Important Information About Vaccine And Hepatitis B Immunoglobulin Shot Administration
Where available, the hepatitis B birth-dose and HBIG should be administered within 24 hours of birth in order to prevent the transmission of hepatitis B from mother to child. It is very important that the shots be given in opposite limbs, to ensure the highest effectiveness. Please see chart above for more information.
How Much Does Hepatitis Vaccine Cost
Hepatitis is a viral infection that can cause liver inflammation and be life-threating. This viral infection comes in different types- Hepatitis A, B, C, D, and E. Unfortunately, there are no current vaccines that have been proven effective for curing or preventing Hepatitis C, D, and E. However there are vaccines that have been tested to be effective to prevent Hepatitis A and B.
Taking vaccines for Hepatitis are commonly prescribed to individuals who have active travel lifestyle. And if you are one of these people who go and jump from one country to another, it is encouraged that you get vaccinated. How much does a Hepatitis A vaccine cost? And how much does a Hepatitis B vaccine cost?
Accelerated Us Children And Adult Hepatitis B Vaccine Schedules
*Please note that the first dose should be given as soon as possible. Additional doses require minimum time intervals between doses in order for the vaccine to be effective.
In some instances, it may be necessary to vaccinate within a short period of time to ensure protection before travel. There are accelerated schedules to provide the highest level of protection over a short period of time. Individuals who need an accelerated schedule must have a booster dose at 1 year to ensure long-term protection. Note that the 2-dose Heplisav-B vaccine will also ensure maximum protection over a 1-month period without the need for a booster dose at 1 year.
4-Dose Vaccine Series for Children and Adults
Engerix-B is a 3-dose vaccine that can be given on an accelerated, four-dose schedule, with 3 shots administered within 2 months, and a booster dose at 1 year to provide maximum long-term protection.
4-Dose Combination Hepatitis A and B Vaccine Series
Twinrix is a 4-dose vaccine that can be given on an accelerated schedule to provide protection against hepatitis A and B. Three doses are administered within 1 month, followed by a booster shot at 1 year. This is a common choice of vaccine for those travelling on short-notice outside the U.S. It is important to complete the booster dose at 1 year, to ensure long-term protection.
2-Dose Vaccine Series
Additional Resource Links:
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Hepatitis B Vaccination Schedule For Children And Infants
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends that babies and children receive three 0.5 milliliter doses of either Engerix-B or Recombivax HB, starting just after birth.
The current recommended hepatitis B vaccine schedule for children and infants is as follows:
|Hepatitis B Vaccination Schedule for Infants and Children
|Hepatitis B Vaccine Dose
|618 months old
If your child is undergoing hemodialysis, your healthcare provider may recommend that they receive additional doses of the HBV vaccine.
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What Is Hepatitis B
Hepatitis B is a liver infection caused by the hepatitis B virus. It can cause long lasting liver damage.
Hepatitis B can be acute or chronic. If a person has acute hepatitis B, the virus makes them sick for a short time , then their body clears the virus and they recover.
If the infection last for more than 6 months, it is called chronic hepatitis. Chronic hepatitis is a lifelong illness.
Vaccination can prevent hepatitis B.
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How Can I Save Money
Local state health departments generally offer the best rate for vaccinations, especially for those who meet certain minimum income requirements. If you cannot afford the vaccination, check local state government programs to see if there is any aid or funding available.
If planning a trip in the near future, its always best to consider a walk-in clinic well ahead of time. Last minute vaccinations are generally going to cost more than vaccinations that are planned well ahead of time. Most walk-in clinics can get a price over the phone. Its always best to compare two to three before getting one.
If youre traveling, combining your vaccinations can often bring the price down, especially if youre going to a travel clinic.
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What Is Hepatitis B Virus
Hepatitis B virus attacks the liver. Hepatitis B virus infections are known as the silent epidemic because many infected people dont experience symptoms until decades later when they develop hepatitis , cirrhosis , or cancer of the liver . Every year in the United States about 22,000 new hepatitis B infections occur and about 2,000 people die from their infections.
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General Information About Vaccination Outside The Us
In developing countries, the pentavalent vaccine, a combination 5-in-one vaccine that protects against five diseases, diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus, Hib and hepatitis B, may be given to babies more than 6 weeks of age, and can be given up to 1 year of age. The first dose is given at 6 weeks, and the second and third doses are given at 10 and 14 weeks of age. The pentavalent vaccine may be made available free of charge with the support of GAVI, the vaccine alliance. Check the GAVI country hub to see the resources and immunizations that may be available:
For babies born to mothers with hepatitis B, waiting for the first dose of the pentavalent vaccine is too late and will NOT protect the baby from vertical or horizontal transmission of hepatitis B. Babies born to a mother with hepatitis B have a greater than 90% chance of developing chronic hepatitis B if they are not properly treated at birth.
WHO recommends the hepatitis B vaccine within 24 hours of birth for ALL babies. Plan ahead and inquire about the availability and cost of the monovalent , birth dose of the vaccine, as it is not a GAVI provided immunization. This is particularly important to women who are positive for hepatitis B.
If you are unsure of your hepatitis B status, please be sure your doctor tests you for hepatitis B!
*WHO does not recommend a birth dose of HBIG, which may not be available in all countries. Talk to your doctor if you have questions.
Page updated September 2022.
Babies And Hepatitis B Vaccination
Pregnant women have a routine blood test for hepatitis B as part of their antenatal care.
Babies born to mothers infected with hepatitis B need to be given a dose of the hepatitis B vaccine within 24 hours of their birth, followed by further doses at 4, 8, 12 and 16 weeks of age, plus a final dose when they’re 1 year old.
Babies of mothers identified by the blood test as particularly infectious might also be given an injection of HBIG at birth on top of the hepatitis B vaccination to give them rapid protection against infection.
All babies born to mothers infected with hepatitis B should be tested at 1 year of age to check if they have become infected with the virus.
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What Hepatitis B Immunisation Involves
Full protection involves having 3 injections of the hepatitis B vaccine at the recommended intervals.
Babies born to mothers with hepatitis B infection will be given 6 doses of hepatitis B-containing vaccine to ensure long-lasting protection.
If you’re a healthcare worker or you have kidney failure, you’ll have a follow-up appointment to see if you have responded to the vaccine.
If you have been vaccinated by your employer’s occupational health service, you can request a blood test to see if you have responded to the vaccine.
Factors Affecting The Cost Of Hepatitis Vaccines
- There are numerous factors that could affect the cost of Hepatitis vaccines. The most common factor is the type of the Hepatitis vaccine. Hepatitis A vaccine is cheaper than Hepatitis B vaccine, and Hepatitis B vaccine is relatively cheaper than the Hepatitis A+B vaccine.
- The purpose of the vaccination is also a factor. In most cases of health insurance policies, travel-related vaccination will not be covered by the insurance. Once the vaccination is not covered, this will affect the cost or amount you will be paying.
- The geographic location should also be considered. States and cities offer different rates for either Hepatitis A vaccine or Hepatitis B vaccine. This is also true for doctors, clinics, and hospital that administer Hepatitis vaccination.
- The inclusion of the vaccine can also affect the cost of the vaccination. There are instances that the bill for the vaccines already includes payments for initial consultation and administration. There are also cases that these are billed separately. For example, AITC Immunization & Travel Clinic only offers the vaccine itself for the above-mentioned price. The consultation fee, or the travel health visit fee for every traveler, is $50 and if you do not undergo a travel health visit, you will be charged $45 for the prescription service. You will be paying around $130 to $190 depending on the type of Hepatitis vaccine to be taken.
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Costs Health Utilities And Mortality Rates
contains all cost values and utility values for health states. Direct program costs and direct medical costs are included. All final cost figures were converted to 2010 U.S. dollars using the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics Consumer Price Index . The Supplementary Data describes the calculation of other-cause mortality rates for people with diabetes.
Concurrent Administration Of Vaccines
HB-containing vaccines may be administered concomitantly with other vaccines or with HBIg. Different injection sites and separate needles and syringes must be used for concurrent parenteral injections.
Refer to Timing of Vaccine Administration in Part 1 for additional information about concurrent administration of vaccines.
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Why Is The Hepatitis B Vaccine Important
Because of the vaccine, cases of acute hepatitis B have decreased by a lot in the United States. But chronic hepatitis B is still common up to 2.2 million people in the United States have it. Chronic hepatitis B can lead to serious liver problems and even death.
Getting vaccinated is the best way to prevent hepatitis B.
Hepatitis B is a liver disease caused by a virus. There are 2 types of hepatitis B:
- Acute hepatitis B
- Chronic hepatitis B
Many children who get acute hepatitis B dont have any symptoms, but most adults do. Symptoms may include:
- Dark pee or clay-colored poop
- Pain in the muscles, joints, and stomach
Acute hepatitis B symptoms usually last a few weeks but they can last as long as 6 months.
If the acute hepatitis B infection does not go away after 6 months, its considered a chronic hepatitis B infection. Most people who have chronic hepatitis B dont have symptoms at first. But chronic hepatitis B is a lifelong illness that can lead to serious and possibly deadly liver problems, like:
- Has sex with a person who has hepatitis B
- Touches the blood or open sores of a person who has hepatitis B
All children and most adults need to get the hepatitis B vaccine.
Infants and children
All children need to get the hepatitis B vaccine as part of their routine vaccine schedule.
Children need 3 doses of the vaccine at the following ages:
- Birth for the first dose
- 1 through 2 months for the second dose
- 6 through 18 months for the third dose
What Determines The Cost Of A Hepatitis A Vaccine
Amino found that the median network rate for a hepatitis A vaccine is $179. The cost ranges across the US from $131 to $276a significant difference.
Because of the ACA, theres a good chance that youll pay $0 out-of-pocket for your vaccine if you have insurance. However, there are a number of factors that could affect how much you pay, including:
Whether you have health insurance. If you dont have health insurance, you may have to pay the full cost of the vaccine out-of-pocket, depending on where you go to get it.
Whether your insurance covers related service charges. Under the ACA, insurance companies must cover the full cost of the vaccine itself. However, you may be responsible for charges related to getting the vaccine, like the office visit.
If you go to an out-of-network doctor. The ACA only requires insurance companies to cover the cost of your vaccine if you go to an in-network doctor. You can call your insurance provider ahead of time to make sure your doctor is in-networkor you can use Amino to check. Just click Look up your current doctor and type in their name.
You can use Amino as a guide to help you understand how much a vaccine may cost in your area, what factors into the total cost, and how much you might pay out-of-pocketbut you should always double check with your doctor and insurance company.
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Who Should Receive Hepatitis B Vaccination
- All newborns before hospital discharge. Infants born to hepatitis B-positive women need hepatitis B vaccine and HBIG within 12 hours of birth.
- All children and adolescents not previously vaccinated.
- Children born in the U.S. to individuals born in a country with high hepatitis B endemicity.
- All individuals at risk of hepatitis B infection:
- Sex partners of hepatitis B-positive persons
- Sexually active persons who are not in a long-term, mutually monogamous relationship
- Persons seeking evaluation or treatment for a sexually-transmitted disease
- Men who have sex with men
- Persons who inject drugs
- Household contacts of hepatitis B-positive persons
- Persons born in countries where hepatitis B infection is endemic should be tested and vaccinated if susceptible
- International travelers to regions with high or intermediate rates of endemic hepatitis B infection
- Health care and public safety workers that may be exposed to blood or blood-contaminated body fluids
- Residents and staff of facilities for developmentally disabled persons, corrections facilities, and other facilities that serve adults at risk for hepatitis B infection
- Persons with end-stage renal disease, including pre-dialysis, hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis, and home dialysis patients
- Persons with chronic liver disease
- Persons to age 60 years with diabetes
- Persons with HIV infection
- All other persons seeking protection from hepatitis B infection.
Persons With Inadequate Immunization Records
Evidence of long term protection against HB has only been demonstrated in individuals who have been vaccinated according to a recommended immunization schedule. Independent of their anti-HBs titres, children and adults lacking adequate documentation of immunization should be considered susceptible and started on an immunization schedule appropriate for their age and risk factors. Refer to Immunization of Persons with Inadequate Immunization Records in Part 3 for additional information.
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How Is The Hepatitis B Vaccine Made
People are protected against hepatitis B virus infection by making an immune response to a protein that sits on the surface of the virus. When hepatitis B virus grows in the liver, an excess amount of this surface protein is made. The hepatitis B vaccine is made by taking the part of the virus that makes surface protein and putting it into yeast cells. The yeast cells then produce many copies of the protein that are subsequently used to make the vaccine. When the surface protein is given to children in the vaccine, their immune systems make an immune response that provides protection against infection with the hepatitis B virus.
The first hepatitis B vaccine was made in the 1980s by taking blood from people infected with hepatitis B virus and separating or purifying the surface protein from the infectious virus. Because blood was used, there was a risk of contaminating the vaccine with other viruses that might be found in blood, such as HIV. Although contamination with HIV was a theoretical risk of the early, blood-derived hepatitis B vaccine, no one ever got HIV from the hepatitis B vaccine. That is because the blood used to make vaccine was submitted to a series of chemical treatments that inactivated any possible contaminating viruses. Today, there is no risk of contaminating the vaccine with other viruses because the surface protein is manufactured in the laboratory.
Persons With Chronic Diseases
Refer to Immunization of Persons with Chronic Diseases in Part 3 for additional general information about vaccination of people with chronic diseases.
Chronic renal disease and patients on dialysis
People with chronic renal disease may respond sub-optimally to HB vaccine and experience more rapid decline of anti-HBs titres, and are therefore recommended immunization with a higher vaccine dose. Individuals undergoing chronic dialysis are also at increased risk for HB infection. In people with chronic renal disease anti-HBs titre should be evaluated annually and booster doses using a higher vaccine dose should be given as necessary.
People with conditions such as autism spectrum disorders or demyelinating disorders should receive all routinely recommended immunizations, including HB-containing vaccine.
Chronic liver disease
HB immunization is recommended for non-immune persons with chronic liver disease, including those infected with hepatitis C, because they are at risk of more severe disease if infection occurs. Vaccination should be completed early in the course of the disease, as the immune response to vaccine is suboptimal in advanced liver disease. Post-immunization serologic testing may be used to confirm vaccine response.
Non-malignant hematologic disorders
Persons with bleeding disorders and other people receiving repeated infusions of blood or blood products are considered to be at higher risk of contracting HB and should be offered HB vaccine.
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