Friday, December 2, 2022

Where Can I Get My Hepatitis B Vaccine

What Are The Side Effects Of The Hepatitis B Vaccine

Hepatitis B Vaccine: Routine and Catch-up Schedule

Mild-to-moderate problems:

  • Soreness, redness, or swelling where the shot was given
  • Headache, tiredness, fever and loss of appetite

Severe problems :

  • Dizziness

Over-the-counter pain relievers such as acetaminophen or ibuprofen can help ease pain and reduce fever.

It’s extremely rare for these vaccines to cause serious harm or death. If the person getting the vaccine has a serious reaction, call the doctor or seek immediate medical attention.

The hepatitis B vaccine is available at Walgreens Pharmacy. Ages vary by state.*

If you believe you have a medical emergency, please call 911.

Tell your doctor or a healthcare provider if the person getting the vaccine has any severe allergies.

Call the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention at 800-232-4636 or visit www.cdc.gov/vaccines for more vaccine information.

Babies And Hepatitis B Vaccination

Pregnant women have a routine blood test for hepatitis B as part of their antenatal care.

Babies born to mothers infected with hepatitis B need to be given a dose of the hepatitis B vaccine within 24 hours of their birth, followed by further doses at 4, 8, 12 and 16 weeks of age, plus a final dose when they’re 1 year old.

Babies of mothers identified by the blood test as particularly infectious might also be given an injection of HBIG at birth on top of the hepatitis B vaccination to give them rapid protection against infection.

All babies born to mothers infected with hepatitis B should be tested at 1 year of age to check if they’ve become infected with the virus.

When To Delay Or Avoid Hepb Immunization

Doctors delay giving the vaccine to babies who weigh less than 4 pounds, 7 ounces at birth whose mothers do not have the virus in their blood. The baby will get the first dose at 1 month of age or when the baby is discharged from the hospital.

The vaccine is not recommended if your child:

  • is currently sick, although simple colds or other minor illnesses should not prevent immunization
  • had a serious allergic reaction after an earlier dose of the vaccine or is allergic to baker’s yeast

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Hepatitis B Vaccine On The Nhs

A hepatitis B-containing vaccine is provided for all babies born in the UK on or after 1 August 2017. This is given as part of the 6-in-1 vaccine.

Hospitals, GP surgeries and sexual health or GUM clinics usually provide the hepatitis B vaccination free of charge for anyone at risk of infection.

GPs are not obliged to provide the hepatitis B vaccine on the NHS if you’re not thought to be at risk.

GPs may charge for the hepatitis B vaccine if you want it as a travel vaccine, or they may refer you to a travel clinic for a private vaccination. The current cost of the vaccine is around £50 a dose.

What Is Hepatitis A And B Vaccine

Vaccine (Shot) for Hepatitis B

Hepatitis A and B are serious diseases caused by virus.

Hepatitis A is spread through contact with the stool of a person infected with the hepatitis A virus. This usually occurs by eating food or drinking water that has become contaminated as a result of handling by an infected person.

Hepatitis B is spread through blood or bodily fluids, sexual contact or sharing IV drug needles with an infected person, or during childbirth when a baby is born to a mother who is infected.

Hepatitis causes inflammation of the liver, vomiting, and jaundice . Hepatitis can lead to liver cancer, cirrhosis, or death.

The hepatitis A and B vaccine is used to help prevent these diseases in adults. The vaccine works by exposing you to a small dose of the virus, which causes the body to develop immunity to the disease. This vaccine will not treat an active infection that has already developed in the body.

This vaccine is recommended for adults with risk factors for getting hepatitis A or B, including:

Like any vaccine, the hepatitis A and B vaccine may not provide protection from disease in every person.

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Incidence Of Acute Hepatitis B In Australia

Newly acquired cases of hepatitis B virus infection in Australia mostly occur in young adults, through:65

  • injecting drug use
  • skin penetration procedures
  • sexual contact

Between 2006 and 2015, the notification rate of newly acquired hepatitis B in Australia declined from 1.4 to 0.6 per 100,000 population.64

Since 2001, the rate of diagnosis of newly acquired infections has declined substantially among people aged < 29 years. The decline has been less among people aged 30 years.64,66,67 However, some new hepatitis B virus infections are asymptomatic and may go undetected.

Similar to chronic infection, the incidence of, and hospitalisation rates due to, acute hepatitis B are higher among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people than the general Australian population.64

Hepatitis B vaccines are prepared using recombinant technology. After purification, the hepatitis B surface antigen protein is adsorbed onto elemental aluminium . Hepatitis B vaccines may contain up to 1% yeast proteins (but no yeast DNA

The Engerix-B and H-B-Vax II vaccines are manufactured by different processes, and the HBsAg content of equivalent doses of these 2 vaccines is different. The HBsAg content of the paediatric formulations of these 2 vaccines is half that of the corresponding manufacturers adult formulation.

What To Think About

If you are exposed to HBV before you have received all three shots in the vaccination series, a dose of hepatitis B immune globulin usually will prevent infection until the vaccine takes effect.

If you have already had hepatitis B and have developed protective antibodies to the virus, you do not need the vaccine because you have lifetime protection against the infection. If you are not sure whether you have had hepatitis B, you can be tested, or you can be vaccinated without testing. The vaccine is not harmful for you if you are already immune.

If you have chronic HBV infection, the vaccine will be ineffective, although it is not harmful.

The vaccine is safe for women who are pregnant or breastfeeding.

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Who Should Receive The Hepatitis B Vaccine And When

Hepatitis B vaccine is made from parts of the hepatitis B virus. It cannot cause hepatitis B infection. The vaccine is usually given as 2, 3, or 4 shots over 1 to 6 months.

Infants should get their first dose of hepatitis B vaccine at birth and will usually complete the series at 6 months of age.

All children and adolescents younger than 19 years of age who have not yet gotten the vaccine should also be vaccinated.

Hepatitis B vaccine is recommended for unvaccinated adults who are at risk for hepatitis B virus infection, including:

  • people whose sex partners have hepatitis B
  • sexually active persons who are not in a long-term monogamous relationship
  • persons seeking evaluation or treatment for a sexually transmitted disease
  • men who have sexual contact with other men
  • people who share needles, syringes, or other drug injection equipment
  • people who have household contact with someone infected with the hepatitis B virus
  • healthcare and public safety workers at risk for exposure to blood or body fluids
  • residents and staff of facilities for developmentally disabled persons
  • persons in correctional facilities
  • victims of sexual assault or abuse
  • travelers to regions with increased rates of hepatitis B
  • people with chronic liver disease, kidney disease, HIV infection, or diabetes mellitus
  • anyone who wants to be protected from hepatitis B

There are no known risks to getting hepatitis B vaccine at the same time as other vaccines.

Aboriginal And Torres Strait Islander People

Addressing Adult Patientsâ Hepatitis B Vaccine Concerns with Dr. Sandra Leal

Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people are recommended to:

  • have their risks and vaccination status for hepatitis B reviewed
  • receive testing for previous hepatitis B virus infection
  • receive vaccination if non-immune

Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people have a higher risk of acquiring new hepatitis B virus infection than non-Indigenous Australians.2,3

Adult-formulation hepatitis B vaccine should be given in a 3-dose schedule.

Children with HIV are recommended to receive 3 doses of hepatitis B vaccine using an adult formulation. This is double the recommended dose for children. In a limited number of studies, children who were immunocompromised responded better when given higher doses in a 3-dose schedule.4,5

Levels of antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen should be checked after the vaccination course. See Serological testing after hepatitis B vaccination.

Adults with HIV are recommended to receive larger-than-usual doses of hepatitis B vaccine. They should receive 2 injections of the standard adult dose on each occasion at 0, 1, 2 and 6 months. Limited studies in adults with HIV have revealed an improved and accelerated serological response to a schedule that consists of 4 double doses.6,7

A 3-dose schedule at 6, 8 and 12 months after transplant is required using:

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Hepatitis A And Hepatitis B Vaccine Dosing Information

Usual Adult Dose for Hepatitis B Prophylaxis:

Primary immunization: 1 mL IM in the deltoid area at 0, 1 and 6 months.Alternatively, a 4 dose schedule given on days 0, 7, and 21 to 30 followed by a booster at month 12 may be used.

Usual Adult Dose for Hepatitis A Prophylaxis:

Primary immunization: 1 mL IM in the deltoid area at 0, 1 and 6 months.Alternatively, a 4 dose schedule given on days 0, 7, and 21 to 30 followed by a booster at month 12 may be used.

How Is This Vaccine Given

This vaccine is given as an injection into a muscle. You will receive this injection in a doctor’s office or other clinic setting.

The hepatitis A and B vaccine is given in a series of 3 shots. The booster shots are given 1 month and 6 months after the first shot.

If you have a high risk of hepatitis infection, you may be given 3 shots within 30 days, and a fourth shot 12 months after the first.

Your individual booster schedule may be different from these guidelines. Follow your doctor’s instructions or the schedule recommended by the health department of the state you live in.

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Why Get Vaccinated Against Hepatitis B

Hepatitis B is a serious infection that affects the liver. It is caused by the hepatitis B virus. Hepatitis B can cause mild illness lasting a few weeks, or it can lead to a serious, lifelong illness.

Hepatitis B virus infection can be either acute or chronic.

Acute hepatitis B virus infection is a short-term illness that occurs within the first 6 months after someone is exposed to the hepatitis B virus. This can lead to:

  • fever, fatigue, loss of appetite, nausea, and/or vomiting
  • jaundice
  • pain in muscles, joints, and stomach

Chronic hepatitis B virus infection is a long-term illness that occurs when the hepatitis B virus remains in a person’s body. Most people who go on to develop chronic hepatitis B do not have symptoms, but it is still very serious and can lead to:

  • liver damage
  • liver cancer
  • death

Chronically infected people can spread hepatitis B virus to others, even if they do not feel or look sick themselves. Up to 1.4 million people in the United States may have chronic hepatitis B infection. About 90% of infants who get hepatitis B become chronically infected, and about 1 out of 4 of them dies.

Hepatitis B is spread when blood, semen, or other body fluid infected with the hepatitis B virus enters the body of a person who is not infected. People can become infected with the virus through:

Each year about 2,000 people in the United States die from hepatitis Brelated liver disease.

What Happens If I Miss A Dose

Hepatitis B

Contact your doctor if you miss a booster dose or if you get behind schedule. The next dose should be given as soon as possible. There is no need to start over.

Be sure you receive all recommended doses of this vaccine. You may not be fully protected against disease if you do not receive the full series.

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What Hepatitis B Immunisation Involves

Full protection involves having 3 injections of the hepatitis B vaccine at the recommended intervals.

Babies born to mothers with hepatitis B infection will be given 6 doses of hepatitis B-containing vaccine to ensure long-lasting protection.

If you’re a healthcare worker or you have kidney failure, you’ll have a follow-up appointment to see if you’ve responded to the vaccine.

If you’ve been vaccinated by your employer’s occupational health service you can request a blood test to see if you’ve responded to the vaccine.

Guidance On Reporting Adverse Events Following Immunization

Vaccine providers are asked to report, through local public health officials, any serious or unexpected adverse event temporally related to vaccination. An unexpected AEFI is an event that is not listed in available product information but may be due to the immunization, or a change in the frequency of a known AEFI.

Refer to Reporting Adverse Events Following Immunization in Canada and Adverse events following immunization in Part 2 for additional information about AEFI reporting.

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Hepatitis A And B Vaccines At Sutter Walk

Your liver is one of the hardest working organs in your body. To help keep it healthy throughout your life, Hepatitis A and Hepatitis B vaccinations are strongly recommended.

Sutter Walk-In Care offers Hepatitis A and B vaccinations for those 18 years and older. No appointment necessary. Our care team is ready to answer any questions you may have.

Persons With Chronic Diseases

The Truth about Hepatitis B

Refer to Immunization of Persons with Chronic Diseases in Part 3 for additional general information about vaccination of people with chronic diseases.

Chronic renal disease and patients on dialysis

People with chronic renal disease may respond sub-optimally to HB vaccine and experience more rapid decline of anti-HBs titres, and are therefore recommended immunization with a higher vaccine dose. Individuals undergoing chronic dialysis are also at increased risk for HB infection. In people with chronic renal disease anti-HBs titre should be evaluated annually and booster doses using a higher vaccine dose should be given as necessary.

Neurologic disorders

People with conditions such as autism spectrum disorders or demyelinating disorders should receive all routinely recommended immunizations, including HB-containing vaccine.

Chronic liver disease

HB immunization is recommended for non-immune persons with chronic liver disease, including those infected with hepatitis C, because they are at risk of more severe disease if infection occurs. Vaccination should be completed early in the course of the disease, as the immune response to vaccine is suboptimal in advanced liver disease. Post-immunization serologic testing may be used to confirm vaccine response.

Non-malignant hematologic disorders

Persons with bleeding disorders and other people receiving repeated infusions of blood or blood products are considered to be at higher risk of contracting HB and should be offered HB vaccine.

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Burden Of Chronic Hepatitis B In Australia

Chronic infection and its sequelae, including cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, contribute to most of the hepatitis B disease burden in Australia. The burden from chronic disease has been increasing with the increasing number of immigrants from regions of high hepatitis B prevalence.62

First-generation immigrants from countries of high hepatitis B endemicity usually retain the prevalence of chronic hepatitis B virus infection of the country they are from. Migrants born in Asian, Pacific islands, North African, Middle Eastern and Mediterranean countries have a significantly higher prevalence of chronic hepatitis B virus infection than the Australian-born population.62

Other population groups with higher prevalence of hepatitis B virus infection include:63,64

  • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people
  • people with HIV
  • people who injected drugs between 1980 and 1990
  • household contacts of someone diagnosed with hepatitis between 1980 and 1990

Notification of chronic hepatitis B virus infection depends on hepatitis B testing and reporting. Many people with chronic hepatitis B virus infection remain undiagnosed. Mathematical modelling suggests that, in Australia in 2015:64

  • about 230,000 people were living with hepatitis B virus infection
  • about 419 deaths were due to hepatitis B virus infection

What Is The Hepatitis B Vaccine

The hepatitis B vaccine is the best way to prevent infection. It is a series of 2, 3 or 4 shots usually given over a 6-to-12 month period. It is given by an injection into the arm muscle of adolescents and adults and thigh muscle of infants and young children. Estimates of long-term protection for those getting the full vaccination suggest that protection from hepatitis B could last for up to 20 or 30 years and possibly for life.

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For Adults At High Risk Of Exposure

Adults who have not received the hepatitis B vaccine series should be immunized when they have an increased risk of exposure. Job, travel, health condition, or lifestyle all may increase a person’s risk of contracting hepatitis B.

People who live or work where there is risk of exposure include:

  • Health care and public safety workers who are likely to be exposed to blood or blood products.
  • Clients and staff of institutions or residential settings with known or potential HBV carriers.
  • People planning extended travel to China, Southeast Asia, Africa, and other areas where hepatitis B infection is high.

People who have health conditions that put them at high risk for exposure or a severe infection include:

  • People who have a severe kidney disease that requires them to have their blood filtered through a machine .
  • People who have chronic liver disease.
  • People who have hemophilia and other conditions in which they need to have blood products on an ongoing basis.
  • People who had a stem cell transplant.

People whose lifestyle puts them at high risk for exposure include:

  • People who inject illegal drugs.
  • Men who have sex with men.
  • People who have had more than one sex partner in the past 6 months or who have a history of sexually transmitted infection.
  • Household contacts and sex partners of hepatitis B carriers.
  • Prison inmates.

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