Effects Of Untreated Hepatitis
The liver is responsible for filtering harmful substances from the blood. Both alcohol and hepatitis hinder the livers ability to clean our blood, but symptoms of hepatitis may be so slight as to go unnoticed for years.
The median time it takes for symptoms of HCV and end stage liver disease to develop is 30 years.
About 40% of people with HCV develop at least one co-occurring health complication in addition to liver damage. Damage to blood vessels and joints can result in nerve damage, skin sores, stroke, and heart attacks. Rheumatoid arthritis, neurological problems, kidney damage, Type 2 Diabetes, and rare bone diseases all can stem from the damage caused by hepatitis.
Once diagnosed, its critical that individuals begin treatment of their hepatitis immediately to prevent any further damage. Those with alcoholic hepatitis must cease drinking permanently. There are no cures for hepatitis, but treatment by a number of medications can manage symptoms and curb the virus. Most cases of HBV and HCV will resolve without medical intervention and dont require a visit to the hospital except for prescription medication. However, due to the concomitant alcoholism, alcoholic hepatitis requires medical attention.
How Do You Know If You Have Alcoholic Neuropathy
âThe most common symptom of alcoholic neuropathy is numbness in the hands and feet, which can be accompanied by tingling or burning sensations,â Wenner says. âOther symptoms include weakness, loss of coordination, and poor balance.â
âIf you notice any of the described signs and symptoms of neuropathy, itâs best to seek a professional diagnosis. A reduction in drinking has been shown to improve sensory and motor issues, also over months and years. Your care team might recommend vitamin supplementation and may be able to prescribe medications to help manage symptoms.â Wenner adds.
How Can You Prevent Alcoholic Hepatitis
The best way to prevent alcoholic hepatitis is to avoid alcohol or drink only in moderation. Moderate drinking is defined as less than two drinks per day for men and less than one drink per day for women.
You can also reduce your risk by taking steps to protect yourself from hepatitis B and hepatitis C. The bloodborne viruses that cause these conditions can be transmitted in several ways, including shared needles or razors and through body fluids during sex. Currently, vaccines are available for hepatitis B, but not for hepatitis C.
Your healthcare team may also recommend certain lifestyle changes based on your specific symptoms and health needs.
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Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease
Drinking a large amount of alcohol, even for just a few days, can lead to a build-up of fats in the liver.
This is called alcoholic fatty liver disease, and is the first stage of ARLD.
Fatty liver disease rarely causes any symptoms, but it’s an important warning sign that you’re drinking at a harmful level.
Fatty liver disease is reversible. If you stop drinking alcohol for some time , your liver should return to normal.
Hepatitis C Alcohol And Alcoholic Hepatitis
Hepatitis refers to inflammation of the liver. Several things can lead to the condition one major cause is hepatitis C, which can result from a viral infection. Another is alcohol consumption, which can cause alcoholic hepatitis.
These two types of hepatitis are separate conditions. However, alcohol consumption and the hepatitis C virus also have associations with one another.
According to the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism , HCV infection appears to be more prevalent among people with alcohol abuse disorder. Consuming alcohol also worsens HCV and can interfere with its treatment.
Keep reading to learn more about the association between hepatitis C and alcohol, as well as symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment of alcoholic hepatitis.
No, it is not possible to get hepatitis C from alcohol. This condition results from a viral infection, which a person can only contract if they have exposure to blood containing HCV.
However, excessive alcohol consumption may raise the risk of acquiring HCV. According to the NIAAA , research from the 1990s found that people with alcohol abuse disorder had higher rates of HCV than the control group. This was true even for individuals with no other HCV risk factors.
Scientists are not sure why HCV is more common in those who consume excess alcohol. However, some believe alcohol makes it easier for the virus to enter and remain inside the body.
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Monitoring Of Blood Tests
These patients are critically ill so renal function and electrolytes should be checked at least once daily and the results discussed with a senior member of the medical team. Monitoring of this frequency should prevent the development of undiagnosed renal failure as occurred in the patient we have presented. The prothrombin time is the most important indicator of liver function in this setting. Transaminases are often only mildly raised and are not of value in determining prognosis. Many patients with alcoholic hepatitis will have a marked neutrophilia secondary to neutrophil chemokine release in the liver, which is an additional aid to diagnosis, but should always raise the possibility of sepsis.
Generation Of Free Radicals And Oxidative Injury
Free radicals, superoxides and hydroperoxides, are generated as byproducts of ethanol metabolism via the microsomal and peroxisomal pathways. In addition, acetaldehyde reacts with glutathione and depletes this key element of the hepatocytic defense against free radicals. Other antioxidant defenses, including selenium, zinc, and vitamin E, are often reduced in individuals with alcoholism. Peroxidation of membrane lipids accompanies alcoholic liver injury and may be involved in cell death and inflammation.
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How Is Alcoholic Liver Disease Diagnosed
Your healthcare provider will do a complete health history and physical exam. Other tests used to diagnose alcohol-induced liver disease may include:
- Blood tests. Including liver function tests, which show whether the liver is working the way it should.
- Liver biopsy. This involves removing small tissue samples from the liver with a needle or during surgery. These samples are checked under a microscope to find out the type of liver disease.
- Ultrasound. This test uses high frequency sound waves to create a picture of the organs.
- CT scan. This imaging test uses X-rays and a computer to produce images of the body. A CT scan shows detailed images of any part of the body, including the bones, muscles, fat, and organs. CT scans are more detailed than general X-rays.
- MRI. MRI uses a magnetic field, radio frequency pulses, and a computer to make detailed pictures of internal body structures. Sometimes injecting dye into a vein is used to produce images of body parts. The dye helps show the liver and other organs in the abdomen .
How Is Alcoholic Hepatitis Diagnosed
Diagnosing alcoholic hepatitis is not always simple. Alcoholic hepatitis can vary widely in presentation and can sometimes mimic bacterial infections. Maintaining a thorough history remains one of the best ways to diagnose alcoholic hepatitis. A thorough history may consist of a robust medical history, an evaluation of alcoholic hepatitis related symptoms, and a comprehensive physical examination. Physicians may also conduct labs that will provide clues to a diagnosis of alcoholic hepatitis. Physicians may also conduct liver scans, liver biopsies, nutritional assessments, and more.10
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Can Alcoholic Hepatitis Be Fatal
Yes, it is estimated that 1 in 3 with this condition will die from it. Often, it isnt until the majority of the liver has been critically damaged that there is any outward indication that there is a problem. By the time pain or some other symptom makes itself known, the liver damage is extensive and the organ is likely in critical condition.
Can Hepatitis Be Prevented
There are different ways to prevent or lower your risk for hepatitis, depending on the type of hepatitis. For example, not drinking too much alcohol can prevent alcoholic hepatitis. There are vaccines to prevent hepatitis A and B. Autoimmune hepatitis cannot be prevented.
NIH: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases
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Features Due To Underlying Cirrhosis
Concomitant cirrhosis is present in about 50%-60% cases with AH. Hence, these patients may have features of cirrhosis such as spider angiomas, palmar erythema, ascites and variceal bleeding. Other commonly noted features are Dupuytrens contracture, gynecomastia and loss of pubic or axillary hair, parotid gland enlargement and testicular atrophy in males and amenorrhea with infertility in females. Although these are seen more commonly with alcoholic cirrhosis, these are not specific or sensitive for diagnosis of alcohol related cirrhosis.
How Is Viral Hepatitis Spread
Hepatitis A and hepatitis E usually spread through contact with food or water that was contaminated with an infected person’s stool. You can also get hepatitis E by eating undercooked pork, deer, or shellfish.
Hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and hepatitis D spread through contact with the blood of someone who has the disease. Hepatitis B and D may also spread through contact with other body fluids. This can happen in many ways, such as sharing drug needles or having unprotected sex.
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How Is Hepatitis Diagnosed
To diagnose hepatitis, your health care provider:
- Will ask about your symptoms and medical history
- Will do a physical exam
- Will likely do blood tests, including tests for viral hepatitis
- Might do imaging tests, such as an ultrasound, CT scan, or MRI
- May need to do a liver biopsy to get a clear diagnosis and check for liver damage
What Causes Hepatitis
There are different types of hepatitis, with different causes:
- Viral hepatitis is the most common type. It is caused by one of several viruses — hepatitis viruses A, B, C, D, and E. In the United States, A, B, and C are the most common.
- Alcoholic hepatitis is caused by heavy alcohol use
- Toxic hepatitis can be caused by certain poisons, chemicals, medicines, or supplements
- Autoimmune hepatitis is a chronic type in which your body’s immune system attacks your liver. The cause is not known, but genetics and your environment may play a role.
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How Is It Spread
Hepatitis A is spread when a person ingests fecal mattereven in microscopic amountsfrom contact with objects, food, or drinks contaminated by feces or stool from an infected person.
- Birth to an infected mother
- Sex with an infected person
- Sharing equipment that has been contaminated with blood from an infected person, such as needles, syringes, and even medical equipment, such as glucose monitors
- Sharing personal items such as toothbrushes or razors
- Poor infection control has resulted in outbreaks in health care facilities
Hepatitis C is spread when blood from a person infected with the Hepatitis C virus even in microscopic amounts enters the body of someone who is not infected. The hepatitis C virus can also be transmitted from:
- Sharing equipment that has been contaminated with blood from an infected person, such as needles and syringes
- Receiving a blood transfusion or organ transplant before 1992
- Poor infection control has resulted in outbreaks in health care facilities
- Birth to an infected mother
How Common Is Hepatitis A
Since the hepatitis A vaccine was first recommended in 1996, cases of hepatitis A in the United States have declined dramatically. Unfortunately, in recent years the number of people infected has been increasing because there have been multiple outbreaks of hepatitis A in the United States. These outbreaks have primarily been from person-to-person contact, especially among people who use drugs, people experiencing homelessness, and men who have sex with men.
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How Serious Is It
- People can be sick for a few weeks to a few months
- Most recover with no lasting liver damage
- Although very rare, death can occur
- 15%25% of chronically infected people develop chronic liver disease, including cirrhosis, liver failure, or liver cancer
- More than 50% of people who get infected with the hepatitis C virus develop a chronic infection
- 5%-25% of people with chronic hepatitis C develop cirrhosis over 1020 years
Patient Treatment And Monitoring
All patients were administered medical therapy after they were diagnosed with hepatitis B cirrhosis, which included nucleoside analogs against viruses, antifibrotic agents and regular liver protective treatment. In addition, patients in the moderate and excessive drinking groups ceased drinking during the experimental period. We recorded ALT and AST, bilirubin, HBV-DNA load, liver fibrosis serological indexes , HBsAg, Child-Pugh scoring system rating and the number of complications for each patient at 0, 3, and 6 months.
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Are Men Or Women More Likely To Get Alcoholic Hepatitis
Women appear to be more likely to suffer liver damage from alcohol.
Even when a man and woman have the same weight and drink the same amount, the woman generally has a higher concentration of alcohol in the blood because she has relatively more body fat and less water than the man, and her body handles alcohol differently.
Common Symptoms Of Hepatitis
If you are living with a chronic form of hepatitis, like hepatitis B and C, you may not show symptoms until the damage affects liver function. By contrast, people with acute hepatitis may present with symptoms shortly after contracting a hepatitis virus.
Common symptoms of infectious hepatitis include:
It is crucial to understand what is causing hepatitis in order to treat it correctly. Doctors will progress through a series of tests to accurately diagnose your condition.
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What Are The Treatments For Hepatitis
Treatment for hepatitis depends on which type you have and whether it is acute or chronic. Acute viral hepatitis often goes away on its own. To feel better, you may just need to rest and get enough fluids. But in some cases, it may be more serious. You might even need treatment in a hospital.
There are different medicines to treat the different chronic types of hepatitis. Possible other treatments may include surgery and other medical procedures. People who have alcoholic hepatitis need to stop drinking. If your chronic hepatitis leads to liver failure or liver cancer, you may need a liver transplant.
How Long Does It Last
Hepatitis A can last from a few weeks to several months.
Hepatitis B can range from a mild illness, lasting a few weeks, to a serious, life-long condition. More than 90% of unimmunized infants who get infected develop a chronic infection, but 6%10% of older children and adults who get infected develop chronic hepatitis B.
Hepatitis C can range from a mild illness, lasting a few weeks, to a serious, life-long infection. Most people who get infected with the hepatitis C virus develop chronic hepatitis C.
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What Causes Alcoholic Liver Disease
Alcoholic liver disease is caused by heavy use of alcohol. The livers job is to break down alcohol. If you drink more than it can process, it can become badly damaged.
Fatty liver can happen in anyone who drinks a lot. Alcoholic hepatitis and alcoholic cirrhosis are linked to the long-term alcohol abuse seen in alcoholics.
Healthcare providers dont know why some people who drink alcohol get liver disease while others do not. Research suggests there may be a genetic link, but this is not yet clear.
Hypermetabolic State Of The Hepatocyte
Hepatic injury in alcoholic hepatitis is most prominent in the perivenular area of the hepatic lobule. This zone is known to be sensitive to hypoxic damage. Ethanol induces a hypermetabolic state in the hepatocytes, partially because ethanol metabolism via MEOS does not result in energy capture via formation of ATP. Rather, this pathway leads to the loss of energy in the form of heat. In some studies, antithyroid drugs, such as propylthiouracil , that reduce the basal metabolic rate of the liver have shown to be beneficial in the treatment of alcoholic hepatitis.
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Can Hepatitis C And Alcoholic Hepatitis Coexist
Hepatitis due to both HCV and alcohol abuse can coexist. According to a 2018 article, it is common for the two conditions to occur simultaneously.
Excessive alcohol consumption can accelerate and multiply the damage due to HCV, worsening liver cirrhosis. However, even small amounts of alcohol can exacerbate HCV. It may also interfere with HCV treatment by causing the virus to become resistant to medication.
Although both conditions are responsible for liver inflammation, there are differences in the symptoms of HCV and alcoholic hepatitis.
According to the World Health Organization , around of people with HCV show no symptoms after contracting the initial infection. They may not realize they have the virus until later if it becomes chronic and causes liver damage.
Individuals who do experience hepatitis C symptoms may develop:
- tenderness in the liver
- systemic inflammatory response syndrome, which involves fever, fast heart rate, and fast breathing
It is important to note that HCV is contagious. If a person is unsure if they have contracted the infection, they should take safety precautions to prevent others from coming into contact with their blood.
Causes And Risk Factors For Alcoholic Hepatitis
The main cause of alcoholic hepatitis is heavy drinking over an extended period of time. The process of breaking down alcohol in the liver causes inflammation that can destroy liver cells.
Over time, scars begin to replace functional liver tissue in the body. This interferes with how the liver works. Irreversible scarring, or cirrhosis, is the final stage of alcoholic liver disease.
Cirrhosis can quickly progress to liver failure once it develops. A damaged liver can also interfere with blood flow to the kidneys. This can result in damage and kidney failure.
Other factors can contribute to alcoholic hepatitis. For example, people with other types of hepatitis have a higher risk. As a result, it is not advisable for them to drink alcohol.
A person with alcoholic hepatitis may also experience malnourishment. Drinking significant amounts of alcohol can suppress the appetite. Alcohol may become the main source of calories for an individual. Malnutrition can also contribute to liver disease.
Other possible risk factors may include:
- sex assigned at birth, as females may have a
- electrolyte tests
- tests for other chemicals in the body
An ultrasound, CT scan, or MRI scan can show a more detailed view of the liver and any physical damage.
If other tests do not provide a clear answer, the doctor may conduct a liver biopsy. This involves taking a small tissue sample from the liver using a needle or through surgery for testing in a laboratory.
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