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What Does Hepatitis B Look Like

Can Hepatitis B Be Prevented Or Avoided

Treating Hepatitis B – Steven-Huy Han, MD | UCLA Digestive Diseases

The best way to prevent hepatitis B is to always have protected sex and, if you use intravenous drugs, avoid sharing needles.

A vaccine is available to prevent hepatitis B. It is now routinely given in the first year of life to all newborn infants. It is safe and requires 3 shots over a 6-month period. This vaccine should be given to people who are at high risk for this illness, such as healthcare workers, all children, people who travel to areas where the infection is widespread, drug users, and those who have multiple sex partners.

Complications Of Hepatitis B

A small proportion of people who become infected with the hepatitis B virus develop a long-term hepatitis B infection. They may have the virus in their bloodstream for most of their life without realising they are infected.

People with chronic hepatitis B infection may not notice any health problems until they develop liver problems such as liver disease or liver cancer later in life. Treatment for hepatitis B is essential because it is not possible to be a healthy carrier of the hepatitis B virus. Chronic hepatitis B infection occurs more commonly in some communities, including:

  • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities.
  • In people from parts of the world where hepatitis B is more common, such as:
  • North-East Asia
  • Sub-Saharan Africa.

Who Should Be Tested For Hepatitis

Testing is important for anyone with the risk factors we’ve mentioned, particularly injected drug users and people who have had multiple sex partners. Health advocates are also urging people of Asian heritage to get tested. Stanford University’s Asian Liver Center estimates that 1 in 10 Asians living in the U.S. has chronic hepatitis B. Many of them have probably had the virus since birth.

Also, the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommends that health care providers offer a one-time hepatitis C screening for anyone born between 1945 and 1965.

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When Should I Call The Doctor For Hepatitis B

  • Nausea and vomiting that does not go away in 1-2 days
  • The inability to keep down liquids
  • A high fever or fever that persists more than 2 days
  • Dark-colored urine
  • Pain in the abdomen.

For severe symptoms including confusion or delirium go to a hospital emergency department.

You should also contact your health care practitioner if you think you may have been exposed to the hepatitis B virus.

If you have chronic hepatitis B infection and think you might be pregnant or if you are pregnant and think you have been exposed to hepatitis B inform health care practitioner right away.

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Prevent Hepatitis B Infections In Newborns

Hepatitis B Viruses Illustration Stock Photo

If you are pregnant and have hepatitis B, talk with your doctor about lowering the risk that the infection will spread to your baby. Your doctor will check your virus levels during pregnancy. If virus levels are high, your doctor may recommend treatment during pregnancy to lower virus levels and reduce the chance that hepatitis B will spread to your baby. Your doctor may refer you to a liver specialist to find out if you need hepatitis B treatment and to check for liver damage.

When it is time to give birth, tell the doctor and staff who deliver your baby that you have hepatitis B. A health care professional should give your baby the hepatitis B vaccine and HBIG right after birth. The vaccine and HBIG will greatly reduce the chance of your baby getting the infection.

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Symptoms Of Hepatitis B

Some people who are infected with the hepatitis B virus have mild, flu-like symptoms and some do not become sick at all. Children who are infected are less likely to have an illness or get sick after getting hepatitis B than adults.

In more severe cases, hepatitis B can cause:

  • Loss of appetite.
  • Pain in the joints.
  • Jaundice .

Normally, these health problems disappear in a few weeks, but even when the person feels much better, they may still be infectious.

Most adults who become infected with the hepatitis B virus recover completely and do not become infected again. A few people become very ill in the time just after infection and need to go to hospital some may even die.

Treatment: Chronic Hepatitis C

The latest drug to be approved by the FDA is glecaprevir and pibrentasvir . This medication offers a shorter treatment cycle of 8 weeks for adult patients with all types of HCV who donĂ¢t have cirrhosis and who have not been previously treated. The length of treatment is longer for those who are in a different disease stage. The prescribed dosage for this medicine is 3 tablets daily.

There are several other combination drugs available, as well as some single drugs that may be used in combination. Your doctor will choose the right one for you depending on the type of hepatitis C you have, how well your liver is functioning and any other medical problems you may have. Also be sure to discuss your insurance coverage since these medications are expensive.

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Hepatitis C: What Happens

About 25% of people who get hepatitis C defeat the virus after a short-term infection. The rest will carry the virus in their body for the long term. Chronic hepatitis C can cause very serious complications, including liver failure and liver cancer. There are effective treatments for the virus, though.

What Is The Follow

HEPATITIS B (HBV) by Dr. Robert Gish

If an individual has acute hepatitis B, a health care practitioner will draw blood and examine the person periodically to see if the infection is resolving. If the person develops chronic hepatitis B, they will need periodic examinations and blood tests on an ongoing basis. If these tests indicate that the virus is actively damaging the liver, the healthcare practitioner may suggest a liver biopsy or begin antiviral therapy. The individual will also be given a vaccine against hepatitis A, which is an unrelated virus that may cause severe liver disease in people who already carry hepatitis B.

Chronic hepatitis B is associated with hepatocellular carcinoma. Fortunately, this is rare cancer. A blood test can be used to detect a marker for this cancer, or cancer can be detected by abdominal ultrasound. Persons with chronic hepatitis B are usually screened periodically for hepatocellular carcinoma, although it is not clear if this screening improves survival.

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Hepatitis B: How Does It Spread

You can get it through contact with the blood or body fluids of an infected person. In the U.S., it’s most often spread through unprotected sex. It’s also possible to get hepatitis B by sharing an infected person’s needles, razors, or toothbrush. And an infected mother can pass the virus to their baby during childbirth. Hepatitis B is not spread by hugging, sharing food, or coughing.

How Can I Prevent Spreading Hepatitis B To Others

If you have hepatitis B, follow the steps above to avoid spreading the infection. Your sex partners should get a hepatitis B test and, if they arent infected, get the hepatitis B vaccine. You can protect others from getting infected by telling your doctor, dentist, and other health care professionals that you have hepatitis B. Dont donate blood or blood products, semen, organs, or tissue.

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What Should You Know About Hepatitis B Before You Travel

Hepatitis B is quite common in China and other Asian countries, where as many as 1 in 12 people have the virus, though many dont know it. Before traveling to those places, you should make sure youve been vaccinated against the virus.

In addition to getting the vaccine, you can take these additional precautions to reduce your risk of contracting the virus:

  • Refrain from taking illegal drugs.
  • Always use latex or polyurethane condoms during sex.
  • Make sure new, sterile needles are used during all piercings, tattoos and acupuncture sessions.
  • Avoid direct contact with blood and bodily fluids.
  • Know the HBV status of all your sexual partners.
  • Ask your doctor about possible vaccination before you travel to a place where hepatitis B is common.

A note from Cleveland Clinic

Hepatitis B is a liver disease that can cause serious damage to your health. One reason that is dangerous is that it can easily go undetected for years while damaging your liver. Talk with your healthcare provider about being tested for hepatitis B if you have any reason to believe that you were not vaccinated or if you have engaged in risky behavior. If you do test positive, follow the directions from your healthcare provider so that you can live a longer, healthier and happier life.

Last reviewed by a Cleveland Clinic medical professional on 07/09/2020.

References

Treatment For Suspected Exposure

Hep B: What is Hep B?

Anyone who has had potential exposure to HBV can undergo a postexposure prophylaxis protocol.

This consists of HBV vaccination and hepatitis B immunoglobin . Healthcare workers give the prophylaxis after the exposure and before an acute infection develops.

This protocol will not cure an infection that has already developed. However, it decreases the rate of acute infection.

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What Is Involved In A Liver Transplant

A liver transplant is considered necessary when the liver is damaged and cannot function or in some cases of liver cancer. Your liver is very important. It is responsible for many functions related to making sure that your body stays healthy and is able to digest foods.

You may be eligible for a transplant if you have chronic hepatitis B infection or some of the diseases that may result from it, including liver cancer and cirrhosis. You will have to complete testing and be evaluated before being approved for a transplant. It is likely that you will be placed on a waiting list while an appropriate organ is found.

Donated livers come from two types of donors: living and deceased. Because the liver can regenerate, it is possible to use part of a liver for transplant. The remaining sections in both the donor and the receiver will grow into livers of adequate size.

People who get liver transplants must take anti-rejection drugs for the rest of their lives. These drugs make you more susceptible to infection. However, liver transplants have become more successful over time and continue to improve.

Do The Benefits Of The Hepatitis B Vaccine Outweigh Its Risks

Every year in the United States about 2,000 people die following an overwhelming hepatitis B virus infection. In addition, every year about 22,000 people are infected with hepatitis B. Some of them will remain chronically infected, putting them at high risk of the long-term consequences of hepatitis B virus infection: cirrhosis and liver cancer. In fact, with the exception of influenza virus, hepatitis B virus causes more severe disease and death in the United States than any other vaccine-preventable disease. On the other hand, the hepatitis B vaccine is an extremely rare cause of a severe allergic reaction called anaphylaxis. To date, no one has died from this reaction, but it is theoretically possible that this could occur.

Because hepatitis B virus is a common cause of severe disease and death in the United States, and because the hepatitis B vaccine does not cause permanent damage or death, the benefits of the hepatitis B vaccine clearly outweigh its risks.

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Chronic Hepatitis B Complications

Chronic hepatitis B can lead to

  • cirrhosis, a condition in which scar tissue replaces healthy liver tissue and prevents your liver from working normally. Scar tissue also partly blocks the flow of blood through the liver. As cirrhosis gets worse, the liver begins to fail.
  • liver failure, in which your liver is badly damaged and stops working. Liver failure is also called end-stage liver disease. People with liver failure may require a liver transplant.
  • liver cancer. Your doctor may suggest blood tests and an ultrasound or another type of imaging test to check for liver cancer. Finding cancer at an early stage improves the chance of curing the cancer.

How Do You Test For Hepatitis B

Hepatitis B Video: A must watch for everyone.

A simple blood test carried out by a healthcare professional will show whether you have the virus. You may also be given extra tests to see if your liver is damaged.

If youve got hepatitis B you should be tested for other STIs. Its important that you tell your recent sexual partner/s so they can also get tested and treated. Many people who have hepatitis B dont notice anything wrong, and by telling them you can help to stop the virus being passed on. This can also stop you from getting the infection again.

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Is There A Cure For Chronic Hepatitis B

Currently, there is no complete cure for hepatitis B. But when managed properly, those living with the virus can expect to live a normal life. Maintaining a healthy diet and avoiding alcoholic beverages and tobacco products are crucial components in managing the disease.

You should also visit a doctor familiar with hepatitis B at least annuallythough twice a year might be best to monitor your liver through blood tests and medical imaging. As with most diseases, detecting it early leads to a better outcome. If youre exposed to the virus, you should get an antibody injection within 12 hours of exposure.

What Did Hepatitis C Testing Look Like In Bc Before This New Process

Before this one-step process was introduced, patients needed to have two separate blood samples tested to be diagnosed with an active hepatitis C infection.

The first test looked for hepatitis C virus antibodies to determine if a person had ever been exposed to the virus. If positive, the person would need to go back to their healthcare provider to get a second test that looks for RNA, the genetic material of the virus, in order to confirm diagnosis of a current, chronic infection that requires treatment.

About 17 percent of individuals almost 9,000 people who tested antibody-positive in B.C. between 1990 and 2018 never had a follow-up RNA test, resulting in many people in the province not progressing along the hepatitis C care cascade to the following stages of linkage to care and treatment uptake.

In 2018, among all people who tested positive for hepatitis C antibodies and were still living in B.C., 83 percent had received a confirmatory hepatitis C RNA test. However, to achieve the targets set out in the Blueprint to Inform Hepatitis C Elimination Efforts in Canada, this needs to increase to 100 percent by 2030.

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Hepatitis B Look Like

Hepatitis B is not spread through food or water, sharing eating utensils, breastfeeding, hugging, kissing, hand holding, coughing, or sneezing. Can a person spread the hepatitis B virus and not know it? Yes. Many people with hepatitis B dont know they are infected with the virus because they dont feel or look.

How Can I Learn More

Symptoms of hepatitis B. Liver. World Hepatitis Day. July ...
  • Ask your healthcare provider. He or she can give you the vaccine package insert or suggest other sources of information.
  • Visit the website of the Food and Drug Administration for vaccine package inserts and additional information at .
  • Contact the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention : Call or visit CDC’s website at .

Hepatitis B Vaccine Information Statement. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services/Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Immunization Program. 10/15/2021.

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Hepatitis C Symptoms Rash

Hepatitis C affects your liver the most, but it can cause problems with other body parts, too, including your skin.Bumps, rashes, and itchy spots may be the first signs you notice of this .A commonly reported side effect of Hepatitis C is a skin rash associated with a terrible itching. Sometimes this is Hep C skin rash can involve spots or tiny little pimples. Sometimes this itching also occurs, or starts, at the beginning of Hepatitis C treatment but more usually it is a symptom of Hepatitis C.Hepatitis C can cause many symptoms including skin issues such as jaundice, itching, and blood spots. Other symptoms may also be present. Learn how to identify a hepatitis C rash here.

What Are The Symptoms Of Hepatitis B

Many people with hepatitis B dont have any symptoms. If you do get symptoms you may not notice them until two or three months after infection and they can last up to three months. There are two types of infection acute and chronic.

Acute symptoms include:

  • flu-like symptoms, including tiredness, fever and aches and pains
  • feeling and/or being sick
  • jaundice, meaning your skin and the whites of your eyes turn yellow
  • dark urine
  • pale faeces .

People who cant fight off acute infection after six months, such as babies, young children and people with a weakened immune system because of HIV, can go on to develop chronic hepatitis B. This is when people are at higher risk of liver failure, liver disease and cancer of the liver.

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What Is Chronic Hepatitis B

Doctors refer to hepatitis B infections as either acute or chronic:

  • An acute HBV infection is a short-term illness that clears within 6 months of when a person is exposed to the virus.
  • A person who still has HBV after 6 months is said to have a chronic hepatitis B infection. This is a long-term illness, meaning the virus stays in the body and causes lifelong illness. An estimated 850,000 to more than 2 million people in the U.S. have chronic HBV.

The younger someone is when infected, the greater the chances for chronic hepatitis B.

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