Thursday, September 29, 2022

How Us Hepatitis C Transmitted

What Do Hepatitis C Symptoms Look Like

What is Hepatitis C? | How is Hepatitis C Transmitted?

Hepatitis C infection can go through two stages: acute and chronic. In the early, or acute stage, most people don’t have symptoms. If they do develop symptoms, these can include:

  • flu-like symptoms, tiredness, high temperature and aches and pains
  • loss of appetite
  • tummy pain
  • jaundice, meaning your skin and the whites of your eyes turn yellow

While for some people, the infection will clear without treatment, in most cases, acute infection will develop into long-term chronic infection. Chronic infection may not become apparent for a number of years until the liver displays signs of damage. These symptoms can include:

  • mental confusion and depression these are specific to hepatitis C
  • constantly feeling tired
  • nausea, vomiting or tummy pain
  • dark urine
  • feeling bloated
  • joint and muscle pain

Without treatment, chronic hepatitis C can cause scarring of the liver , which can cause the liver to stop working properly. A small number of people with cirrhosis develop liver cancer and these complications can lead to death. Other than a liver transplant, theres no cure for cirrhosis. However, treatments can help relieve some of the symptoms.

What Are The Chances Of Getting Hep C Sexually

Cirrhosis is an irreversible change in the liver due to scars. Cirrhosis can be present for years without symptoms and can be found by chance. In the end, some of the people who have a liver failure or the effects of blood thrust flowing through the liver, will eventually develop liver cancer after many years. On the other hand, in some patients the Hep C Curable virus may be present for years without giving rise to any form of liver inflammation or complications thereof.

Cirrhosis can be present for years without symptoms and can be found by chance. In the end, some of the people who have a liver failure or the effects of blood thrust flowing through the liver, will eventually develop liver cancer after many years. On the other hand, in some patients the Hepatitis C virus may be present for years without giving rise to any form of liver inflammation or complications thereof.

Cirrhosis can be present for years without symptoms and can be found by chance. In the end, some of the people who have a liver failure or the effects of blood thrust flowing through the liver, will eventually develop liver cancer after many years. On the other hand, in some patients the Hepatitis C virus may be present for years without giving rise to any form of liver inflammation or complications thereof.

How Does Hepatitis C Spread

Hepatitis C is spread only through exposure to an infected person’s blood.

High-risk activities include:

  • Sharing drug use equipment. Anything involved with injecting street drugs, from syringes, to needles, to tourniquets, can have small amounts of blood on it that can transmit hepatitis C. Pipes and straws to smoke or snort drugs can have blood on them from cracked lips or nosebleeds. Get into a treatment program if you can. At the very least, don’t share needles or equipment with anyone else.
  • Sharing tattoo or piercing tools. Nonsterile items and ink can spread contaminated blood.
  • Blood transfusions in countries that donât screen blood for hepatitis C.
  • Nonsterile medical equipment. Tools that arenât cleaned properly between use can spread the virus.
  • Blood or cutting rituals. Sharing the tools or exchanging blood can transmit hepatitis C.

Medium-risk activities include:

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Is Hepatitis C Sexually Transmitted

Can hepatitis C be spread through sexual contact?

Hepatitis C is a contagious liver disease caused by the hepatitis C virus . The disease can be passed from person to person.

As with many infections, HCV lives in blood and bodily fluids. You can contract hepatitis C by coming into direct contact with an infected persons blood. It can also be transmitted by contact with bodily fluids including saliva or semen of an infected person, but this is rare.

Researchers in found that 1 out of every 190,000 instances of heterosexual sexual contact led to HCV transmission. Participants in the study were in monogamous sexual relationships.

HCV may be more likely to spread through sexual contact if you:

  • have multiple sexual partners
  • participate in rough sex, which is more likely to result in broken skin or bleeding
  • dont use barrier protection, such as condoms or dental dams
  • dont use barrier protection properly
  • have a sexually transmitted infection or HIV

Theres no evidence that HCV can be spread through oral sex. However, it may still be possible if blood is present from either the person giving or receiving oral sex.

For example, a slight risk may exist if any of the following are present:

  • menstrual blood
  • genital warts
  • any other breaks in the skin in the involved areas

Though sexual transmission is rare overall, HCV may be more likely to spread through anal sex than oral sex. This is because rectal tissue is more likely to tear during intercourse.

How Common Is Hepatitis C

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There are approximately 30,000 new cases of acute hepatitis C every year in the United States as estimated by the CDC. In 2015, it was estimated that approximately 3.5 million Americans were infected with hepatitis C.

On a global scale, the prevalence of hepatitis C is greatest in Central and East Asia, North Africa, and the Middle East. In 2016, it was estimated that 177 million people worldwide had antibodies to hepatitis C virus.

  • exposure to other people who do or might have hepatitis C.

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At The End Of 2011 An Estimated Six To Seven In Every 1000 Canadians Were Living With Chronic Hepatitis C 1

Based on national 2011 hepatitis C estimates:

  • An estimated 220,697 to 245,987 Canadians were living with chronic hepatitis C. That is the equivalent of six to seven people out of every 1,000 Canadians .
  • An estimated 44% of people living with chronic hepatitis C infection were unaware of their status .
  • Chronic hepatitis C was most prevalent among people born in 1955 to 1959 , followed by those born in 1950 to 1954 1960 to 1964 1965 to 1969 and 1970 to 1974 .

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Ways You Wont Spread Hepatitis C

There are some ways in which you wont spread HCV, though. Go ahead and let your significant other have a bite of your sandwich or dessert. According to the CDC, hepatitis C isnt spread by sharing silverware or drinking glasses, or through water or foods. Showing affection by holding hands, hugging, or kissing is also safe, Lee says. And although germs from sneezing or coughing might cause you to get a cold, they wont give you hepatitis C.

What Is The Treatment For Hepatitis

How Is Hepatitis Transmitted?

Each type of hepatitis is treated differently.

Hepatitis A often goes away on its own and home treatment is all that is needed to help the liver recover, such as:

  • Rest
  • Avoiding alcohol
  • Avoiding certain medicines that can be harmful to the liver

Hepatitis B often goes away on its own in about 6 months, and can also be treated at home with the above remedies. Other treatments for hepatitis B include:

Treatment for hepatitis C is effective on certain forms of the hepatitis C virus. The choice of medications depends on the type of hepatitis C you have, whether you have been treated for the illness before, how much liver damage has occurred, any other underlying medical issues, and other medicines you take. Treatment for hepatitis C usually involves 8 to 12 weeks of oral antiviral medications, such as:

  • Elbasvir-grazoprevir

Read Also: What Vitamins Are Good For Hepatitis B

How Is Hepatitis C Infection Prevented

Unfortunately, there is no vaccine to prevent hepatitis C. To reduce your risk of getting hepatitis C:

  • Injection drug use is the most common way people get hepatitis C. Avoid injecting drugs to reduce your risk. If you do inject drugs, use sterile injection equipment. Avoid reusing or sharing.
  • Avoid sharing personal care items that might have blood on them
  • If you are a health care or public safety worker, follow universal blood/body fluid precautions and safely handle needles and other sharps
  • Consider the risks if you are thinking about tattooing, body piercing, or acupuncture are the instruments properly sterilized?
  • If youre having sex with more than one partner, use latex condoms correctly and every time to prevent the spread of sexually transmitted diseases, including hepatitis C.

Articles On Hepatitis C

If you’ve just been diagnosed with hepatitis C, you may wonder how you got it and worry about passing on the virus to a loved one. If you’ve had the disease for a long time without knowing it, you could dwell on every little incident in the past where you might have accidentally exposed a family member to the disease.

It’s important to remember that hepatitis C isn’t easy to catch. If you take a few precautions, it’s almost impossible to pass on the disease to someone else.

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What Is Hepatitis C Infection How Many People Are Infected

Hepatitis C virus infection is an infection of the liver caused by the hepatitis C virus . It is difficult for the human immune system to eliminate hepatitis C from the body, and infection with hepatitis C usually becomes chronic. Over decades, chronic infection with hepatitis C damages the liver and can cause liver failure. In the U.S., the CDC has estimated that approximately 41,200 new cases of hepatitis C occurred in 2016. When the virus first enters the body there usually are no symptoms, so this number is an estimate. About 75%-85% of newly infected people become chronically infected. In the U.S., more than 2 million people are estimated to be chronically infected with hepatitis C. Infection is most commonly detected among people who are 40 to 60 years of age, reflecting the high rates of infection in the 1970s and 1980s. There are 8,000 to 10,000 deaths each year in the U.S. related to hepatitis C infection. HCV infection is the leading cause of liver transplantation in the U.S. and is a risk factor for liver cancer. In 2016, 18,153 death certificates listed HCV as a contributing cause of death this is believed to be an underestimate.

Those who have cirrhosis from HCV also have a yearly risk of liver cancer of about 1%-5%.

Diagnosis And Treatment Of Hcv Infection

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Hepatitis C is rarely diagnosed at the time of infection, since few individuals are symptomatic. Asymptomatic cases may be detected, however, through recommended screening in high-risk populations, such as intravenous drug users and recipients of blood transfusions or organ transplants in which the tissues were not initially tested for HCV. Diagnostic testing and screening for hepatitis C centres on the detection of circulating antibodies and RNA specific to HCV. HCV RNA is detectable within 1 to 3 weeks of infection, and the antibodies are usually detectable within 8 to 12 weeks.

Treatment of hepatitis C is focused on the elimination of viral infection, improvement of liver function, and the prevention of cirrhosis and liver cancer. Liver function may be improved with the use of interferon, which reduces HCV replication and stimulates the immune system to fight HCV infection. Interferon is often given in combination with ribavirin, an antiviral drug that mimics nucleosides and thereby interferes with viral reproduction. Ribavirin may also be used in combination with agents known as sofosbuvir and velpatasvir, which inhibit key molecules involved in HCV RNA replication. Treatment of end-stage or advanced liver disease and cirrhosis caused by HCV infection is also possible with liver transplantation, though recurrence of detectable HCV infection is almost universal after transplantation.

Read Also: How Do I Know If I Have Hepatitis B

Before Sharing Sensitive Information Make Sure You’re On A Federal Government Site

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The c6 is often mistakenly identified as a c4 transmiss hepatitis c transmission. It’s brought on by a vir.

Hepatitis c is the no. Before sharing sensitive information, make sure you’re on a federal government site. Hepatitis occurs as three different viruses hepatitis a, b and c and it might happen for several different reasons.

Hepatitis c can be successfully treated. Federal government websites often end in.gov or.mil. Treatment for hepatitis c is rapidly evolving.

How It’s Passed On

The hepatitis C virus is found in blood and is passed on when infected blood gets into another persons bloodstream. Its seen as unlikely that it can be passed on in semen.

Most people get the virus from sharing drug injecting equipment such as needles, syringes, water cups, tourniquets, spoons, filters and swabs. Sharing things like straws and banknotes that are used for snorting drugs might pass the virus on, as can sharing pipes.

In the UK piercing and tattooing should be safe but unsterilised equipment abroad can spread the virus.

An infected person risks infecting others if they share anything that might have blood on it like a toothbrush or razor. A pregnant woman with the virus can give it to her baby during pregnancy or childbirth.

Blood transfusions in the UK are safe as blood is screened.

You can also potentially get it from medical or dental treatment abroad in countries where hepatitis C is common and infection control is inadequate.

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Sharing Toothbrushes Scissors And Razors

There’s a potential risk that hepatitis C may be passed on through sharing items such as toothbrushes, razors and scissors, as they can become contaminated with infected blood.

Equipment used by hairdressers, such as scissors and clippers, can pose a risk if it has been contaminated with infected blood and not sterilised or cleaned between customers. However, most salons operate to high standards, so this risk is low.

Tips For Preventing Transmission Through Sex

How is Hepatitis B & C transmitted? | Apollo Hospitals

If youre sexually active with a person who has hepatitis C, there are ways that you can prevent contracting the virus. Likewise, if you have the virus, you can avoid infecting others.

A few steps you can take to reduce the likelihood of sexual transmission include:

  • using a condom during every sexual contact, including oral sex
  • learning to use all barrier devices correctly to prevent ripping or tearing during intercourse
  • resisting engaging in sexual contact when either partner has an open cut or wound in their genitals
  • being tested for STIs and asking sexual partners to be tested too
  • practicing sexual monogamy
  • using extra precautions if youre HIV-positive, as your chance of contracting HCV is much higher if you have HIV

If you have hepatitis C, you should be honest with all sexual partners about your status. This ensures that youre both taking the proper precautions to prevent transmission.

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What If I’m Pregnant And I Have Hepatitis C

Hepatitis C can be passed from a mother to her child during pregnancy and during delivery. Per the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention , approximately 6 of every 100 infants born to HCV-infected mothers become infected with the virus. The risk is two to three times greater when the mother has HIV as well.

You and your doctor should discuss and decide if you should receive treatment for hepatitis C during your pregnancy.

How To Prevent Hepatitis C

There is currently no vaccine for hepatitis C. Avoiding contact with infected blood is the only way to prevent the condition.

The most common way for people to contract hepatitis C is by injecting street drugs. Because of this, the best way to prevent hepatitis C is to avoid injecting.

Treatments can help many people quit. People in the U.S. can call the National Helpline for help with finding treatments.

If a person finds it difficult to stop, they can reduce the risk of contracting hepatitis C by never sharing drug equipment, ensuring a clean, hygienic environment, and always using new equipment, including syringes, ties, alcohol swabs, cottons, and cookers.

People who may come into contact with infected blood, such as healthcare workers and caretakers, should always wash the hands thoroughly with soap and water after any contact, or suspected contact, with blood. They should also wear gloves when touching another persons blood or open wounds.

People can also reduce their risk by making sure that any tattoo artist or body piercer they visit uses fresh, sterile needles and unopened ink.

The risk of contracting hepatitis C through sexual contact is low. Using barrier protection, such as condoms, reduces the risk of most sexually transmitted infections.

People who have hepatitis C can reduce the risk of transmitting it to others by:

There are many misconceptions about how hepatitis C spreads. People cannot transmit or contract the virus through:

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