Thursday, February 22, 2024

Signs And Symptoms Of Hepatitis C Virus

Important Information About Your Test Results

What are the early signs and symptoms of Hepatitis B & C? | Apollo Hospitals

The tests performed on your donation have given positive results for HCV. This means that you are infected with the hepatitis C virus. Unlike antibodies to other infections, the HCV antibody does not always overcome the virus and eliminate it from your body. It does not provide immunity to hepatitis C virus infection.

About 70% of people who have been infected with hepatitis C virus become persistently infected and will have the virus in their liver for most of their lives.

There is a blood test for the virus itself which will also have been done on your blood sample. If this test is positive then you are still infected with hepatitis C virus. If the test is negative, you may have overcome the virus, but still have the antibodies. It is important to repeat the virus test before assuming that the infection has gone.

Because the virus is also in the blood, it can be passed on to the recipient of blood transfusion. The tests do not give any information about when or how you became infected, or whether your liver is inflamed or not. Other tests should be performed which will give much more information about your health.

If you are a health care worker and have a positive HCV test result, you should contact your occupational health adviser, particularly if you perform exposure-prone procedures. For most people there are no occupational health issues and other people do not need to know.

Symptoms Of An Acute Infection

Few people show symptoms during acute infection . These symptoms can include: fatigue tenderness or an aching feeling on the right side of the abdomen decreased appetite perhaps with weight loss flu-like symptoms nausea tendency to bruise or bleed easily jaundice rash dark-coloured urine and light or clay-coloured stools. These symptoms often go away after a short time.

Can Hepatitis C Be Prevented

There is no vaccine for hepatitis C. But you can help protect yourself from hepatitis C infection by:

  • Not sharing drug needles or other drug materials
  • Wearing gloves if you have to touch another person’s blood or open sores
  • Making sure your tattoo artist or body piercer uses sterile tools and unopened ink
  • Not sharing personal items such toothbrushes, razors, or nail clippers
  • Using a latex condom during sex. If your or your partner is allergic to latex, you can use polyurethane condoms.

NIH: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases

Read Also: Can You Cure Chronic Hepatitis C

When To Speak With A Doctor

People who give birth while they have an active HCV infection should speak with a doctor about HCV as soon as possible. Doctors can test both parents and caregivers, as well as children above a certain age, to confirm whether HCV is present. They can then create a treatment plan.

People should also seek testing for older children and adolescents who engage in behaviors that put them at increased risk for contracting HCV. This includes the use of injection drugs, sharing needles, or getting tattoos and piercings in an unhygienic environment.

Anyone with symptoms that could indicate an acute HCV infection should speak with a doctor right away.

How To Prevent Hepatitis C Infection

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Hepatitis C is a blood-borne infection. To reduce the risk of infection, avoid sharing personal items with others. Do not use injected drugs. If you do use injected drugs, never share needles and equipment with others. Getting tattoos and body piercings can put you at risk. Use condoms during sex. Health care workers should take precautions to avoid needlesticks and properly dispose of needles and other materials that encounter blood. Speak to your doctor about your risk factors and follow recommended screening standards for hepatitis C.

How to Prevent Giving Hepatitis C

If you have hepatitis C, these common precautions should be followed to prevent spreading or giving hepatitis C to others:

  • Cover cuts and blisters

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Can You Prevent Hepatitis C Infection

Thereâs no vaccine to prevent hepatitis C. To avoid getting the virus:

  • Use a latex condom every time you have sex.
  • Don’t share personal items like razors.
  • Don’t share needles, syringes, or other equipment when injecting drugs.
  • Be careful if you get a tattoo, body piercing, or manicure. The equipment may have someone else’s blood on it.

Find out more on how to prevent hepatitis C.

Living With Hepatitis C Infection

Many people are living with hepatitis C. If you have hepatitis C, there are several important things that you can do to help yourself and others such as:

  • Eat a healthy diet and get plenty of rest.
  • To avoid further liver damage:
  • Do not drink alcohol.
  • Do not take medicine that can cause liver damage .
  • Get vaccinated against hepatitis A & B if you are not already immune.
  • Do not to pass the infection to anyone else by taking the following precautions, such as:
  • Do not share toothbrushes or razors with others.
  • Do not to let anyone else come into contact with your blood, urine or feces.
  • Use condoms during sexual activity.
  • Limit the number of sex partners you have.
  • If you use injection drugs, do not share needles or syringes with anyone else.
  • It is best to not get tattoos or body piercings.

Although often uncomfortable, you should notify your partner of your hepatitis C prior to having sex. You also must notify all your health care professionals of your infection, so they can take precautions.

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Who Is More Likely To Get Hepatitis C

People more likely to get hepatitis C are those who

  • have injected drugs
  • had a blood transfusion or organ transplant before July 1992
  • have hemophilia and received clotting factor before 1987
  • have been on kidney dialysis
  • have been in contact with blood or infected needles at work
  • have had tattoos or body piercings
  • have worked or lived in a prison
  • were born to a mother with hepatitis C
  • are infected with HIV
  • have had more than one sex partner in the last 6 months or have a history of sexually transmitted disease
  • are men who have or had sex with men

In the United States, injecting drugs is the most common way that people get hepatitis C.13

What Are The Side Effects Of Treatments For Hepatitis C Infection

Know these symptoms of hepatitis C

Side effects of interferon or pegylated interferon

  • The most common side effects of interferon or pegylated interferon include fever, flu-like symptoms, and depression. Patients must be monitored closely for depression. Risk of suicide is a reason to avoid interferons.
  • Interferons also reduce white blood cell and/or red blood cell counts . This may cause increased susceptibility to infection. Interferons also increase the risk of certain cancers. Death rarely occurs as a result of therapy, but may occur from progression of liver failure in patients with advanced cirrhosis.

Side effects of ribavirin

  • Ribavirin most commonly causes anemia due to destruction of red blood cells . This can be severe enough that people with heart disease may suffer a heart attack from insufficient blood flow, so people with heart disease should not receive this drug. Anemia improves with a reduction in the dose of ribavirin. Injected growth factor that stimulates the production of red blood cells often is used to improve the anemia associated with ribavirin. Ribavirin also accumulates in the testicles and ovaries and causes birth defects in animals. Although no birth defects have been reported in humans, both men and women should use contraceptive measures to avoid pregnancy during and for at least six months after ribavirin treatment.

Side effects of DAAs

  • The most common and significant side effects of boceprevir , sofosbuvir , and ledipasvir/sofosbuvir include
  • fatigue ,
  • fatigue,
  • nausea.
  • fatigue,
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    Questions For Your Doctor

    When you visit the doctor, you may want to ask questions to get the information you need to manage your hepatitis C. If you can, have a family member or friend take notes. You might ask:

  • What kinds of tests will I need?
  • Are there any medications that might help?
  • What are the side effects of the medications you might prescribe?
  • How do I know when I should call the doctor?
  • How much exercise can I get, and is it all right to have sex?
  • Which drugs should I avoid?
  • What can I do to prevent the disease from getting worse?
  • How can I avoid spreading hepatitis C to others?
  • Are my family members at risk for hepatitis C?
  • Should I be vaccinated against other types of hepatitis?
  • How will you keep tabs on the condition of my liver?
  • What Exactly Is Hepatitis C

    Hepatitis C is a viral infection thats super sly half of those who have it are unaware they have it. Most people dont show any symptoms so they can live with itsome for decadesand not feel a thing until major complications crop up.

    The virus can cause both acute and chronic illness, ranging in severity from a mild illness that lasts a few weeks, to a serious lifelong condition. Its estimated that 58 million people around the world have chronic hep C, according to the World Health Organization. And a 2021 report from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention shows hep C infections are steadily rising among 18- to 40-year-oldsinjected drug use being the main culprit.

    Though it may be silent, hep C can become deadly when it lingers in your system for too long. Too much time inside your body takes a toll and can lead to major issues like cirrhosis , liver disease, and cancer of the liver.

    For reasons unknown, not everyone who has hep C needs treatment. In fact, 30% of people with the disease clear the infection through their own immune system, typically within 6 months of infection , without requiring any treatment. But for the 70% whose condition becomes chronic, treatment is necessary.

    While all this may sound scary, hep C isnt what it used to beit can be completely cured with a relatively quick course of treatment.

    Read Also: Can You Recover From Hepatitis C

    How Is Monitoring Done After Treatment For Hepatitis C

    Once patients successfully complete treatment, the viral load after treatment determines if there is an SVR or cure. If cure is achieved , no further additional testing is recommended unless the patient has cirrhosis. Those who are not cured will need continued monitoring for progression of liver disease and its complications.

    While cure eliminates worsening of fibrosis by hepatitis C, complications may still affect those with cirrhosis. These individuals still need regular screening for liver cancer as well as monitoring for esophageal varices that may bleed.

    Because hepatitis B co-infection may reactivate or worsen even after treatment for HCV, monitoring for hepatitis symptoms may be needed after the end of therapy.

    Epidemiology And Risk Factors

    What Are the Early Warning Signs of Hepatitis C?

    According to the World Health Organization , approximately 3% of the worlds population is infected with HCV, and more than 170 million chronic carriers are at risk for liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, which are complications of HCV infection.2 In the United States, approximately 30,000 new cases of HCV infection develop yearly about 3.2 million individuals have chronic HCV infection, and an estimated 50% to 70% of them are unaware of their condition.1,3

    Chronic HCV infection is the leading cause of liver-related death and reason for liver transplant in the United States, and it has recently eclipsed human immunodeficiency virus infection as a cause of death.4 The HCV infection mortality rate is 4.58 per 100,000 people per year, and almost 75% of deaths occur among adults aged 45 to 64 years. In the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey , neither gender nor race/ethnicity was independently associated with HCV infection.2

    The transmission of HCV in infected blood or body fluids via the parenteral route is associated with multiple risk factors . Additional risk factors include intranasal cocaine use, body tattooing or piercing with unsterilized equipment, occupational exposure , and household exposure .

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    What Do You Do If You Become Ill

    Talk to your health care provider about getting tested if you think you:

    If you have hepatitis C, tell those who may have been exposed to your blood or bodily fluids. They should get tested and be treated if necessary. Bodily fluids, like semen and vaginal fluid, are a concern because they could be carrying small amounts of infected blood.

    Some adults with hepatitis C will recover from the disease on their own within 6 months. Until your health care provider confirms your recovery status, you are still contagious and can spread the disease.

    After recovery, you are no longer contagious because you will not have the disease anymore. But you can get hepatitis C again.

    Unfortunately, most adults with hepatitis C:

    • cannot recover on their own
    • develop a more serious form of the disease if they are sick for longer than 6 months

    What Medications Cure Hepatitis C Infection

    Interferons, for example, Roferon-A and Infergen, and pegylated interferons such as Peg-IntronT, Pegasys, were mainstays of treatment for years. Interferons produced sustained viral response of up to 15%. Later, peglatedll forms produced SVR of 50%-80%. These drugs were injected, had many adverse effects, required frequent monitoring, and were often combined with oral ribavirin, which caused anemia. Treatment durations ranged up to 48 weeks.

    Direct-acting anti-viral agents are antiviral drugs that act directly on hepatitis C multiplication.

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    What Is The Treatment For Viral Hepatitis

    Treatment of acute viral hepatitis and chronic viral hepatitis are different. Treatment of acute viral hepatitis involves resting, relieving symptoms, and maintaining an adequate intake of fluids. Treatment of chronic viral hepatitis involves medications to eradicate the virus and taking measures to prevent further liver damage.

    Acute hepatitis

    In patients with acute viral hepatitis, the initial treatment consists of relieving the symptoms of nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain . Careful attention should be given to medications or compounds, which can have adverse effects in patients with abnormal liver function . Only those medications that are considered necessary should be administered since the impaired liver is not able to eliminate drugs normally, and drugs may accumulate in the blood and reach toxic levels. Moreover, sedatives and “tranquilizers” are avoided because they may accentuate the effects of liver failure on the brain and cause lethargy and coma. The patient must abstain from drinking alcohol since alcohol is toxic to the liver. It occasionally is necessary to provide intravenous fluids to prevent dehydration caused by vomiting. Patients with severe nausea and/or vomiting may need to be hospitalized for treatment and intravenous fluids.

    Chronic hepatitis

    Medications for chronic hepatitis C infection include:

    • oral daclatasvir

    Medications for chronic hepatitis B infection include:

    Fulminant hepatitis

    What Do Hepatitis C Symptoms Look Like

    Hepatitis C Virus

    Hepatitis C infection can go through two stages: acute and chronic. In the early, or acute stage, most people don’t have symptoms. If they do develop symptoms, these can include:

    • flu-like symptoms, tiredness, high temperature and aches and pains
    • loss of appetite
    • tummy pain
    • jaundice, meaning your skin and the whites of your eyes turn yellow

    While for some people, the infection will clear without treatment, in most cases, acute infection will develop into long-term chronic infection. Chronic infection may not become apparent for a number of years until the liver displays signs of damage. These symptoms can include:

    • mental confusion and depression these are specific to hepatitis C
    • constantly feeling tired
    • nausea, vomiting or tummy pain
    • dark urine
    • feeling bloated
    • joint and muscle pain

    Without treatment, chronic hepatitis C can cause scarring of the liver , which can cause the liver to stop working properly. A small number of people with cirrhosis develop liver cancer and these complications can lead to death. Other than a liver transplant, theres no cure for cirrhosis. However, treatments can help relieve some of the symptoms.

    Read Also: Hepatitis C Contagious Through Urine

    Should You Get Tested For Hepatitis C

    Since you can live with hep C for decades without knowing itit can take 10 to 40 years for hep C to progress from mild disease to cirrhosis, liver failure or liver cancerthe Centers For Disease Control and Prevention recommends a one-time blood screening test for anyone born between 1945 and 1965. This population is more at risk of having received a tainted blood transfusion.

    Hepatitis C can only be diagnosed through a simple blood test called an HCV antibody test. True to its name, it looks for antibodies, proteins released into the bloodstream, that show up in someone infected with the hep C virus. If you have a positive HCV antibody test, youll then be given a follow-up HCV RNA test to learn whether you have an active infection.

    What Type Of Doctor Treats Hepatitis C

    Hepatitis C is treated by either a gastroenterologist, a hepatologist , or an infectious disease specialist. The treatment team may include more than one specialist, depending on the extent of liver damage.Surgeons who specialize in surgery of the liver, including liver transplantation, are part of the medical team and should see patients with advanced disease early, before the patient needs a liver transplant. They may be able to identify issues that need to be addressed before surgery can be considered. Other persons who can be helpful in managing patients include dietitians to consult on nutritional issues and pharmacists to assist with management of drugs.

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