Why Is Hepa Recommended
The HepA vaccine not only protects the kids who get it. It also can help prevent outbreaks. An outbreak is when a disease happens in greater numbers than expected in a particular area.
Childcare centers are a common site of hepatitis A outbreaks. Some kids can be infected and not have symptoms. But they can still spread the virus to others. Having many young kids vaccinated against hepatitis A can stop it from spreading in a community.
Safety Of Hepatitis Vaccines
Hepatitis vaccines have been given to millions of people all across the world without any evidence of serious side effects. “They’re very safe, and they’re extremely effective,” says Poland.
If you are not sure whether you should have hepatitis vaccines, talk with your doctor about your specific concerns.
Who Is At Risk For Infection
Anyone who is not immune to hepatitis A can get hepatitis A infection. Food-borne outbreaks occur sporadically throughout the USA. Certain groups of people do have a higher risk of developing HAV infection and should be vaccinated:
- Persons experiencing homelessness
- People who eat raw or under-cooked shellfish
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Managing Fever After Immunisation
Common side effects following immunisation are usually mild and temporary . Specific treatment is not usually required.There are a number of treatment options that can reduce the side effects of the vaccine including:
- Drinking extra fluids to drink and not overdressing if there is a fever.
- Although routine use of paracetamol after vaccination is not recommended, if fever is present, paracetamol can be taken check the label for the correct dose or speak with your pharmacist .
Exactly How Long Does Hep Vaccine Last
Years ago, the standard 3-round Hepatitis B vaccine provided protection for up to seven years. However, todays vaccines provide you with more than 20 years of protection.
This means that booster doses are largely unneeded these days. However, it is recommended for certain groups to take subsequent booster doses. At-risk groups include hemodialysis patients and other individuals with seriously compromised immune systems, such as people infected with HIV, chemotherapy patients, and recipients of hematopoietic stem-cell transplants.
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Other Important Hepatitis A Vaccine Facts
People who are on hemodialysis and those with AIDS shouldnt worry its safe for them to get vaccinated since its an inactivated vaccine. Whats more, there is no harm in receiving additional shots if a person lost his medical history.
In some cases, prevaccination testing may apply. This is usually done to keep the vaccination cost down and may include people of certain ethnic groups and those who live in areas with high hep A incidence rate. The same rule applies to intravenous drug users.
The protection usually begins two to four weeks after the first shot. In light of the long incubation period of the hepatitis A virus, the protection may start right away.
Hep A isnt treated with any antivirals and the liver has a remarkable ability to self-regenerate. Doctors usually prescribe sufficient hydration, plenty of rest, and proper nutrition, though some people might need to be hospitalized for additional medical care.
Immunizing Agents Available For Use In Canada
Hepatitis A-containing vaccines
- AVAXIMÂ® and AVAXIMÂ®-Pediatric , Sanofi Pasteur SA , Sanofi Pasteur Ltd.
- HAVRIXÂ®1440 and HAVRIXÂ®720 Junior , GlaxoSmithKline Inc.
- TWINRIXÂ® and TWINRIXÂ®Junior , GlaxoSmithKline Inc. Refer to Hepatitis B Vaccine in Part 4 for additional information about HAHB vaccine.
- VAQTAÂ® , Merck Canada Inc.
- ViVAXIMÂ® , Sanofi Pasteur Ltd.
- GamaSTANÂ® , Grifols Therapeutics LLC.
Standard human immunoglobulin is a sterile, concentrated solution for intramuscular injection containing 15% to 18% immunoglobulin. It is obtained from pooled human plasma from screened donors and contains mainly IgG with small amounts of IgA and IgM. For complete prescribing information, consult the product leaflet or information contained within the product monograph available through Health Canada’s Drug product database.
Refer to Contents in Immunizing Agents Available for Use in Canada in Part 1 for lists of vaccines and passive immunizing agents available for use in Canada and their contents.
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What Is Hepatitis A Vaccination
Inactivated Hepatitis A vaccine is a safe and highly effective option.
- Inactivated virus vaccine
- Inactivated combination vaccine* with hepatitis B
- Inactivated combination vaccine with typhoid
Contraindications: Hepatitis Acontaining vaccines should not be administered to travellers with a history of hypersensitivity to any vaccine component, including neomycin. The Inactivated combination vaccine* with hepatitis B should not be administered to people with a history of hypersensitivity to yeast.
The tip caps of prefilled syringes of certain inactivated virus vaccines, the vial stopper, syringe plunger stopper, and tip caps of certain inactivated virus vaccines may contain dry natural rubber, which may cause allergic reactions in latex-sensitive people.
How Is The Virus Spread
Hepatitis A virus is usually spread from person to person by putting something in the mouth that has been contaminated with the stool of a person with hepatitis A. This type of transmission is called the “fecal-oral” route. For this reason, the virus is more easily spread in areas where there are poor sanitary conditions or where good personal hygiene is not observed.
Most infections in the United States result from contact with a household member or sex partner who has hepatitis A.Hepatitis A virus may also be spread by consuming food or drink that has been handled by an infected person. Waterborne outbreaks are infrequent and are usually associated with sewage-contaminated or inadequately treated water. Casual contact, as in the office, factory or school setting, does not spread the virus.
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Who Should Get The Hepatitis A Vaccine
The CDC recommends that all children between ages 12 months and 23 months get this vaccine as well as for any infant aged 6 to 11 months who is traveling internationally.
The following people are also at risk for the disease and should be vaccinated:
- Children and teens through age 18 who live in states or communities that have made this vaccination routine because of a high rate of disease
- Men who have sex with men
- Anyone who uses illegal drugs
- People with chronic liver disease
- Anyone treated with blood clotting drugs, such as people with hemophilia
- People who work with HAV-infected primates or in HAV research laboratories.
- Travelers to countries where hepatitis A is common. A good source to check is the CDCâs travelersâ health website, which you can search by the country youâre going to.
- People adopting or close to a child adopted from a country where hepatitis A is common
You should not get the vaccine if you’re allergic to any ingredients in it or if you had a severe allergic reaction to an earlier dose of it. Tell your doctor or pharmacist about any allergies you have.
If you’re pregnant, let your doctor know. The safety of this vaccine for pregnant women is unknown, although the risk is considered to be very low.
Who Should Get Vaccinated
The common practice in most of the developed world is to vaccinate all children at the age of one. And it is highly recommended to get vaccinated or revaccinated if you are at a greater risk of contracting the infection. This goes double for people who might be prone to hep A complications.
Those who are at greater risks can be divided into several categories. Frequent travelers to counties with high incidences of hepatitis A. It may not be enough to just maintain good hygiene, mind your food, and stay in high-end hotels.
People who work with primates might also be at greater risks of contracting hep A infection. The same goes for liver disease patients, those with clotting disorders, and homosexual/bisexual men.
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Liver Anatomy And Function
Main Function of the Liver
The liver is an essential organ that has many functions in the body. The liver plays an important role in detoxifying the body by converting ammonia, a byproduct of metabolism in the body, into urea that is excreted in the urine by the kidneys. The liver also breaks down medications and drugs, including alcohol, and is responsible for breaking down insulin and other hormones in the body. The liver also stores vitamins and chemicals that the body requires as building blocks.
Many different disease processes can occur in the liver, including infections such as hepatitis, cirrhosis , cancers, and damage by medications or toxins.
Symptoms of liver disease can include:
Before Taking This Medicine
Havrix vaccine will not protect against infection with hepatitis B, C, and E, or other viruses that affect the liver. It may also not protect against hepatitis A if you are already infected with the virus, even without showing symptoms.
You should not receive Havrix if you have ever had a life-threatening allergic reaction to any vaccine containing hepatitis A, or if you are allergic to neomycin.
Before receiving this vaccine, tell your doctor if you have:
an allergy to latex rubber or
a weak immune system .
You can still receive a vaccine if you have a minor cold. In the case of a more severe illness with a fever or any type of infection, wait until you get better before receiving Havrix.
Vaccines may be harmful to an unborn baby and generally should not be given to a pregnant woman. However, not vaccinating the mother could be more harmful to the baby if the mother becomes infected with a disease that Havrix could prevent. Your doctor will decide whether you should receive this vaccine, especially if you have a high risk of infection with hepatitis A.
It is not known if hepatitis A vaccine passes into breast milk or if it could harm a nursing baby. Tell your doctor if you are breast-feeding a baby.
Havrix is not FDA-approved for use by anyone younger than 12 months old.
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Hepatitis A In Other Countries
Hepatitis A occurs worldwide. Developing countries with poor hygiene measures are at higher risk of hepatitis A infection and transmission.
In areas of high endemicity, such as parts of Africa, Asia, Central America and South America, up to 90% of children have been infected with hepatitis A.2
Hepatitis A is commonly reported in foodborne outbreaks.
Inactivated hepatitis A vaccines are prepared from hepatitis A virus harvested from human diploid cell cultures.
Different strains of HAV are in different vaccines, but there is only 1 known serotype. Immunity induced by a particular strain probably protects against all strains. 7
How Is Hepatitis A Infection Prevented
- The hepatitis A vaccine offers excellent protection against HAV. The vaccine is safe and highly effective. Vaccination consists of 2 doses of vaccine spaced 6-12 months apart. Protection starts 1-2 weeks after the first dose of vaccine, and lasts for 20 years to life after 2 doses.
- The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that all children should receive hepatitis A vaccine starting at 1 year of age .
- The CDC recommends hepatitis A vaccine for all persons traveling to countries where HAV is common . For infants that will be traveling internationally, an early dose of Hepatitis A vaccine can be given at age 6-11 months.
- People who have hepatitis A infection become immune to HAV for the rest of their lives once they recover. They cannot get hepatitis A twice.
- The blood test for immunity to hepatitis A is called the Hepatitis A Total Antibody test. People who have had hepatitis A and those who have received hepatitis A vaccine show positive antibodies to hepatitis A on this test for the rest of their life.
- Good personal hygiene and proper sanitation help prevent the spread of the HAV virus. Always wash your hands with soap and water after using the bathroom, changing a diaper, and before preparing, serving, or eating food.
- Alcohol-based hand sanitizers do not kill the hepatitis A virus
After Exposure to HAV
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Get The Shot And Stay Informed
The hepatitis A & B virus is silent but violent. The virus is 50 to 100 times more contagious than HIV and can survive outside the body for at least seven days, making it much more infectious then most infectious diseases.
Nobody is immune to the first infection, and once contracted, it can lead to chronic illness and, in extreme cases, even death.
We hope this article answered the question, “How long does Twinrix last?” Also, that it has given you further insight into hepatitis A and B.
You may have landed here because you are travelling or maybe even moving to another country. Along with your vaccinations, your travel insurance is the smartest accessory you can pack. As a leading financial comparison platform, we at Insurdinary will provide you with the best possible quote on the market for all of your insurance needs. Reach out to us today! We look forward to working with you.
How Is Hepatitis A Transmitted
Hepatitis A is normally spread by a person unknowingly consuming the virus from various objects, food or drinks that have been previously contaminated by small amounts of stool from an infected person. It can also spread by personal contact with an infected person through activities such as sex or caring for an ill person.
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Will My Immunization Be Recorded
Your immunization records are registered in a computerized network known as the Immunization Records and Yellow Cards. While this one is specific to Ontario, each province has their own.
They can use information obtained in these databases to:
- Maintain immunization data
- Inform you whether or when you or your family members need an immunization
- Track how well vaccinations perform to prevent vaccine-preventable infections
You can also share your immunization history with health care providers for the provision of social health services to aid with assessment and treatment and monitor the spread of infectious illnesses.
Types Of Hepatitis A Vaccine
There are 3 main types of hepatitis A vaccination:
- a vaccine for hepatitis A only
- a combined vaccine for hepatitis A and hepatitis B
- a combined vaccine for hepatitis A and typhoid fever
Talk to your GP about which vaccine is most suitable for you. All 3 types are usually available for free on the NHS.
Plan your vaccinations in advance if you’re travelling abroad. They should ideally be started at least 2 or 3 weeks before you leave, although some can be given up to the day of your departure if necessary.
Extra doses of the vaccine are often recommended after 6 to 12 months if you need long-term protection.
You can find more information about the various hepatitis A vaccines on the NHS Fit for Travel website.
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Are There Any Side Effects To Twinrix
Like any drug, the Twinrix vaccine can trigger side effects, but the chance of severe side effects is exceptionally low.
Very Common side effects felt in more than 10% of people receiving the vaccine are:
- Pain and redness at the injection site
Common side effects felt between 1% and 10% of people receiving the vaccine are:
- Nerve disorders
Very rare in less than 0.01% of people receiving the vaccine are hives.
Still, you should call your doctor or hospital if you have critical or unusual reactions after receiving the vaccine.
For How Long Is An Infected Person Able To Spread The Virus
The contagious period begins one to two weeks before symptoms appear, and is minimal about one week after the onset of jaundice. Food workers should be excluded from work for at least two weeks after the onset of clinical symptoms of hepatitis A. If jaundiced, food workers should not return to work for at least one week after onset of jaundice.
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What Are The Symptoms
The period between exposure and onset of symptoms for hepatitis A virus is generally around 28 days with common symptoms including: fever, loss of appetite, nausea and pain in the right upper abdomen, followed within several days by jaundice, a condition that results in yellowing of the skin and whites of eyes. Symptoms may range from mild to severe, with some individuals displaying none. Children under 6 years of age are often asymptomatic but they are capable of transmitting the infection to others.
The infection can persist for anywhere from 1 to 2 weeks and the severity varies from a mild illness to a severely disabling disease lasting several months. Approximately 10%-15% of infected people have prolonged or relapsing symptoms over a 6- to 9-month period. Severe complications including fulminant hepatitis and liver failure are rare but more likely to occur in older adults and people with underlying liver disease.
The Hepatitis A Vaccine
Thanks to medical breakthroughs and the subsequent vaccine, cases of Hepatitis A in the United States have dropped by 95 percent since the 1980s.
Children are regularly vaccinated between their first and second birthdays . Older children and adolescents can get vaccinated after 23 months.
Adults not vaccinated and who want to be protected against the virus can get the vaccine if they choose. Its important to note that Hepatitis A is one of the most common vaccine-preventable infections acquired during travel. Risk is higher for travelers going to rural areas, doing backcountry treks or eating and drinking in areas with poor sanitation. At least one vaccination is recommended prior to travel, but a second, administered 612 months after the first, is best for long-term protection.
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For Adults At High Risk Of Exposure
Adults who have not received the hepatitis B vaccine series should be immunized when they have an increased risk of exposure. Job, travel, health condition, or lifestyle all may increase a person’s risk of contracting hepatitis B.
People who live or work where there is risk of exposure include:
- Health care and public safety workers who are likely to be exposed to blood or blood products.
- Clients and staff of institutions or residential settings with known or potential HBV carriers.
- People planning extended travel to China, Southeast Asia, Africa, and other areas where hepatitis B infection is high.
People who have health conditions that put them at high risk for exposure or a severe infection include:
- People who have a severe kidney disease that requires them to have their blood filtered through a machine .
- People who have chronic liver disease.
- People who have hemophilia and other conditions in which they need to have blood products on an ongoing basis.
- People who had a stem cell transplant.
People whose lifestyle puts them at high risk for exposure include:
- People who inject illegal drugs.
- Men who have sex with men.
- People who have had more than one sex partner in the past 6 months or who have a history of sexually transmitted infection.
- Household contacts and sex partners of hepatitis B carriers.
- Prison inmates.