Thursday, May 19, 2022

Can You Get Hepatitis C Twice

Why Getting Tested Is Important

What to know about Hepatitis C

A blood test is one of the only ways to confirm a diagnosis of hepatitis C. Additionally, hepatitis C often has no visible symptoms for many years.

Because of this, its important to be tested if you believe youve been exposed to the virus. Getting a timely diagnosis can help ensure you receive treatment before permanent liver damage occurs.

What Are The Side Effects Of Treatment

The direct acting antiviral regimens used to treat hepatitis C today are extremely well tolerated. You may experience mild side effects like headache or fatigue. For details on the side effects, review the handout specific to medication you take.

In rare instances, providers may recommend the addition of the medication ribavirin for more difficult cases of hepatitis C. Ribavirin may cause additional side effects such as fatigue, shortness of breath, cough, anemia, or rash. Patients who receive ribavirin may need more frequent monitoring for side effects as well as adjustment of the dose if side effects are experienced. For detailed information on ribavirin, patients should review the ribavirin handout.

How Common Is Hepatitis C

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention think that 2.4 million Americans are infected with HCV. It is the most common infection carried by blood in the United States. Veterans have higher rates of hepatitis C than the rest of the country so it is especially important to discuss hepatitis C testing with your provider if you are a Veteran. But, Veterans are not the only ones with high rates of hepatitis C. Baby boomers have higher rates of hepatitis C than people in other age groups in the country as well. Often, people infected with hepatitis C are not aware of their infection because they have no symptoms and they do not feel ill so getting tested if you are at higher risk is important step.

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What If I Cant Reduce My Risk Factors

If you are struggling with an intravenous drug addiction or dependence, it is important to reach out to your local healthcare provider. They can assist you in finding treatment options that you can afford, as well as guiding you through the steps to begin treatment. For those who are not interested in ending their drug use, a local healthcare provider may be able to show you to places where you can exchange your used needles for clean needles. The options vary based on your location.

If you are struggling with alcohol addiction or dependence, it is also important to reach out to your local healthcare provider. They can assist you in assessing your individual treatment needs, as well as referring you to an inpatient or outpatient program that fits your life and your budget. Whether you are interested in quitting drinking or whether you choose to continue to consume alcohol, it is important to let your primary physician know about your alcohol use so s/he can monitor your liver and viral load levels more closely for signs of additional physical stressors that you may not be able to see without test results.

If you want to talk with someone about your sexual practices and to discuss whether there are additional actions you can incorporate into your sex life in order to best protect yourself and your partner, reach out to your local health clinic or to your primary care physician for guidance. They may be able to help you directly.

What Is The Difference Between Relapse And Nonresponse

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The goal of treating chronic hepatitis C is to completely clear the virus. This means that your “viral load” is zero or so low that the virus can’t be detected with standard blood tests.

Without treatment, the hepatitis C virus in liver cells constantly makes copies of itself, and the virus ends up not just in liver cells but also in the bloodstream. Treatment is intended to completely stop reproduction of the virus so that it doesn’t continue to enter the bloodstream or cause any more injury to liver cells.

Successful treatment results in a “sustained virological response.” This means the virus becomes completely undetectable before the treatment is finished, and it remains undetectable for 6 months after treatment is stopped.

A “relapse” means the viral load drops to an undetectable level before treatment is completed, but becomes detectable again within 6 months after treatment is stopped. Even if the virus returns at a level that is lower than it was before treatment, a relapse is still considered to have occurred. A relapse can be determined if the viral load starts to rise during treatment, or at any time after the virus becomes undetectable.

A “nonresponse” means the viral load never drops significantly and the virus remains detectable throughout the course of treatment.

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Anyone Living With Hiv

  • If you are living with HIV and also have Hepatitis C, you are at increased risk for serious, life-threatening complications. All persons living with HIV should be tested for Hepatitis C by their doctors. Hepatitis C can also complicate the management of your HIV.
  • If you’re African-American and living with HIV, you’re at twice the risk of Hepatitis C infection.

How Is Hepatitis C Treated

Hepatitis C virus is treated with all-oral medications. These pills, calledantiviral medications, are usually taken once per day. These antiviral medications are extremely good at attacking the virus and preventing it from multiplying.

Antiviral medications were not the original treatment for hepatitis C. Before 2014, the only treatment for hepatitis C was called interferon and ribavirin, taken as weekly injections under the skin, plus pills. Interferon treatment caused many unpleasant side effects and was not usually successful. Then a new generation of medications became available. These antiviral treatments are extremely successful at curing the virus and have very minimal side effects.

Ribavirin is still sometimes prescribed to be taken along with the new antiviral medicines, but it has become more and more uncommon that ribavirin is needed at all. Ribavirin has some mild-moderate side effects. Ribavirin is a pill taken twice per day, as 2 or 3 pills in the morning plus 2 or 3 pills at night, depending on the patient’s body weight. Most patients do not need ribavirin.

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How Can I Make A Difference For People With Hepatitis C

Anyone can help raise awareness about this widespread disease. Citizens can write letters to their state representatives or local newspapers and get involved in volunteer efforts with liver disease or Veteran-affiliated organizations . Speaking at support groups and sharing your experience is also a good way to help others with HCV.

Recurrence Of Hepatitis C

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Approximately 99 percent of people who achieve SVR are cured of hepatitis C for life. The risk of hepatitis C returning after SVR is extremely rare. Also, once you reach SVR, you arent at risk of passing HCV on to others.

In some cases, your hepatitis C symptoms may flare up again before you reach SVR. But this isnt considered a recurrence because the infection isnt cured to begin with. A more likely explanation for recurrence is a new infection altogether.

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How Is Hepatitis B Diagnosed

There are three main ways to diagnose HBV infection. They include:

  • Blood tests: Tests of the blood serum shows how your bodys immune system is responding to the virus. A blood test can also tell you if you are immune to HBV.
  • Abdominal ultrasound: An ultrasound uses sound waves to show the size and shape of your liver and how well the blood flows through it.
  • Liver biopsy: A small sample of your liver tissue is removed though a tiny incision and sent to a lab for analysis.

The blood test that is used to diagnose hepatitis B is not a test that you get routinely during a medical visit. Often, people whove become infected first learn they have hepatitis B when they go to donate blood. Blood donations are routinely scanned for the infection.

The virus can be detected within 30 to 60 days of infection. About 70% of adults with hepatitis B develop symptoms, which tend to appear an average of 90 days after initial exposure to the virus.

How Do My Healthcare Professional And I Decide On Treatment

Your healthcare professional will look at your health history and decide if treatment is right for you. The treatment you receive and the length of treatment may depend on:

  • how much virus is in your body
  • your genotype of hep C
  • whether you have liver damage
  • whether or not youve been treated previously

Next:

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Clinical Significance Of Hepatitis C Genotypes

Genotype generally has not been found in epidemiological studies to play a large rolein liver disease progression due to HCV. Rather, genotype is of clinical importanceprincipally as a factor in selecting the appropriate HCV medications for treatment. Please see the HCV Treatment Considerations for more information.

Side Effects Of Treatment

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Treatments with direct acting antivirals have very few side effects. Most people find DAA tablets very easy to take.

You may feel a little sick and have trouble sleeping to begin with, but this should soon settle down.

Your nurse or doctor should be able to suggest things to help ease any discomfort.

You need to complete the full course of treatment to ensure you clear the hepatitis C virus from your body.

If you have any problems with your medicines, speak to your doctor or nurse straight away.

Side effects for each type of treatment can vary from person to person.

For a very small number of people, more severe side effects from hepatitis C treatments may include:

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Why Should I Get Treated

Hepatitis C can be fatal when left untreated.

Untreated hepatitis C can lead to scarring of the liver known as cirrhosis.

A small number of people with cirrhosis will go on to get liver failure, the only treatment for which is a liver transplant. A small proportion of people with cirrhosis develop liver cancer.

Can You Be A Blood Or Organ Donor

People with hepatitis C cant currently donate blood. The American Red Cross eligibility guidelines prohibit people who have ever tested positive for hepatitis C from donating blood, even if the infection never caused symptoms.

According to the Department of Health and Human Services , information on organ donation, those with underlying medical conditions shouldnt rule themselves out as organ donors. This reflects new guidelines for organ donation announced by the HHS.

People with HCV are now able to be organ donors. This is because advances in testing and medical technology can help the transplant team determine which organs or tissues can be safely used for transplantation.

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Can I Get Reinfected With Hepatitis C

If you become infected with hepatitis C infection and then clear the virus , yes, it is possible for you to become infected again.

The chance of another infection with hepatitis C is much, much less than the chance of a first-time infection, but it is not impossible. It has happened in people who continue to use injection drugs, and some studies suggest that it happens even more often in people who are also HIV positive.

In other words, having had hepatitis C once does not make you “immune” to getting hepatitis C again.

The best way to avoid reinfection is to reduce risky behaviors that can result in exposure to the hepatitis C virus: Do not use injection drugs, do not share needles for any reason, avoid blood-to-blood exposures with others, and use condoms if you are sexually active with a new partner or with a partner who has used injection drugs.

The research in this area is ongoing, and we will continue to learn more about this very important topic. But for now, preventing re-exposure to the hepatitis C virus is the only sure way of avoiding infection and reinfection with hepatitis C.

Who Should Get Tested

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You should consider getting tested for hepatitis C if you’re worried you could have been infected or you fall into one of the groups at an increased risk of being infected.

  • Hepatitis C often has no symptoms, so you may still be infected if you feel healthy.
  • The following groups of people are at an increased risk of hepatitis C:
  • ex-drug users and current drug users, particularly users of injected drugs
  • people who received blood transfusions before September 1991
  • recipients of organ or tissue transplants before 1992
  • people who have lived or had medical treatment in an area where hepatitis C is common high risk areas include North Africa, the Middle East and Central and East Asia
  • babies and children whose mothers have hepatitis C
  • anyone accidentally exposed to the virus, such as health workers
  • people who have received a tattoo or piercing where equipment may not have been properly sterilised
  • sexual partners of people with hepatitis C

If you continue to engage in high-risk activities, such as injecting drugs frequently, regular testing may be recommended. Your doctor will be able to advise you about this.

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How Does Hepatitis C Spread

Hepatitis C is spread only through exposure to an infected person’s blood.

High-risk activities include:

  • Sharing drug use equipment. Anything involved with injecting street drugs, from syringes, to needles, to tourniquets, can have small amounts of blood on it that can transmit hepatitis C. Pipes and straws to smoke or snort drugs can have blood on them from cracked lips or nosebleeds. Get into a treatment program if you can. At the very least, don’t share needles or equipment with anyone else.
  • Sharing tattoo or piercing tools. Nonsterile items and ink can spread contaminated blood.
  • Blood transfusions in countries that donât screen blood for hepatitis C.
  • Nonsterile medical equipment. Tools that arenât cleaned properly between use can spread the virus.
  • Blood or cutting rituals. Sharing the tools or exchanging blood can transmit hepatitis C.

Medium-risk activities include:

If I Have Hepatitis C Infection Does This Mean I Am Going To Have Other Health Problems

Hepatitis C can cause scarring of the liver leading to cirrhosis and liver cancer. Other conditions have also been linked to hepatitis C and are known as extra-hepatic manifestations of hepatitis C. They include diabetes mellitus, arthritis, hypothyroid, and aplastic anemia among other conditions. Talk to your provider for more information.

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How Is Hepatitis B Spread

You can become infected with hepatitis B through exposure to blood, semen and other bodily fluids of an infected person. You can get the infection by:

  • Having unprotected sex.
  • Sharing or using dirty needles for drug use, tattoos or piercing.
  • Sharing everyday items that may contain body fluids, including razors, toothbrushes, jewelry for piercings and nail clippers.
  • Being treated medically by someone who does not use sterile instruments.
  • Being bitten by someone with the infection.
  • Being born to a pregnant woman with the infection.

Hepatitis B is not spread by:

  • Kissing on the cheek or lips.
  • Coughing or sneezing.
  • Hugging, shaking hands or holding hands.
  • Eating food that someone with the infection has prepared.
  • Breastfeeding.

Hepatitis A Vaccine And International Travel

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Who should get the hepatitis A vaccine before traveling internationally?

All unvaccinated people, along with those who have never had hepatitis A, should be vaccinated before traveling to countries where hepatitis A is common. Travelers to urban areas, resorts, and luxury hotels in countries where hepatitis A is common are still at risk. International travelers have been infected, even though they regularly washed their hands and were careful about what they drank and ate. Those who are too young or cant get vaccinated because of a previous, life-threatening reaction to the hepatitis A vaccine or vaccine component should receive immune globulin. Travelers to other countries where hepatitis A does not commonly occur are not recommended to receive hepatitis A vaccine before travel.

How soon before travel should I get the hepatitis A vaccine?

You should get the first dose of hepatitis A vaccine as soon as you plan international travel to a country where hepatitis A is common. The vaccine will provide some protection even if you get vaccinated closer to departure. For older adults , people who are immunocompromised, and people with chronic liver disease or other chronic medical conditions the health-care provider may consider, based on several factors, giving an injection of immune globulin at the same time in different limbs.

What should I do if I am traveling internationally but cannot receive hepatitis A vaccine?

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Hepatitis C Medications Have Bad Side Effects

This is not true. As Dr. Nephew explained, Current treatments for hepatitis C virus usually involve 812 weeks of oral therapy with pills. Cure rates are now over 90%. These new medications have very few side effects and are very well tolerated.

. Understanding how it spreads and how to reduce transmission are the first steps in reducing its impact.

Importantly, as Facente told MNT, the that all adults 18 or over be screened for hepatitis C at least once in their lives, or more frequently if they have ongoing risk for infection.

After completing a bachelors degree in neuroscience at the U.K.s University of Manchester, Tim changed course entirely to work in sales, marketing, and analysis. Realizing that his heart truly lies with science and writing, he changed course once more and joined the Medical News Today team as a News Writer. Now Senior Editor for news, Tim leads a team of top notch writers and editors, who report on the latest medical research from peer reviewed journals he also pens a few articles himself. When he gets the chance, he enjoys listening to the heaviest metal, watching the birds in his garden, thinking about dinosaurs, and wrestling with his children.

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