread the virus even if you don’t feel sick. You won’t catch it if you get a vaccine.

Hepatitis C. Many people with this type don’t have symptoms. About 80% of those with the disease get a long-term infection. It can sometimes lead to cirrhosis, a scarring of the liver. There’s no vaccine to prevent it.

What To Do If You Are Exposed

If you are stuck with a needle, get blood in your eye, or are exposed to any bloodborne pathogen:

  • Wash the area. Use soap and water on your skin. If your eye is exposed, irrigate with clean water, saline, or a sterile irrigant.
  • Tell your supervisor right away that you were exposed.
  • Get medical help right away.

You may or may not need lab tests, a vaccine, or medicines.

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Hepatitis B Surface Antigen Test

A hepatitis B surface antigen test shows if youre contagious. A positive result means you have hepatitis B and can spread the virus. A negative result means you dont currently have hepatitis B. This test doesnt distinguish between chronic and acute infection. This test is used together with other hepatitis B tests to determine the .

Who Gets Hepatitis B

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One out of 20 people in the United States will get infected with HBV some time during their lives. Anyone can get hepatitis B, but you are at greater risk if you:

  • have sex with someone infected with HBV
  • have multiple sex partners
  • are a man and have sex with men
  • have ever been diagnosed with a sexually transmitted disease
  • are an injection drug user
  • live in the same house with someone who has lifelong HBV infection
  • are a health care or public safety worker who has contact with human blood
  • are an infant born to an HBV-infected mother
  • are a hemodialysis patient
  • are an infant/child or immigrant from areas with high rates of infection

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Search For Genetic Markers

The first hint came from an unexpected source. American physician and geneticist Baruch Blumberg wanted to study genetic markers for susceptibility to certain illnesses, especially cancer, and had gathered serum samples world-wide from a wide variety of ethnic sources in the 1950s and 60s. The possibilities for recognizing genetic differences with laboratory methods were very limited at that time. Blumberg used an immunological approach. He postulated that people, who had received blood products from a large number of donors, e.g. due to hemophilia, would have developed antibodies against polymorphic serum proteins. These are proteins that show small genetic differences from person to person in the amino acid sequence, and may be recognized as foreign to the body of the recipient after a transfusion. Blumbergs co-worker, Harvey Alter, did indeed discover a new antigen in several samples of the huge serum collection, quite often in Australian aborigines, for whom the Australia Antigen was named.

Who Should Get The Hepatitis B Vaccine

All newborn babies should get vaccinated. You should also get the shot if you:

  • Come in contact with infected blood or body fluids of friends or family members
  • Use needles to take recreational drugs
  • Have sex with more than one person
  • Are a health care worker
  • Work in a day-care center, school, or jail

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What Precautions Should Hepatitis B Carriers Take

Chronic hepatitis B carriers should follow standard hygienic practices to ensure that close contacts are not directly contaminated by his or her blood or other body fluids. Carriers must not share razors, toothbrushes or any other object that may become contaminated with blood. In addition, susceptible household members, particularly sexual partners, should be immunized with hepatitis B vaccine. It is important for carriers to inform their dentist and health care providers.

What Is The Difference Between Hepatitis B Surface Antibody And Antigen

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An antigen is a substance that induces antibody production. Hepatitis B surface antigen is a protein on the surface of hepatitis B virus.

Hepatitis B surface antibodies are produced by the bodys immune system in response to HBsAg. The presence of adequate hepatitis B surface antibodies in the blood indicates protection against hepatitis B virus infection.

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You Can Have It And Not Know It

What is hepatitis B?

Hepatitis B is a liver disease caused by the hepatitis B virus . HBV is far more infectious than HIV and can be prevented by a vaccine. People who have not been vaccinated may be at risk of getting infected.

About 95 percent of adults will recover within 6 months of becoming infected and as a result will develop lifelong protection against it. The remaining 5 percent are unable to clear the virus and will become chronically infected. Chronic hepatitis B infection is treatable.

It is estimated that less than 1 percent of Canada’s population is infected with either acute or chronic HBV. People who are infected before the age of 7 are at a higher risk of developing chronic infection. In 2011, the overall reported rate of acute hepatitis B infection in Canada was 0.6 reported cases per 100,000 people living in Canada.

Why is hepatitis B a health concern?

Many people infected with HBV do not know they have the virus because symptoms can take two to six months to appear and only about 50 percent of people develop symptoms. During this time, they can spread the infection to others. You may not know you have this infection until damage has already been done to your liver. Potential complications from chronic HBV infection include cirrhosis of the liver, liver failure, liver cancer and premature death.

Why do I need my liver?

How is hepatitis B spread?

HBV is spread through contact with infected blood and body fluids including semen and vaginal fluid.

What Are The Types Of Hepatitis B

There are two types of hepatitis B infection: acute and chronic.

Acute

An acute infection happens at the beginning, when you first get infected with hepatitis B. Many people are able to clear it from their bodies and recover. In fact, this is true of about 4 in 5 adults who are infected.

Chronic

If you are not able to clear the infection within six months or longer, you have chronic hepatitis B. It is chronic hepatitis B that leads to inflammation and the serious, and possibly fatal, illnesses of cirrhosis of the liver and liver cancer. Treatment can slow disease progress, reduce the chance of liver cancer and increase your chances of surviving.

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Eating Diet And Nutrition For Hepatitis B

If you have hepatitis B, you should eat a balanced, healthy diet. Obesity can increase the chance of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease , and NAFLD can increase liver damage in people who have hepatitis B. Talk with your doctor about healthy eating and maintaining a healthy weight.

You should also avoid alcohol because it can cause more liver damage.

Symptoms Of Hepatitis B

Hepatitis B: A very real health danger

Many people with hepatitis B will not experience any symptoms and may fight off the virus without realising they had it.

If symptoms do develop, they tend to happen 2 or 3 months after exposure to the hepatitis B virus.

Symptoms of hepatitis B include:

  • flu-like symptoms, including tiredness, a fever, and general aches and pains
  • loss of appetite
  • tummy pain
  • yellowing of the skin and eyes

These symptoms will usually pass within 1 to 3 months , although occasionally the infection can last for 6 months or more .

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What Should You Know About Pregnancy And Hepatitis B

A pregnant woman who has hepatitis B can pass the infection to her baby at delivery. This is true for both vaginal and cesarean deliveries.

You should ask your healthcare provider to test you for hepatitis B when you find out you are pregnant. However, while it is important for you and your healthcare provider to know if you do have hepatitis B, the condition should not affect the way that your pregnancy progresses.

If you do test positive, your provider may suggest that you contact another healthcare provider, a liver doctor, who is skilled in managing people with hepatitis B infections. You may have a high viral load and may need treatment during the last 3 months of your pregnancy. A viral load is the term for how much of the infection you have inside of you.

You can prevent your infant from getting hepatitis B infection by making sure that your baby gets the hepatitis B vaccine in the hours after they are born along with the hepatitis B immunoglobulin. These two shots are given in two different locations on the baby. They are the first shots needed.

Depending on the type of vaccine used, two or three more doses must be given, usually when the baby is 1 month old and then 6 months old, with the last by the time the baby is 1 year old. It is critical that all newborns get the hepatitis B vaccination, but even more important if you have hepatitis B yourself.

What Is The Purpose Of A Hepatitis B Test

Hepatitis B test is performed to detect, classify, and treat hepatitis B virus infection.

Hepatitis B blood tests involve the measurement of several HBV-specific antigens and antibodies. In addition, HBV blood tests also include liver enzymes and liver function tests to assess and monitor the condition of the liver and provide appropriate treatment.

The HBV specific tests include the following:

  • HBsAg: HBsAg is an antigen found on the surface of hepatitis B virus. HBsAg may be detected in the blood any time after 1 week post-exposure to HB virus, but usually appears after 4 weeks.
  • Anti-HBs: Anti-HBs are antibodies produced by the bodys immune system to fight HBsAg. Anti-HBs from a prior infection or vaccination provides immunity against further infection.
  • Hepatitis B core antigen : HBcAg is an antigen found in the core layer which covers the hepatitis B viral DNA.
  • Hepatitis B core antibody : Anti-HBc is the antibody that fights HBcAg. Anti-HBc is the first detectable antibody after HBV infection. There are two kinds of Anti-HBc:
  • Immunoglobulin M hepatitis B core antibody : IgM anti-HBc indicates acute or reactivated recent infection within the previous 6 months.
  • Immunoglobulin G hepatitis B core antibody : IgG anti-HBc may indicate previous or chronic infection. Once present, IgG anti-HBc persists for a lifetime.
  • HBV DNA: HBV DNA is the genetic material of the HB virus and this test is a measure of the actual viral load and replication.
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