Wednesday, September 21, 2022

What Is Hepatitis B Vaccine

A Look At Each Vaccine: Hepatitis B Vaccine

Does HepB Vaccine Cause Defects?

The hepatitis B vaccine is given to prevent the severe liver disease that can develop when children or adults are infected with hepatitis B virus. The hepatitis B vaccine is given as a series of three shots. The first dose is given within 24 hours of birth. The second dose is given one to two months after the first dose, and the third dose is given between 6 months and 18 months of age.

Us Children And Adult Hepatitis B Vaccine Schedules

*Please note that the first dose should be given as soon as possible. Additional doses require minimum time intervals between doses in order for the vaccine to be effective.

3-Dose Vaccine Series for Children and Adults

The hepatitis B vaccine is an injection that is generally given in the arm as a three-dose series on a 0, 1, and 6-month schedule. Alternative schedules may be considered, noting that a third dose at 6 months, meeting minimum intervals between doses, is needed for maximum, long-term protection. Completing the hepatitis B vaccine series, preferably beginning at birth, will ensure protection against hepatitis B, hepatitis delta and lower the lifetime risk of liver cancer. Greater than 90% of babies and up to 50% of young children who are not vaccinated and are infected with hepatitis B will have lifelong infection, which makes the birth dose essential to their protection.

There are three, 3-dose vaccine brands approved in the U.S.

2-Dose Vaccine Series

Do The Benefits Of The Hepatitis B Vaccine Outweigh Its Risks

Every year in the United States about 2,000 people die following an overwhelming hepatitis B virus infection. In addition, every year about 22,000 people are infected with hepatitis B. Some of them will remain chronically infected, putting them at high risk of the long-term consequences of hepatitis B virus infection: cirrhosis and liver cancer. In fact, with the exception of influenza virus, hepatitis B virus causes more severe disease and death in the United States than any other vaccine-preventable disease. On the other hand, the hepatitis B vaccine is an extremely rare cause of a severe allergic reaction called anaphylaxis. To date, no one has died from this reaction, but it is theoretically possible that this could occur.

Because hepatitis B virus is a common cause of severe disease and death in the United States, and because the hepatitis B vaccine does not cause permanent damage or death, the benefits of the hepatitis B vaccine clearly outweigh its risks.

Also Check: Colloidal Silver And Hepatitis C

Hepatitis B Vaccine Information For Health Professionals

Hepatitis B vaccination is recommended for all infants, children, and adolescents. Don’t miss opportunities to vaccinate your patients who didn’t receive hepatitis B vaccine as infants.

You don’t need to restart a series of hepatitis B vaccinations because of an extended interval between doses. It is not necessary to add doses or restart the series if the interval between doses is longer than that which is recommended.

There are over 200 million hepatitis B carriers worldwide , and the disease causes up to 80 percent of liver cancers. Chronic hepatitis B is second only to tobacco among known human carcinogens.

More than 250,000 people die each year around the world of hepatitis B-associated acute and chronic liver disease.

Approaches By Virus Life Cycle Stage

Hepatitis B

consist of a and sometimes a few stored in a capsule made of , and sometimes covered with a layer . Viruses cannot reproduce on their own and instead propagate by subjugating a host cell to produce copies of themselves, thus producing the next generation.

Researchers working on such “” strategies for developing antivirals have tried to attack viruses at every stage of their life cycles. Some species of mushrooms have been found to contain multiple antiviral chemicals with similar synergistic effects.Compounds isolated from fruiting bodies and filtrates of various mushrooms have broad-spectrum antiviral activities, but successful production and availability of such compounds as frontline antiviral is a long way away. Viral life cycles vary in their precise details depending on the type of virus, but they all share a general pattern:

  • Attachment to a host cell.
  • Release of viral genes and possibly enzymes into the host cell.
  • Replication of viral components using host-cell machinery.
  • Assembly of viral components into complete viral particles.
  • Release of viral particles to infect new host cells.
  • Before cell entry

    This stage of viral replication can be inhibited in two ways:

  • Using agents which mimic the virus-associated protein and bind to the cellular receptors. This may include VAP , natural of the receptor and anti-receptor antibodies.
  • Uncoating inhibitor

    Inhibitors of uncoating have also been investigated.

    During Viral Synthesis

    Reverse transcription
    Transcription

    Recommended Reading: Hepatitis A Is A Virus

    Hepatitis A And Hepatitis B Vaccine Dosing Information

    Usual Adult Dose for Hepatitis B Prophylaxis:

    Primary immunization: 1 mL IM in the deltoid area at 0, 1 and 6 months.Alternatively, a 4 dose schedule given on days 0, 7, and 21 to 30 followed by a booster at month 12 may be used.

    Usual Adult Dose for Hepatitis A Prophylaxis:

    Primary immunization: 1 mL IM in the deltoid area at 0, 1 and 6 months.Alternatively, a 4 dose schedule given on days 0, 7, and 21 to 30 followed by a booster at month 12 may be used.

    What Other Drugs Will Affect Hepatitis A And B Vaccine

    Before receiving this vaccine, tell the doctor about all other vaccines you have recently received.

    Also tell the doctor if you have recently received drugs or treatments that can weaken the immune system, including:

    If you are using any of these medications, you may not be able to receive the vaccine, or may need to wait until the other treatments are finished.

    This list is not complete. Other drugs may interact with hepatitis A and B vaccine, including prescription and over-the-counter medicines, vitamins, and herbal products. Not all possible interactions are listed in this medication guide.

    Don’t Miss: Is There A Pill That Cures Hepatitis C

    Who Should Receive The Hepatitis B Vaccine And When

    Hepatitis B vaccine is made from parts of the hepatitis B virus. It cannot cause hepatitis B infection. The vaccine is usually given as 2, 3, or 4 shots over 1 to 6 months.

    Infants should get their first dose of hepatitis B vaccine at birth and will usually complete the series at 6 months of age.

    All children and adolescents younger than 19 years of age who have not yet gotten the vaccine should also be vaccinated.

    Hepatitis B vaccine is recommended for unvaccinated adults who are at risk for hepatitis B virus infection, including:

    • people whose sex partners have hepatitis B
    • sexually active persons who are not in a long-term monogamous relationship
    • persons seeking evaluation or treatment for a sexually transmitted disease
    • men who have sexual contact with other men
    • people who share needles, syringes, or other drug injection equipment
    • people who have household contact with someone infected with the hepatitis B virus
    • healthcare and public safety workers at risk for exposure to blood or body fluids
    • residents and staff of facilities for developmentally disabled persons
    • persons in correctional facilities
    • victims of sexual assault or abuse
    • travelers to regions with increased rates of hepatitis B
    • people with chronic liver disease, kidney disease, HIV infection, or diabetes mellitus
    • anyone who wants to be protected from hepatitis B

    There are no known risks to getting hepatitis B vaccine at the same time as other vaccines.

    Persons New To Canada

    Hepatitis B Vaccine

    Health care providers who see persons newly arrived in Canada should review the immunization status and update immunization for these individuals, as necessary. In many countries outside of Canada, HB vaccine is in limited use.

    All persons from a country that is endemic for HB should be assessed and vaccinated against HB if not immune and not infected. Individuals born in developing countries are more likely to be carriers of HB, necessitating vaccination of their sexual and household contacts based on review of their serologic test results. HB vaccine is recommended for all household contacts whose families have immigrated to Canada from areas in which there is a high prevalence of HB and who may be exposed to HB carriers through their extended families or when visiting their country of origin.

    Children adopted from countries in which there is a high prevalence of HB infection should be screened for HBsAg and, if positive, household or close contacts in the adopting family should be immunized before adoption or as soon as possible thereafter. Adults going to pick-up children from these countries should be vaccinated before departure. Refer to Immunization of Persons New to Canada in Part 3 for additional information.

    Don’t Miss: What Do You Do If You Have Hepatitis C

    How Safe Is The Hepatitis B Vaccine

    The hepatitis B vaccine is totally safe for most people. Most babies, kids, and adults have no problems at all when they get the vaccine. In fact, more than 100 million people in the U.S. have gotten the hepatitis B vaccine.

    Like all medicines, the hepatitis B vaccine may have some mild side effects: soreness, change in skin color, swelling, or itching around where you get the shot, or a slight fever. But these things arent serious and usually go away pretty quickly. Theres an extremely small risk of having an allergic reaction to the vaccine.

    If you get dizzy, feel your heart beating really fast, have a high fever, feel weak, break out in hives, or have trouble breathing, get medical help right away. But again, the risk of having an allergy is super small.

    You CANT get hepatitis from the hepatitis vaccine.

    Why Should I Vaccinate My Newborn Child If I Know That I Am Not Infected With Hepatitis B Virus

    Before the hepatitis B vaccine, every year in the United States about 18,000 children were infected with hepatitis B virus by the time they were 10 years old. This statistic is especially important because people are much more likely to develop liver cancer or cirrhosis if they are infected early in life, rather than later in life .

    About 9,000 of the 18,000 children infected in the first 10 years of life caught the virus from their mother during birth. However, many young children didn’t catch the disease from their mother. They caught it from either another family member or someone else who came in contact with the child. Because hepatitis B can be transmitted by relatively casual contact with items contaminated with blood of an infected person, and because many people who are infected with hepatitis B virus don’t know that they have it, it is virtually impossible to be “careful enough” to avoid this infection.

    For these reasons, all young children are recommended to receive the hepatitis B vaccine. The best time to receive the first dose is right after birth. This will ensure that the child will be protected as early as possible from catching hepatitis B from people who dont know that they are infected with the virus.

    Listen to Dr. Offit explain why newborns get the hepatitis B vaccine by watching this short video, part of the series Talking About Vaccines with Dr. Paul Offit.

    You May Like: What Happens If You Have Hepatitis

    International Hepatitis B Vaccine Schedules

    *Please note that the first dose should be given as soon as possible. Additional doses require minimum time intervals between doses in order for the vaccine to be effective.

    The hepatitis B vaccine is an injection that is generally given in the arm and as a three-dose series. The World Health Organization recommends a 0, 1, and 6-month vaccine schedule, though schedules may vary based on a countrys national immunization program. Completing the hepatitis B vaccine series, preferably beginning at birth, will ensure protection against hepatitis B, hepatitis delta and lower the lifetime risk of liver cancer. Greater than 90% of babies and up to 50% of young children who are not vaccinated and are infected with hepatitis B will have lifelong infection, which makes the birth dose essential to their protection. Please note that the vaccine brand name, manufacturer and associated schedules for adults, children and infants may be unique to different countries, though there is a list of WHO prequalified vaccines.

    3-Dose Vaccine Series for Infants

    The World Health Organization recommends all infants receive the first dose of the hepatitis B vaccine within 24 hours of birth and to complete the vaccine series with additional shots at 1 month and 6 months of age. Beginning the hepatitis B vaccine at birth will ensure protection against hepatitis B for life.

    3-Dose Vaccine Series for Children and Adults

    4-Dose Combination Vaccine Series for Infants

    Additional Resource Links:

    How Is This Vaccine Given

    Why do newborns need the hepatitis B vaccine?

    This vaccine is given as an injection into a muscle. A healthcare provider will give you this injection.

    The hepatitis B vaccine is given in a series of 2 to 4 shots. The booster shots are sometimes given 1 month and 6 months after the first shot. If you have a high risk of hepatitis B infection, you may be given an additional booster 1 to 2 months after the third shot.

    Your individual booster schedule may be different from these guidelines. Follow your doctor’s instructions or the schedule recommended by the health department of the state you live in.

    Recommended Reading: Most Common Way To Get Hepatitis C

    Why Did Cdc Choose Hepatitis B Vaccine For Adults Right Now

    Maybe they understand they will not be able to get 8 or 9 doses of COVID vaccines into adults. But the Hepatitis B series involves 3 shots over 6 months.

    This could be an excuse to get 3 more shots into us.

    I was asked what this COVID vaccine program is about. I only know two things:

  • This is not about improving our health
  • The goal is to get us injected
  • I don’t know why they want us to have a bunch of injections, but I think these two facts are well established.

    The next question is what is in the injections. I don’t know the answer. There were metal bits in the Moderna vaccine in Japan, which caused several lots to be discarded as they were visible. Hopefully readers who know more can contribute to this discussion.

    Why Get Vaccinated Against Hepatitis B

    Hepatitis B is a serious infection that affects the liver. It is caused by the hepatitis B virus. Hepatitis B can cause mild illness lasting a few weeks, or it can lead to a serious, lifelong illness.

    Hepatitis B virus infection can be either acute or chronic.

    Acute hepatitis B virus infection is a short-term illness that occurs within the first 6 months after someone is exposed to the hepatitis B virus. This can lead to:

    • fever, fatigue, loss of appetite, nausea, and/or vomiting
    • jaundice
    • pain in muscles, joints, and stomach

    Chronic hepatitis B virus infection is a long-term illness that occurs when the hepatitis B virus remains in a person’s body. Most people who go on to develop chronic hepatitis B do not have symptoms, but it is still very serious and can lead to:

    • liver damage
    • liver cancer
    • death

    Chronically infected people can spread hepatitis B virus to others, even if they do not feel or look sick themselves. Up to 1.4 million people in the United States may have chronic hepatitis B infection. About 90% of infants who get hepatitis B become chronically infected, and about 1 out of 4 of them dies.

    Hepatitis B is spread when blood, semen, or other body fluid infected with the hepatitis B virus enters the body of a person who is not infected. People can become infected with the virus through:

    Each year about 2,000 people in the United States die from hepatitis Brelated liver disease.

    Recommended Reading: What Does Hepatitis B Do

    What Hepatitis B Immunisation Involves

    Full protection involves having 3 injections of the hepatitis B vaccine at the recommended intervals.

    Babies born to mothers with hepatitis B infection will be given 6 doses of hepatitis B-containing vaccine to ensure long-lasting protection.

    If you’re a healthcare worker or you have kidney failure, you’ll have a follow-up appointment to see if you’ve responded to the vaccine.

    If you’ve been vaccinated by your employer’s occupational health service you can request a blood test to see if you’ve responded to the vaccine.

    Emergency Hepatitis B Vaccination

    Hepatitis B vaccine for Grade 7 Students

    If you’ve been exposed to the hepatitis B virus and have not been vaccinated before, you should get immediate medical advice, as you may benefit from having the hepatitis B vaccine.

    In some situations, you may also need to have an injection of antibodies, called specific hepatitis B immunoglobulin , along with the hepatitis B vaccine.

    HBIG should ideally be given within 48 hours, but you can still have it up to a week after exposure.

    Don’t Miss: What Is Hepatitis C Screening Test

    Guidance On Reporting Adverse Events Following Immunization

    Vaccine providers are asked to report, through local public health officials, any serious or unexpected adverse event temporally related to vaccination. An unexpected AEFI is an event that is not listed in available product information but may be due to the immunization, or a change in the frequency of a known AEFI.

    Refer to Reporting Adverse Events Following Immunization in Canada and Adverse events following immunization in Part 2 for additional information about AEFI reporting.

    What To Do If You Miss A Scheduled Dose

    The recommended schedule for the HBV vaccine follows a three-dose pattern, with all doses complete within 6 months. The good news is that if you miss a dose, you dont need to start the series of shots all over.

    If you missed getting the second dose 1 month after the first, make an appointment as soon as possible. If you miss the third dose, you should also try to get it as quickly as possible. Keep in mind that the second and third doses

    Also Check: How Does Hepatitis C Transmitted

    Popular Articles
    Related news