Wednesday, May 18, 2022

Signs Of Hepatitis C In Adults

Symptoms Of Infection With Hepatitis C

What are the early signs and symptoms of Hepatitis B & C? | Apollo Hospitals

Symptoms of acute infection with hepatitis C

Acute infection is the period when you first contract the virus, during this period most people do not seem to experience any noticeable symptoms.

For the 25-35% of people who do, the symptoms are normally vague and non-specific.They can include: Abdominal pain Nausea and vomiting

About 20% of the people who develop symptoms experience jaundice. This can be seen in the yellowing of the skin and eyes. This is a sign of the livers functions being affected as bilirubin begins to build up in the body. Jaundice is a recognised sign of liver problems and may lead to a test for hepatitis C being suggested.The problem for most people is that they are unaware that they have been infected because of the lack of symptoms. As these symptoms are similar to many other short term infections most people are unlikely to seek medical attention.

And even when they do, most doctors will not necessarily suspect or test for hepatitis C.

Symptoms of chronic infection with hepatitis C

Chronic infection doesnt mean that you have symptoms, chronic means that the infection is ongoing, that you are living with the virus.

The hepatitis C virus is associated with a wide spectrum of liver disease. This ranges from minor inflammation to cirrhosis, and in certain cases liver cancer.

Chronic fatigue

Pains in the upper part of the abdomen

Dry eyes, irritable bowel and irritable bladder

Do not assume that all of your aches and pains are related to hepatitis.

Spread Of Hepatitis C

Hepatitis C is spread through blood-to-blood contact when blood from a person with hepatitis C enters another persons bloodstream.

The most common way people become infected with hepatitis C in Australia is by sharing injecting equipment such as needles, syringes, spoons and tourniquets. It is possible to be infected with hepatitis C after only one risk event.

Hepatitis C may also be spread through:

  • tattooing and body piercing with equipment that has not been properly cleaned, disinfected or sterilised such as backyard tattoos’. Registered parlours with appropriate infection control procedures are not a risk
  • needlestick injuries in a healthcare setting
  • receiving blood transfusions in Australia prior to 1990 before hepatitis C virus testing of blood donations was introduced
  • medical procedures, blood transfusions or blood products and mass immunisation programs provided in a country other than Australia
  • pregnancy or childbirth there is a 5% chance of a mother with chronic hepatitis C infection passing on the virus to her baby during pregnancy or childbirth.

Breastfeeding is safe, however if nipples are cracked or bleeding cease breastfeeding until they have healed.

Less likely possible routes of transmission of hepatitis C include:

Hepatitis C cannot be transmitted by:

  • kissing
  • sharing food, cups or cutlery
  • shaking hands or day-to-day physical contact.

Early Signs And Symptoms Of Hepatitis

Unlike many other illnesses, most people with hepatitis C do not even realize that they have it. As many as 80 percent of all people affected with hepatitis C have no symptoms. When symptoms do occur, they tend to appear within a few weeks or a few months. There are multiple signs and symptoms associated with hepatitis. The following are a few of them:

  • Fever.
  • Itchy skin.
  • Jaundice.

Many people who have acute hepatitis C show no signs or symptoms and will go on to develop chronic hepatitis C. In some cases, an infection can last 15 years or more without being diagnosed.

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How Does Hepatitis C Affect The Liver

When infected, the liver becomes inflamed, which may cause the healthy, soft tissues in the liver to harden and scar. If not stopped, inflammation and scarring can lead to serious liver diseases such as cirrhosis of the liver or liver tumors. If the damage is severe enough, the liver may not perform all of its functions normally.

Should You Get Tested For Hepatitis C

Hepatitis C

Since you can live with hep C for decades without knowing itit can take 10 to 40 years for hep C to progress from mild disease to cirrhosis, liver failure or liver cancerthe Centers For Disease Control and Prevention recommends a one-time blood screening test for anyone born between 1945 and 1965. This population is more at risk of having received a tainted blood transfusion.

Hepatitis C can only be diagnosed through a simple blood test called an HCV antibody test. True to its name, it looks for antibodies, proteins released into the bloodstream, that show up in someone infected with the hep C virus. If you have a positive HCV antibody test, youll then be given a follow-up HCV RNA test to learn whether you have an active infection.

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Articles On Hepatitis C

Hepatitis C is a sneaky virus. You may not have any symptoms at all. Most people donĂ¢t. This is one if the reasons, along with treatability now, that all adults are recommended to get tested. Your doctor could check your liver and see only a little damage. You’re usually not diagnosed until they spot a problem with your liver enzymes after a routine blood test.

Hepatitis C And Injecting Drugs

If you inject drugs, avoid sharing needles, syringes or other equipment such as tourniquets, spoons, swabs or water.

Where possible, always use sterile needles and syringes. These are available free of charge from needle and syringe programs and some pharmacists. To find out where you can obtain free needles, syringes and other injecting equipment, contact DirectLine

Try to wash your hands before and after injecting. If you cant do this, use hand sanitiser or alcohol swabs from a needle and syringe program service.

Read Also: How Can Hepatitis B And C Be Transmitted

Questions For Your Doctor

When you visit the doctor, you may want to ask questions to get the information you need to manage your hepatitis C. If you can, have a family member or friend take notes. You might ask:

  • What kinds of tests will I need?
  • Are there any medications that might help?
  • What are the side effects of the medications you might prescribe?
  • How do I know when I should call the doctor?
  • How much exercise can I get, and is it all right to have sex?
  • Which drugs should I avoid?
  • What can I do to prevent the disease from getting worse?
  • How can I avoid spreading hepatitis C to others?
  • Are my family members at risk for hepatitis C?
  • Should I be vaccinated against other types of hepatitis?
  • How will you keep tabs on the condition of my liver?
  • Who Is At High Risk And Should Be Tested For Hepatitis C Infection

    Hepatitis, Causes, Signs and Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment.

    The U.S. Preventive Health Services task force recommends that all adults born between 1945 and 1965 be tested once routinely for hepatitis C, regardless of whether risk factors for hepatitis C are present. One-time testing also is recommended for:

    • People who currently inject drugs or snort drugs, or ever did so, even once many years previously
    • People with persistently elevated alanine aminotransferase level, a liver enzyme found in blood
    • People who have HIV infection
    • Children born to HCV- or HIV-infected mothers
    • People who were ever on long-term hemodialysis
    • People who got a tattoo in an unregulated setting, such as prison or by an unlicensed person
    • People who received clotting factor produced before 1987
    • People who received transfusions or organ transplants before July 1992, or who were notified that they received blood from a donor who later tested positive for hepatitis C infection
    • Health care, emergency medical, and public safety workers after a needlestick, eye or mouth exposure to hepatitis C-infected blood

    People who may have been exposed to hepatitis C in the previous 6 months should be tested for viral RNA load rather than anti-HCV antibody, because antibody may not be present for up to 12 weeks or longer after infection, although HCV RNA may be detectable in blood as soon as 2-3 weeks after infection.

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    What Is Chronic Viral Hepatitis

    Patients infected with HBV and HCV can develop chronic hepatitis. Doctors define chronic hepatitis as hepatitis that lasts longer than 6 months. In chronic hepatitis, the viruses live and multiply in the liver for years or decades. For unknown reasons, these patients immune systems are unable to eradicate the viruses, and the viruses cause chronic inflammation of the liver. Chronic hepatitis can lead to the development over time of extensive liver scarring , liver failure, and liver cancer. Liver failure from chronic hepatitis C infection is the most common reason for liver transplantation in the U.S. Patients with chronic viral hepatitis can transmit the infection to others with blood or body fluids as well as infrequently by transmission from mother to newborn.

    Hepatitis C Symptoms In Men

    Hepatitis C symptoms in men are the same as in women. However, a 2014 study indicated that men may be less likely to clear the virus than women.

    Hepatitis C in men may stay in their systems longer. It may also be more likely to cause symptoms in men compared to younger women.

    Currently, there isnt a hepatitis C vaccine, though research is underway. However, avoiding contact with the blood of someone who has an HCV infection can help prevent you from acquiring the hepatitis C virus.

    You can do this by:

    • avoiding using someone elses razor, nail clippers, or toothbrush
    • not sharing needles or syringes
    • getting tattoos or piercings only at licensed facilities
    • practicing safer sex with your partner by using condoms or other barrier methods

    If you think you may have been exposed to HCV, its important to get tested as soon as possible.

    Untreated chronic hepatitis C may eventually lead to complications, which can include severe scarring of the liver, which is called cirrhosis, and liver cancer.

    Some people with hepatitis C may need a liver transplant.

    If you believe you contracted HCV, the sooner you receive a hepatitis C diagnosis, the sooner your doctor can start a treatment plan to help you avoid complications.

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    How Is Hepatitis C Treated

    Your body may clear a hepatitis C infection without treatment. An HCV infection that continues for longer than 6 months is considered chronic hepatitis. The goal of treatment is to prevent health problems hepatitis C can cause. Examples include cirrhosis and liver failure or cancer. You may need any of the following:

    • Antiviral medicines are used to cure a hepatitis C infection. You will need to take these medicines for 8 to 12 weeks. Other kinds of medicines may be used to keep the virus from spreading or to prevent or decrease liver damage. The type of medicine you need will depend on how severe your hepatitis is. It will also depend on if you have liver damage.
    • Surgery may be done to remove part of your liver. A liver transplant may be done if your liver stops working. Your diseased liver is removed and replaced with a healthy, donated liver.

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    What The Cdc Recommends

    Natural and Non

    Were you born between 1945 and 1965? If so, then youre a member of the Hepatitis C generation. The CDC recently recommended that all people born between during this time have a 1-time screening test for Hepatitis C. We now have new drugs that can treat and cure Hepatitis C so you should go get tested today.

    The life you save may be your own! Please contact your local healthcare provider.

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    Cost Of Hepatitis C Medicines

    The newer direct-acting antiviral medicines for hepatitis C can be costly. Most government and private health insurance prescription drug plans provide some coverage for these medicines. Talk with your doctor about your health insurance coverage for hepatitis C medicines.

    Drug companies, nonprofit organizations, and some states offer programs that can help pay for hepatitis C medicines. If you need help paying for medicines, talk with your doctor. Learn more about financial help for hepatitis C medicines.

    What Are The Complications Of Undiagnosed Hepatitis C

    • Hepatitis C is known to be associated with two skin conditions, lichen planus and porphyria cutanea tarda.
    • Diabetes, heart disease, and arterial blockage are more common among patients with chronic hepatitis C infection than in the general population. It may be that liver damage and chronic inflammation caused by hepatitis C may affect the levels of blood fats and blood sugar.
    • Low platelet counts may occur as a result of the destruction of platelets by antibodies.

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    What Is The Treatment For People With Acute Hepatitis C Infection

    When people first get hepatitis C, the infection is said to be acute. Most people with acute hepatitis C do not have symptoms so they are not recognized as being infected. However, some have low-grade fever, fatigue or other symptoms that lead to an early diagnosis. Others who become infected and have a known exposure to an infected source, such as a needlestick injury, are monitored closely.

    Treatment decisions should be made on a case-by-case basis. Response to treatment is higher in acute hepatitis infection than chronic infection. However, many experts prefer to hold off treatment for 8-12 weeks to see whether the patient naturally eliminates the virus without treatment. Approaches to treatment are evolving. Patients with acute hepatitis C infection should discuss treatment options with a health care professional who is experienced in treating the disease. There is no established treatment regimen at this time.

    How effective is hepatitis C treatment? Is hepatitis C curable?

    If the hepatitis C RNA remains undetectable at the end of the treatment and follow-up period, this is called a sustained virologic response and is considered a cure. Over 90% of people treated with DAAs are cured. These people have significantly reduced liver inflammation, and liver scarring may even be reversed.

    About 5% of people who are treated for HCV infection are not cured by some of the older regimens. These people may still have options for cure with the newer regimens.

    How Can I Protect Myself Against Viral Hepatitis

    Hepatitis C Symptoms

    There are many ways you can reduce your chances of getting hepatitis:

    • Get the vaccines for hepatitis A and hepatitis B.
    • Use a condom during sex.
    • Don’t share needles to take drugs.
    • Practice good personal hygiene such as thorough hand-washing with soap and water.
    • Don’t use an infected person’s personal items.
    • Take precautions when getting any tattoos or body piercings.
    • Take precaution when traveling to areas of the world with poor sanitation.
    • Drink bottled water when traveling.

    It is very important that you take these preventive measures if you participate in risky behaviors. Take preventive steps, too, if you work in places like a nursing homes, dormitories, daycare centers, or restaurants where there you have extended contact with other people and a risk of coming into contact with the disease.

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    Who Should Get Tested

    You should consider getting tested for hepatitis C if you’re worried you could have been infected or you fall into one of the groups at an increased risk of being infected.

    • Hepatitis C often has no symptoms, so you may still be infected if you feel healthy.
    • The following groups of people are at an increased risk of hepatitis C:
    • ex-drug users and current drug users, particularly users of injected drugs
    • people who received blood transfusions before September 1991
    • recipients of organ or tissue transplants before 1992
    • people who have lived or had medical treatment in an area where hepatitis C is common high risk areas include North Africa, the Middle East and Central and East Asia
    • babies and children whose mothers have hepatitis C
    • anyone accidentally exposed to the virus, such as health workers
    • people who have received a tattoo or piercing where equipment may not have been properly sterilised
    • sexual partners of people with hepatitis C

    If you continue to engage in high-risk activities, such as injecting drugs frequently, regular testing may be recommended. Your doctor will be able to advise you about this.

    What Are The Side Effects Of Treatments For Hepatitis C Infection

      Side effects of interferon or pegylated interferon

      • The most common side effects of interferon or pegylated interferon include fever, flu-like symptoms, and depression. Patients must be monitored closely for depression. Risk of suicide is a reason to avoid interferons.
      • Interferons also reduce white blood cell and/or red blood cell counts . This may cause increased susceptibility to infection. Interferons also increase the risk of certain cancers. Death rarely occurs as a result of therapy, but may occur from progression of liver failure in patients with advanced cirrhosis.

      Side effects of ribavirin

      • Ribavirin most commonly causes anemia due to destruction of red blood cells . This can be severe enough that people with heart disease may suffer a heart attack from insufficient blood flow, so people with heart disease should not receive this drug. Anemia improves with a reduction in the dose of ribavirin. Injected growth factor that stimulates the production of red blood cells often is used to improve the anemia associated with ribavirin. Ribavirin also accumulates in the testicles and ovaries and causes birth defects in animals. Although no birth defects have been reported in humans, both men and women should use contraceptive measures to avoid pregnancy during and for at least six months after ribavirin treatment.

      Side effects of DAAs

      • The most common and significant side effects of boceprevir , sofosbuvir , and ledipasvir/sofosbuvir include
      • fatigue ,
    • fatigue,
    • nausea.
    • fatigue,
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      How Does Hepatitis B Spread

      Persons infected with hepatitis B can pass the virus to others through blood or body fluids. In the U.S., the most common way of becoming infected is through unprotected sex, although sharing an infected persons needles to inject illicit drugs also is quite common. Less common ways are by contaminated razors or toothbrushes. As previously mentioned, hepatitis B is passed from infected mother to infant in over 90% of cases.

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