Does Hepatitis B Cause Symptoms
Hepatitis B is a sexually transmitted disease, but once it enters the body it attacks the liver. Most adults do not have symptoms right after infection. So, it is possible to have hepatitis B and not know it. When symptoms occur, many people mistake them for a bad flu or stomach flu. This includes , , , , , , and light or clay-colored stool. People may not realize these are symptoms of an infection they can spread sexually.
, which is yellowing of the skin or eyes, can occur as well. This is because affects how your liver processes bilirubin, a yellow-orange-colored product from old red blood cells that are breaking down. With hepatitis, bilirubin builds up in the blood and part of it ends up in the skin and mucous membranes , causing them to turn a shade of yellow.
People can spread hepatitis B whether they have symptoms or not. The only way to know if youor a sex partneris safe is with a blood test.
Sexual Transmission And Hepatitis A
Transmission of hepatitis A virus can occur from any sexual activity with an infected person and is not limited to fecal-oral contact. People who are sexually active are considered at risk for hepatitis A if they are MSM, live with or are having sex with an infected person, or inject drugs. Vaccination is the most effective means of preventing hepatitis A transmission among people at risk for infection. CDC has published recommendations for prevention of hepatitis A that identify all groups recommended for vaccination, including hepatitis A vaccination for MSM.
How Is Hepatitis B Transmitted
Hepatitis B is spread in several distinct ways: sexual contact sharing needles, syringes, or other drug-injection equipment or from mother-to-child at birth.
In the United States, in 2018, injection drug use was the most common risk factor reported among people with an acute HBV infection, followed by having multiple sex partners. Less commonly reported risk factors included accidental needle sticks, surgery, transfusions, and household contact with a person with HBV infection. In the United States, healthcare-related transmission of HBV is rare.
Mother-to-child transmission of HBV is especially concerning, because it is preventable. An estimated 25,000 infants are born to mothers diagnosed with HBV each year in the United States, and approximately 1,000 mothers transmit HBV to their infants. Without appropriate medical care and vaccinations, 90% of HBV-infected newborns will develop chronic infection, remaining infected throughout their lives. Up to 25% of people infected at birth will die prematurely of HBV-related causes. For this reason, the standard of care for pregnant women includes an HBV test during each pregnancy so that the appropriate steps can be taken to prevent HBV-positive mothers from transmitting the disease to her infant.
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In Development: Genital Herpes Vaccines
Genital herpes is a viral infection caused by herpes simplex viruses. Some infected people may have few or no symptoms of illness, but many others experience blisters and sores in the genital area. The infection can remain in the body indefinitely, and sores can recur again and again.
Researchers have developed many experimental attenuated and inactivated herpes vaccines, starting in the 1930s and continuing through the 1970s, though none was effective enough to be approved and licensed.
The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases and pharmaceutical company GlaxoSmithKline co-sponsored a Phase 3 clinical trial of a candidate subunit herpes vaccine on nearly 8,000 women across the country. The vaccine had previously shown some promise in a certain subset of women. In September 2010, however, researchers reported that the Phase 3 trial failed to show that the vaccine was effective. Another herpes candidate vaccine, sponsored by Sanofi Pasteur, uses the whole virus and is in pre-clinical studies.
As much as it would be useful to have a highly effective herpes simplex vaccine, the current options are not likely to be broadly useful.
Pathophysiology / Serology / Signs And Symptoms
Currently, most liver biopsies are performed to confirm the existence of chronic hepatitis and to determine its level of activity. This section mainly describes chronic hepatitis, which plays an important role in HBV infection.
1) Acute hepatitis B
Because acute hepatitis B is always diagnosed by clinical symptoms and serologic markers related to HBV infection, liver biopsies are not often performed. In general, acute hepatitis shows more areas of spotty parenchymal inflammation and more severe damage than typical chronic hepatitis. The lesions mainly contain diffuse sinusoidal and portal mononuclear infiltrates , swollen hepatocytes and/or necrotic hepatocytes . Cell plates and sinusoids may be indistinct in more severe cases as a result of hepatocyte swelling, filling of sinusoids by mononuclear inflammatory cells, and regenerating hepatocytes. Significant lobular necrosis leads to acute liver failure .
2) Chronic hepatitis B and cirrhosis
The hepatocytes that express a high level of HBsAg may have a ground-glass cytoplasm, which can be highlighted by special immunohistochemical stains . Ground-glass hepatocytes may also be seen in other conditions .
TABLE 2. Scheuer classification for grading and staging of chronic hepatitis .
Hepatitis B immune globulin and hepatitis B vaccine
Both HBIG and HB vaccines have been approved for preventing HBV infection .
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The Types Of Sexually Transmitted Diseases And Hepatitis Infections
STD is a sexually transmitted disease that is a severe condition that passes through sexual contact. Anyone can contract STD through unprotected sexual relationships. STD is also a sexual infection that is known as venereal disease. There are other ways through which this infection can pass, such as sharing used needles or breastfeeding. Different types of STDs can be transmitted through one person to another. In this article, you can know more about the types of it and diseases like hepatitis.
Hepatitis B Surface Antigen Test
A hepatitis B surface antigen test shows if youre contagious. A positive result means you have hepatitis B and can spread the virus. A negative result means you dont currently have hepatitis B. This test doesnt distinguish between chronic and acute infection. This test is used together with other hepatitis B tests to determine the .
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How To Prevent Std
Many around the world try many ways to prevent STD. But, one single way to prevent STD is avoiding unnecessary sexual contact. Through proper protection, individuals can lower the risk of getting infected. Many health advisers say that it is important to regularly check if a sexually active individual is STD positive or not. Early diagnosis and treatment can stop and manage STD infections. Many healthcare professionals advise that if a person is infected, it is essential to be open about it with their partner. An infected person should also follow the treatments advised by the healthcare adviser.
Acute Hepatitis B Infection
There is no specific treatment for acute hepatitis B, and most people recover within one to two months. Usually, you can manage symptoms at home with painkillers if necessary. Your healthcare professional should advise you to have regular blood tests and physical check-ups. Most people make a full recovery from acute hepatitis B.
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Chronic Hepatitis B Infection
If you develop chronic hepatitis B, youll be given treatment to reduce the risk of permanent liver damage and liver cancer. Treatment does not cure chronic hepatitis B and most people who start treatment need to continue for life.
Without treatment, chronic hepatitis B can cause scarring of the liver , which can cause the liver to stop working properly.
A small number of people with cirrhosis develop liver cancer, and these complications can lead to death. Other than a liver transplant, there is no cure for cirrhosis. However, treatments can help relieve some of the symptoms.
Epidemiology: Incidence And Prevalence
Incidence: worldwide view and HIV/HBV coinfection
More than one third of the worlds population are estimated to be infected with HBV. About 5% of the worlds population are chronic carriers of HBV, and HBV infection causes more than one million deaths every year . The HBsAg carrier rate varies from 0.1% to 20% of different populations worldwide. In low-risk regions, the highest incidence of infection is seen in teenagers and young adults.
Based on the data from Western cohorts, HIV/HBV coinfection has a profound impact on almost every aspect of the natural history of HBV infection . The consequences include higher rates of chronicity after acute HBV infection, higher levels of HBV replication and rates of reactivation, less spontaneous clearance, higher rates of occult HBV infection , more rapid progression to cirrhosis and HCC, higher rates of liver-related mortality, and decreased treatment response compared with individuals without HIV coinfection . Recent longitudinal cohort studies have found that coinfection with HBV also can lead to increased rates of progression to acquired immune deficiency syndrome -related outcomes and all-cause mortality . An estimated 5% to 15% of the 34 million HIV-infected individuals worldwide are coinfected with HBV, as a chronic infection . The burden of coinfection is greatest in Southeast Asia and sub-Saharan Africa .
Prevalence: international statistics
HBV serotypes and genotypes
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What Are The Symptoms Of Hepatitis B
Many people with hepatitis B dont have any symptoms. If you do get symptoms you may not notice them until two or three months after infection and they can last up to three months. There are two types of infection acute and chronic.
Acute symptoms include:
- flu-like symptoms, including tiredness, fever and aches and pains
- feeling and/or being sick
- jaundice, meaning your skin and the whites of your eyes turn yellow
- dark urine
- pale faeces .
People who cant fight off acute infection after six months, such as babies, young children and people with a weakened immune system because of HIV, can go on to develop chronic hepatitis B. This is when people are at higher risk of liver failure, liver disease and cancer of the liver.
Could I Give It To Other People
Yes. As long as you carry the virus, you can infect others. You may pass it on to your sex partner, to those who live in close contact with you, and to those who share your needles for injecting drugs. All of these contacts should be examined by a doctor. If they are not yet infected, they should be vaccinated.
Pregnant women who are carriers may pass hepatitis B on to their babies around the time of birth. Most infected infants become carriers. A pregnant woman should have a test for hepatitis B at her first visit to a doctor. If she is a carrier, the infant can be vaccinated at birth to protect against infection.
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What Other Ways Can Hepatitis B Be Transmitted
It is possible, but less common, for hepatitis B to spread in other ways. But HBV transmission still involves contact with infected blood or other bodily fluids.
People can catch hepatitis B from:
Exposure to open wounds or blood including direct contact and needlestick injuries
Personal items that may exposure you to infected blood, such as razors or toothbrushes
Sharing needles, syringes, or other IV drug paraphernalia
Babies are at risk when they are born to infected mothers. Healthcare providers and patients are also at risk due to potential exposure to infected blood. The vaccine and HBIG can also protect these people if a potential exposure occurs.
How Is Hepatitis B Virus Transmitted Between Sexual Partners
HBV is transmitted more easily than human immunodeficiency virus or HCV. Infection is associated with vaginal intercourse, genital-rectal intercourse, and oral-genital intercourse. An estimated 30% of sexual partners of patients infected with HBV also contract HBV infection. However, HBV cannot be transmitted through kissing, hugging, or household contact . Sexual activity is estimated to account for as many as 50% of HBV cases in the US.
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Treatment Options For Hepatitis B
Acute hepatitis B usually doesnt require treatment. Most people will overcome an acute infection on their own. However, rest and hydration will help you recover.
Antiviral medications are used to treat chronic hepatitis B. These help you fight the virus. They may also reduce the risk of future liver complications.
You may need a liver transplant if hepatitis B has severely damaged your liver. A liver transplant means a surgeon will remove your liver and replace it with a donor liver. Most donor livers come from deceased donors.
How Is Hepatitis B Transmitted Sexually
The ways the common hepatitis viruses spread overlap somewhat. However, the main route of transmissionor spreadingis different for each of them. Hepatitis A primarily spreads through contaminated food or water. But it is possible to transmit it sexually. Hepatitis C mainly spreads through exposure to infected blood, such as sharing needles or needlestick injuries. Hepatitis B can also spread this way. However, the major route of hepatitis B transmissionor HBV transmissionis through sexual contact.
Sexual transmission of hepatitis B is very common because it occurs easily. In fact, it is the most common way adults become infected with hepatitis B in the United States. You can get hepatitis B by coming in contact with blood, semen, or vaginal secretions from an infected person. You are at risk of hepatitis B infection if you fall into the following risk categories:
Men who have sex with men
People who have other STDs
People who have unprotected sex
People whose sex partner has hepatitis B
People with multiple sex partners
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What Is Chronic Hepatitis B
Doctors refer to hepatitis B infections as either acute or chronic:
- An acute HBV infection is a short-term illness that clears within 6 months of when a person is exposed to the virus.
- A person who still has HBV after 6 months is said to have a chronic hepatitis B infection. This is a long-term illness, meaning the virus stays in the body and causes lifelong illness. An estimated 850,000 to more than 2 million people in the U.S. have chronic HBV.
The younger someone is when infected, the greater the chances for chronic hepatitis B.
Hbv Serotypes And Genotypes
Based on some of the antigenic determinants of HBsAg, nine serological types -referred to as subtypesadw2, adw4,adrq+, adrq, ayw1,ayw2, ayw3, ayw4 andayr – have been identified . Ten genotypes of HBV have been identified, and thesecorrespond to specific geographic distributions . Genotype A is more frequently found in North America,northwestern Europe, India, and Africa. Genotypes B and C are endemic to Asia,and genotype D predominates in eastern Europe and the Mediterranean . Type E is found in western Africa typeF, in South America and type G, in France, Germany, Central America, Mexico,and the United States. Type H is prevalent in Central America type I, in Vietnam and type J, in Japan .
HIV-seropositive MSM populations predominantly coinfected with HBV genotype Ahave been reported in European countries and Japan ,,. The prevalence of HBV genotype A issignificantly higher in the MSM population than in the rest of the population. In addition, Araujo etal. speculated in their review that HBV subgenotypes A2 and C arelikely to predominate in populations at high risk of infection via sexualtransmission . Additionally, HBVgenotype A develops into a persistent infection more often than genotype C ,.
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Sexual Transmission And Viral Hepatitis
Certain adults who are sexually active should be vaccinated against hepatitis B.
CDC and the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommend hepatitis B vaccination for
- sexually active people with more than one sex partner during the previous 6 months
- people seeking evaluation or treatment for a sexually transmitted disease
- sex partners of people with hepatitis B and
- men who have sex with men .
What Is Hepatitis
Hepatitis is a condition that causes liver inflammation. The main cause of hepatitis liver inflammation is due to bacteria or virus reaction. The conditions of hepatitis can cause several other symptoms fibrosis, liver failure, and cancer. Liver damage can make it hard to eliminate toxins from the body.
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Who Is At Risk
While anyone who has not been vaccinated is, in theory, at risk of contracting hepatitis A, the World Health Organization cites the following groups at being of the highest risk:
If Hepatitis B Is Sexually Transmitted How Come My Partner Isnt Infected
I thought hepatitis B was sexually transmitted? I just tested positive, but my partner tested negative, weve been together for years, what gives?
This question is a common one. Hepatitis B is indeed easily transmitted sexually, so why do some people who were not vaccinated never get hepatitis B from their sexual partners?
It comes down to variables, such as the type of sexual activity you engage in, the viral load of the infected partner, and who is on the receiving end of infectious body fluids, especially blood that contains the most virus, and semen.
Having one partner infected, and other not, can add more stress to an already traumatic hepatitis B diagnosis. It was very confusing and made me question how was it possible I was the only one infected, said a woman who tested positive while her husband tested negative. I thought it was possibly a mistake, maybe I was a biological anomaly, which of course I was not.
Lets look at the factors that affect who gets infected and who doesnt when two people have sex.
Viral load: Semen, vaginal fluids and blood all contain the hepatitis B virus , and the higher the viral load, the more infectious ones blood and body fluids are. However, having an undetectable viral load doesnt mean you wont infect someone during unsafe sex. Even if a man has an undetectable viral load, studies show his semen still contains some HBV and can spread infection, though the risk is lower.
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