Wednesday, September 21, 2022

Hepatitis B How Do You Get It

Where Is Hepatitis B Most Common In The World

How Do You Get Hepatitis B?

About 300,000 of these are due to liver cancer. The disease is most common in the Western Pacific and African regions. In Europe rates are 1.6% and in the Americas they are 0.7%. It was originally known as serum hepatitis.

How do I prepare for hepatitis B vaccine? Preparation of hepatitis B vaccine in our laboratories consists of a series of steps that include initial concentration of surface antigen by ammonium sulphate precipitation, followed by isopycnic banding and rate zonal centrifugation in a K-II centrifuge. What hepatitis B patients should not eat? Limit foods containing

Immunisation For Hepatitis B

Immunisation is the best protection against hepatitis B infection. A course of vaccination is recommended for all babies and people in high-risk groups.

Immunisation can be with a vaccine against hepatitis B alone or with a combination vaccine. To be immunised, contact your doctor or local council.

Protection against hepatitis B is available free of charge under the National Immunisation Program Schedule. In Victoria, immunisation against hepatitis B is free for:

  • Babies at birth immunisation against hepatitis B alone as soon as possible after birth.
  • Babies at 2, 4 and 6 months combination immunisation in the form of a diphtheria, tetanus, whooping cough, hepatitis B, polio and Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine .
  • Premature babies at 12 months premature babies born under 32 weeks gestation or under 2,000g birth weight receive a single booster dose.
  • Children up to and including 9 years of age.
  • People aged less than 20 years having a catch-up immunisation.
  • Refugees and humanitarian entrants aged 20 years and above.

In Victoria, free hepatitis B vaccine is provided for people who are at increased risk of infection, including:

Immunisation is also recommended, but not necessarily free, for people who are at increased risk of infection, including:

How Is Hepatitis B Prevented

Testing & Vaccination

  • The hepatitis B vaccine offers excellent protection against HBV. The vaccine is safe and highly effective. Vaccination consists of 3 doses of vaccine over the course of 6 months. Protection lasts for 20 years to life.
  • The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that all children should receive hepatitis B vaccine starting at birth. .
  • The CDC recommends hepatitis B vaccine for persons traveling to countries where HBV is common .
  • If you have one or more risk factors for hepatitis B infection, you should get a simple HBV blood test. The blood test will determine whether you are:
  • immune to hepatitis B or
  • susceptible to hepatitis B and need vaccination or
  • infected with hepatitis B and need further evaluation by a physician
  • The basic test for acute HBV infection is called the Hepatitis B Core IgM Antibody test. People who have acute hepatitis B show positive IgM antibodies on this test.
  • Perinatal Hepatitis

    • California law requires testing of all pregnant women for hepatitis B infection
    • If the mother is HBV-infected, she will pass the infection to the baby during the birth process, unless the baby gets immunized within hours of birth
    • Giving the infant HBIG and HBV vaccine right away will reliably prevent infection of the infant
    • Other family members should best tested for hepatitis B too, and given vaccine if they are not already infected or immune

    Healthy Habits

    After Exposure to Hepatitis B

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    Can Hepatitis B Be Prevented

    The hepatitis B vaccine is one of the best ways to control the disease. It is safe, effective and widely available. More than one billion doses of the vaccine have been administered globally since 1982. The World Health Organization says the vaccine is 98-100% effective in guarding against the virus. Newborns should be vaccinated.

    The disease has also been more widely prevented thanks to:

    • Widespread global adoption of safe blood-handling practices. WHO says 97% of the blood donated around the world is now screened for HBV and other diseases.
    • Safer blood injection practices, using clean needles.
    • Safe-sex practices.

    You can help prevent hepatitis B infections by:

    • Practicing safe sex .
    • Never sharing personal care items like toothbrushes or razors.
    • Getting tattoos or piercings only at shops that employ safe hygiene practices.
    • Not sharing needles to use drugs.
    • Asking your healthcare provider for blood tests to determine if you have HBV or if you are immune.

    How Does A Person Get Hepatitis

    Hepatitis B

    A person can get hepatitis A through the following sources:

    • Food or water contaminated with the fecal matter of an infected person
    • Sexual contact

    A person can get hepatitis B in many ways, which include:

    • Having sexual contact with an infected person
    • Sharing needles
    • Being in direct contact with an infected persons blood
    • Transferred from mother to the fetus
    • Getting an infected needle prick
    • Being in contact with an infected persons body fluid

    A person can get hepatitis C through:

    • Sharing infected needles
    • Being in direct contact with an infected persons blood
    • Getting an infected needle prick
    • Having sexual contact with an infected person

    Hepatitis D can be spread through:

    • Transferred from mother to the fetus
    • Being in contact with the infected fluid or blood
    • A person can get hepatitis D only if they are infected previously with hepatitis B.

    Hepatitis E mainly infects people who eat or drink food or water contaminated with the virus. Under-cooked foods can also spread hepatitis E. It is more dangerous in pregnant women.

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    What Are The Symptoms Of Hepatitis B

    Symptoms of hepatitis B can range from mild to severe. If you have a mild case of hepatitis, you may not even realize that you have it. It may not cause any symptoms, or may only cause symptoms similar to the stomach flu. The symptoms of hepatitis B may include:

    • Loss of appetite.
    • Jaundice .
    • Joint pain.

    Can Hepatitis B Be Prevented Or Avoided

    The best way to prevent hepatitis B is to always have protected sex and, if you use intravenous drugs, avoid sharing needles.

    A vaccine is available to prevent hepatitis B. It is now routinely given in the first year of life to all newborn infants. It is safe and requires 3 shots over a 6-month period. This vaccine should be given to people who are at high risk for this illness, such as healthcare workers, all children, people who travel to areas where the infection is widespread, drug users, and those who have multiple sex partners.

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    What Are The Risk Factors For Getting Hepatitis B

    Due to the way that hepatitis B spreads, people most at risk for getting infected include:

    • Children whose mothers have been infected with hepatitis B.
    • Children who have been adopted from countries with high rates of hepatitis B infection.
    • People who have unprotected sex and/or have been diagnosed with a sexually transmitted infection.
    • People who live with or work in an institutional setting, such as prisons or group homes.
    • Healthcare providers and first responders.
    • People who share needles or syringes.
    • People who live in close quarters with a person with chronic hepatitis B infection.
    • People who are on dialysis.

    Transmission Symptoms And Treatment

    What is Hepatitis B? | How is Hepatitis B Transmitted?

    How is HBV transmitted?

    HBV is transmitted through activities that involve percutaneous or mucosal contact with infectious blood or body fluids , including

    • sex with an infected partner
    • injection-drug use that involves sharing needles, syringes, or drug-preparation equipment
    • birth to an infected mother
    • contact with blood from or open sores on an infected person
    • exposures to needle sticks or sharp instruments and
    • sharing certain items with an infected person that can break the skin or mucous membranes , potentially resulting in exposure to blood.

    How long does HBV survive outside the body?

    HBV can survive outside the body and remains infectious for at least 7 days .

    What should be used to clean environmental surfaces potentially contaminated with HBV?

    Any blood spills should be disinfected using a 1:10 dilution of one part household bleach to 10 parts of water. Gloves should be worn when cleaning up any blood spills.

    Who is at risk for HBV infection?

    The following populations are at increased risk for becoming infected with HBV:

    • Infants born to infected mothers
    • Sex partners of infected people
    • Men who have sex with men
    • People who inject drugs
    • Household contacts or sexual partners of known people with chronic HBV infection
    • Health-care and public-safety workers at risk for occupational exposure to blood or blood-contaminated body fluids
    • Hemodialysis patients

    Who should be screened for HBV?

    CDC recommends that the following people be screened for HBV :

    • fever,

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    What Laboratory Tests Are Available For Hepatitis B

    Tests are available to detect the types of antigens used to identify the hepatitis B virus. The tests determine if the virus is present in the body tissue or blood. The amount of each type of antigen present indicates how advanced the disease is and how infective the individual has become.

    Other tests are available to detect the body’s reaction to the viral infection or the body’s reaction to vaccination against the virus. These tests work by measuring the number of antibodies present in the blood.

    How Is Hepatitis B Diagnosed

    There are three main ways to diagnose HBV infection. They include:

    • Blood tests: Tests of the blood serum shows how your bodys immune system is responding to the virus. A blood test can also tell you if you are immune to HBV.
    • Abdominal ultrasound: An ultrasound uses sound waves to show the size and shape of your liver and how well the blood flows through it.
    • Liver biopsy: A small sample of your liver tissue is removed though a tiny incision and sent to a lab for analysis.

    The blood test that is used to diagnose hepatitis B is not a test that you get routinely during a medical visit. Often, people whove become infected first learn they have hepatitis B when they go to donate blood. Blood donations are routinely scanned for the infection.

    The virus can be detected within 30 to 60 days of infection. About 70% of adults with hepatitis B develop symptoms, which tend to appear an average of 90 days after initial exposure to the virus.

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    How Do You Get Hepatitis B

    Hepatitis B is really contagious. Its transmitted through contact with semen , vaginal fluids, and blood. You can get it from:

    • having vaginal, anal, or oral sex

    • sharing toothbrushes and razors

    • sharing needles for shooting drugs, piercings, tattoos, etc.

    • getting stuck with a needle that has the Hep B virus on it.

    Hepatitis B can also be passed to babies during birth if their mother has it.

    Hepatitis B isnt spread through saliva , so you CANT get hepatitis B from sharing food or drinks or using the same fork or spoon. Hepatitis B is also not spread through kissing, hugging, holding hands, coughing, sneezing, or breastfeeding.

    Hepatitis B Causes And Risk Factors

    Hepatitis C

    Itâs caused by the hepatitis B virus, and it can spread from person to person in certain ways. You can spread the hepatitis B virus even if you donât feel sick.

    The most common ways to get hepatitis B include:

    • Sex. You can get it if you have unprotected sex with someone who has it and your partnerâs blood, saliva, semen, or vaginal secretions enter your body.
    • Sharing needles. The virus spreads easily via needles and syringes contaminated with infected blood.
    • Accidental needle sticks.Health care workers and anyone else who comes in contact with human blood can get it this way.
    • Mother to child.Pregnant women with hepatitis B can pass it to their babies during childbirth. But thereâs a vaccine to prevent newborns from becoming infected.

    Hepatitis B doesnât spread through kissing, food or water, shared utensils, coughing or sneezing, or through touch.

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    What Is The Treatment For Hepatitis B

    Prevention is recommended by receiving a vaccine for HBV.

    Receiving an injection of the hepatitis B immune globulin within 12 hours of coming in contact with the virus may help prevent the development of the disease.

    At present, there is no specific treatment for patients with acute hepatitis B. Acute infection is usually short and will often resolve on its own. Your health care provider may recommend rest, and adequate nutrition and fluids to help your body fight the infection. Hospitalization may be required for patients who suffer from severe vomiting and who are unable to maintain adequate nutritional levels. It may also be required to prevent the development of complications.

    While chronic infection cannot be cured, there are two standard treatments in Canada that may control the virus and prevent further damage to the liver.

    • Antiviral medications can fight the virus and slow damage to the liver.
    • Interferon which may be given for short periods and if effective, results in suppression of the virus.

    You Can Have It And Not Know It

    What is hepatitis B?

    Hepatitis B is a liver disease caused by the hepatitis B virus . HBV is far more infectious than HIV and can be prevented by a vaccine. People who have not been vaccinated may be at risk of getting infected.

    About 95 percent of adults will recover within 6 months of becoming infected and as a result will develop lifelong protection against it. The remaining 5 percent are unable to clear the virus and will become chronically infected. Chronic hepatitis B infection is treatable.

    It is estimated that less than 1 percent of Canada’s population is infected with either acute or chronic HBV. People who are infected before the age of 7 are at a higher risk of developing chronic infection. In 2011, the overall reported rate of acute hepatitis B infection in Canada was 0.6 reported cases per 100,000 people living in Canada.

    Why is hepatitis B a health concern?

    Many people infected with HBV do not know they have the virus because symptoms can take two to six months to appear and only about 50 percent of people develop symptoms. During this time, they can spread the infection to others. You may not know you have this infection until damage has already been done to your liver. Potential complications from chronic HBV infection include cirrhosis of the liver, liver failure, liver cancer and premature death.

    Why do I need my liver?

    How is hepatitis B spread?

    HBV is spread through contact with infected blood and body fluids including semen and vaginal fluid.

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    Diagnosis Of Hepatitis B

    Blood tests are available to determine if you are or have been infected with hepatitis B. It may take 6 months from the time of infection before a blood test can detect antibodies to hepatitis B, so follow-up testing may be required. During this 6-month period, until you know whether you are infected or not, take action to prevent potential infection of other people.

    There are also tests that can assess liver damage from hepatitis B. The interpretation of these tests can be complicated and specialist advice is needed, so talk to your doctor.

    All pregnant women are tested for hepatitis B. If you are found to have chronic hepatitis B, your doctor can help reduce the risk of transferring the infection to your newborn child.

    Hepatitis B Vs Hepatitis C

    Things you should know about Hepatitis B

    Hepatitis has many different types. HBV and the hepatitis C virus have both acute and chronic forms.

    The main difference between HBV and HCV is how they spread from person to person. Although HCV is transmissible via sexual activity, this is rare. HCV usually spreads when blood that carries the virus comes into contact with blood that does not.

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    Should I Be Screened For Hepatitis B

    Screening is testing for a disease in people who have no symptoms. Doctors use blood tests to screen for hepatitis B. Many people who have hepatitis B dont have symptoms and dont know they are infected with hepatitis B. Screening tests can help doctors diagnose and treat hepatitis B, which can lower your chances of developing serious health problems.

    Your doctor may recommend screening for hepatitis B if you9,14

    • are pregnant
    • were born in an area of the world where 2 percent or more of the population has hepatitis B infection, which includes Africa, Asia, and parts of the Middle East, Eastern Europe, and South America
    • didnt receive the hepatitis B vaccine as an infant and have parents who were born in an area where 8 percent or more of the population had hepatitis B infection, which includes sub-Saharan Africa and parts of Asia
    • are HIV-positive
    • are a man who has sex with men
    • have lived with or had sex with a person who has hepatitis B
    • have an increased chance of infection due to other factors

    What Can I Do If I Think I Have Hepatitis B

    Cases are generally diagnosed by GPs, not sexual health clinics. If you had sex with someone recently or you share your house with others, they can be vaccinated to stop them getting the infection they should see a doctor straight away.

    Avoid sex until you are told youre no longer infectious or until your partners have been vaccinated.

    A blood test will confirm whether you have the virus.

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    Chronic Hepatitis B Complications

    Chronic hepatitis B can lead to

    • cirrhosis, a condition in which scar tissue replaces healthy liver tissue and prevents your liver from working normally. Scar tissue also partly blocks the flow of blood through the liver. As cirrhosis gets worse, the liver begins to fail.
    • liver failure, in which your liver is badly damaged and stops working. Liver failure is also called end-stage liver disease. People with liver failure may require a liver transplant.
    • liver cancer. Your doctor may suggest blood tests and an ultrasound or another type of imaging test to check for liver cancer. Finding cancer at an early stage improves the chance of curing the cancer.

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