Characteristics Of The Pregnant Women And Their Infants
A total of 992 HBsAg positive pregnant women who delivered in 13 hospitals located in the two counties between May 1, 2018, and October 31, 2019. Among them, 604 were interviewed when upon arrival at the hospital for delivery, and a total of 619 infants were born, with 511 receiving three doses of 20 g HepB between one and six months apart. The blood samples of 319 infants were collected one month later, after they had completed three doses of vaccine, to test for HBsAg and HBsAb. In order to estimate the HBsAb variation of infants, blood samples of 398 infants, who had been vaccinated with 20 g CHO HepB, were collected in June 2020, which included 287 infants who had their sero-samples collected for the first time. In total, 419 HBsAg-positive women and their 430 infants were analyzed . The average age of the women was 29.6±4.3 years, with the oldest and youngest women being 47 and 19 years old, respectively. Those with college education or above accounted for 54.9% . The oldest child was 24 months old, while the youngest child was seven months old. Ethnic Han women accounted for 99.1% for the total, whereas female farmers for 24.1% . Among the women, 21.5% were aware that they were infected with HBV in the previous year. Furthermore, 27.4% of them had received antiviral therapy during pregnancy . Twenty-five of the pregnant women gave birth before 37 weeks, and 14 out of the 270 pregnant women who filled out ALT values had ALT values higher than 40.
Persons With Chronic Diseases
Refer to Immunization of Persons with Chronic Diseases in Part 3 for additional general information about vaccination of people with chronic diseases.
Chronic renal disease and patients on dialysis
People with chronic renal disease may respond sub-optimally to HB vaccine and experience more rapid decline of anti-HBs titres, and are therefore recommended immunization with a higher vaccine dose. Individuals undergoing chronic dialysis are also at increased risk for HB infection. In people with chronic renal disease anti-HBs titre should be evaluated annually and booster doses using a higher vaccine dose should be given as necessary.
People with conditions such as autism spectrum disorders or demyelinating disorders should receive all routinely recommended immunizations, including HB-containing vaccine.
Chronic liver disease
HB immunization is recommended for non-immune persons with chronic liver disease, including those infected with hepatitis C, because they are at risk of more severe disease if infection occurs. Vaccination should be completed early in the course of the disease, as the immune response to vaccine is suboptimal in advanced liver disease. Post-immunization serologic testing may be used to confirm vaccine response.
Non-malignant hematologic disorders
Persons with bleeding disorders and other people receiving repeated infusions of blood or blood products are considered to be at higher risk of contracting HB and should be offered HB vaccine.
Who Should Be Immunised Against Hepatitis B
Hepatitis B immunisation is recommended and funded for the following groups:
- all children up to their 18th birthday
- babies born to mothers with hepatitis B infection
- people who live in close contact with someone infected with hepatitis B
- anyone undergoing renal dialysis
- people who have hepatitis C infection, or who are HIV positive, or who have had a needle stick injury.
- anyone who has received immunosuppression therapy of at least 28 days or has had solid organ or bone marrow transplant.
Hepatitis B immunisation is also recommended, but not funded, for:
- workers who are likely to come into contact with blood products, or who are at increased risk of needlestick injuries, assault, etc.
- people who change sex partners frequently such as sex workers
- people who regularly receive blood transfusions such as people with haemophilia
- prison inmates
- current or recent injecting drug users
- migrants and travellers from or to areas with intermediate or high rates of hepatitis B such as the Asia and Pacific region.
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Important Information About Vaccine And Hepatitis B Immunoglobulin Shot Administration
Where available, the hepatitis B birth-dose and HBIG should be administered within 24 hours of birth in order to prevent the transmission of hepatitis B from mother to child. It is very important that the shots be given in opposite limbs, to ensure the highest effectiveness. Please see chart above for more information.
What Is Hepatitis B Vaccine And What Is It Used For
Hepatitis Bvaccine is an inactivated viral vaccine administered intramuscularly to provide protection against infection from all subtypes of hepatitis B virus. Hepatitis B virus is transmitted in body fluids and causes severe liver infection, which may become chronic in some people. Hepatitis B vaccine stimulates the production of natural antibodies to hepatitis B virus by introducing a tiny amount of harmless, dead viral particles, without causing an infection.
Hepatitis B vaccines contain purified surface antigens of the hepatitis B virus , mostly cultured in yeast cells, except for the PreHevbrio brand which is cultured in Chinese hamster ovary cells. Surface antigens are protein particles on the surface of the viruses which enable them to hold on to a human cell, enter inside and replicate.
Once vaccinated, the bodys immune system recognizes the surface antigens when exposed to the hepatitis B virus and produces antibodies to the surface antigens, preventing the virus from entering and infecting the cells. Hepatitis B vaccine also contains substances that preserve and stabilize the vaccine, and enhance immune response.
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Origin Of Antiviral Resistance
The genetic makeup of viruses is constantly changing, which can cause a virus to become resistant to currently available treatments. Viruses can become resistant through spontaneous or intermittent mechanisms throughout the course of an antiviral treatment. Immunocompromised patients, more often than immunocompetent patients, hospitalized with are at the highest risk of developing oseltamivir resistance during treatment. Subsequent to exposure to someone else with the flu, those who received oseltamivir for “post-exposure prophylaxis” are also at higher risk of resistance.
Multiple strains of one virus can be present in the body at one time, and some of these strains may contain mutations that cause antiviral resistance. This effect, called the , results in immense variation in any given sample of virus, and gives the opportunity for natural selection to favor viral strains with the highest fitness every time the virus is spread to a new host. Also, recombination, the joining of two different viral variants, and , the swapping of viral gene segments among viruses in the same cell, play a role in resistance, especially in influenza.
Antiviral resistance has been reported in antivirals for herpes, HIV, hepatitis B and C, and influenza, but antiviral resistance is a possibility for all viruses. Mechanisms of antiviral resistance vary between virus types.
What Other Drugs Will Affect Hepatitis A And B Vaccine
Before receiving this vaccine, tell the doctor about all other vaccines you have recently received.
Also tell the doctor if you have recently received drugs or treatments that can weaken the immune system, including:
medicines to treat or prevent organ transplant rejection.
If you are using any of these medications, you may not be able to receive the vaccine, or may need to wait until the other treatments are finished.
This list is not complete. Other drugs may affect hepatitis A and B vaccine, including prescription and over-the-counter medicines, vitamins, and herbal products. Not all possible drug interactions are listed here.
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Hepatitis B Vaccination In Pregnancy
Hepatitis B infection in pregnant women may result in severe disease for the mother and chronic infection for the baby.
This is why the hepatitis B vaccine is recommended for pregnant women who are in a high-risk category.
There’s no evidence of any risk from vaccinating pregnant or breastfeeding women against hepatitis B.
And, as it’s an inactivated vaccine, the risk to the unborn baby is likely to be negligible .
Who Should Get The Hbv Vaccine
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends that all children and adults up to age 59 should receive the hepatitis B vaccine.
Infants should get their first hepatitis B vaccine within 24 hours of birth and complete their doses by age 6 to 18 months.
All unvaccinated children and adults through age 59 should receive the vaccine. Also, unvaccinated adults over the age 60 who are at risk of hepatitis B should get the vaccine.
Adults over age 60 who are not at risk of hepatitis B may also choose to get the shot.
Several types of the HBV vaccine are also safe to administer to pregnant women.
- people who have had more than one sex partner in the last 6 months
- men who have sex with men
- people seeking treatment for a sexually transmitted infection
- people whose partners or household members have hepatitis B
- people who inject drugs
- people who live or work in care facilities
- people who are on dialysis
- travelers to countries where hepatitis B is common
- people with chronic liver disease, HIV, or hepatitis C
- people who are in jail or prison
People who have diabetes should talk with a healthcare professional about their risk for contracting hepatitis B.
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Hepatitis B Vaccination Schedule For Children And Infants
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends that babies and children receive three 0.5 milliliter doses of either Engerix-B or Recombivax HB, starting just after birth.
The current recommended hepatitis B vaccine schedule for children and infants is as follows:
|Hepatitis B Vaccination Schedule for Infants and Children|
|Hepatitis B Vaccine Dose|
|3||618 months old|
If your child is undergoing hemodialysis, your healthcare provider may recommend that they receive additional doses of the HBV vaccine.
What Other Drugs Interact With Hepatitis B Vaccine
If your doctor has directed you to use this medication, your doctor or pharmacist may already be aware of any possible drug interactions and may be monitoring you for them. Do not start, stop, or change the dosage of any medicine before checking with your doctor, health care provider, or pharmacist first.
- Severe Interactions of Hepatitis B Vaccine include:
This information does not contain all possible interactions or adverse effects. Therefore, before using this product, tell your doctor or pharmacist of all the products you use. Keep a list of all your medications with you, and share this information with your doctor and pharmacist. Check with your health care professional or doctor for additional medical advice, or if you have health questions, concerns, or for more information about this medicine.
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Is It Okay To Get An Extra Dose Of Hepatitis B Vaccine
Yes. Although extra doses of vaccine are not recommended, you can think of the extra dose as another chance for the immune system to see the hepatitis B virus. A vaccine is not the only time the immune system will see the virus or bacteria contained in it. People may be exposed to the virus or bacteria at school or the store or when visiting family or friends. An extra dose of vaccine is like one more exposure, except the difference is that the virus or bacteria in any vaccine has been made safe, so it wont make you ill.
What Hepatitis B Immunisation Involves
Full protection involves having 3 injections of the hepatitis B vaccine at the recommended intervals.
Babies born to mothers with hepatitis B infection will be given 6 doses of hepatitis B-containing vaccine to ensure long-lasting protection.
If you’re a healthcare worker or you have kidney failure, you’ll have a follow-up appointment to see if you have responded to the vaccine.
If you have been vaccinated by your employer’s occupational health service, you can request a blood test to see if you have responded to the vaccine.
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How To Use Hepatitis B Virus Vaccrec Suspension
This vaccine is usually given by injection into a muscle by a health care professional. Injection under the skin may be used if you have a bleeding disorder.
Your health care professional will give you a vaccination schedule , which you must follow closely for best effectiveness. If you have an illness with fever at the time a vaccination is scheduled, your health care professional may choose to delay the injection until you are better.
The dosage and vaccination schedule is based on your age, medical condition, risk of hepatitis B exposure, and the brand of vaccine used.
If you are receiving the first hepatitis B vaccine injection at a time when your health care professional feels you may have been exposed to hepatitis B, you will also receive an injection of hepatitis B immune globulin . HBIG is a dose of antibodies against the virus and will immediately help protect you from developing an infection. These antibodies only last a few months. For long-term protection, it is important to follow your vaccination schedule for the hepatitis B vaccine exactly.
Preparations Of Hepatitis B Vaccine
Hepatitis B vaccine is produced using recombinant DNA technology. A plasmid containing the gene for hepatitis B surface antigen is inserted into common bakers yeast, which then produces HBsAg. The HBsAg is harvested and purified. This vaccine cannot cause hepatitis B virus infection because no potentially infectious viral DNA or complete viral particles are produced during this process.
Single-antigen and a combination formulation that combines hepatitis A and hepatitis B vaccines are available. Two single-antigen vaccines, Engerix-B® and Recombivax HB®, are conjugated with aluminum. A newer formulation, HepB-CpG , uses the immune-stimulating adjuvant, cytidine-phosphate-guanosine oligodeoxynucleotide .
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Adults Recommended To Receive Hepb Vaccine:
TheAdvisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommends that the following people should receive hepatitis B vaccination:
- All infants
- Unvaccinated children aged < 19 years
- Adults aged 19 through 59 years
- Adults aged 60 years and older with risk factors for hepatitis B
The following groups may receive hepatitis B vaccination:
- Adults aged 60 years and older without known risk factors for hepatitis B
Risk factors for hepatitis B
- Persons at risk for infection by sexual exposure
- Sex partners of persons who test positive for hepatitis B surface antigen
- Sexually active persons who are not in a long-term, mutually monogamous relationship
- Persons seeking evaluation or treatment for a sexually transmitted infection
- Men who have sex with men
Lets Not Neglect The Glass
Unfortunately, chemical submission is not something new,
96 cases were confirmed last year alone at the San Carlos Clinical Hospital in Madrid
, although until now the victim ingested liquid ecstasy without being aware of it after his aggressor had poured it into his beverage.
continues to this day, so we should not neglect our glass in nightclubs or entertainment venues, and we even have options to turn to, such as the tapas that some places provide to try to put a stop to these crimes.
Conforms to The Trust Project criteria
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Before Taking This Medicine
Hepatitis B vaccine will not protect against infection with hepatitis A, C, and E, or other viruses that affect the liver. It may also not protect against hepatitis B if you are already infected with the virus, even if you do not yet show symptoms.
You should not receive this vaccine if you have ever had a life-threatening allergic reaction to any vaccine containing hepatitis B, or if you are allergic to yeast.
If you have any of these other conditions, your vaccine may need to be postponed or not given at all:
a bleeding or blood clotting disorder such as hemophilia or easy bruising
weak immune system
an allergy to latex or
a neurologic disorder or disease affecting the brain .
You can still receive a vaccine if you have a minor cold. If you have a more severe illness with a fever or any type of infection, your doctor may recommend waiting until you get better before you receive this vaccine.
Tell your doctor if you are pregnant or breastfeeding.
If you are pregnant, your name may be listed on a pregnancy registry to track the effects of this vaccine on the baby.
How Can I Contract Hepatitis A
You can contract the hepatitis A virus by eating food or drinking beverages that have been contaminated by human fecal waste.
Resort activities that may put you at risk for hepatitis A include:
Eating food handled by an infected worker who did not wash his/her hands properly after using the washroom
Eating raw or undercooked seafood and shellfish that lived in sewage-polluted water
Eating salads or produce rinsed in contaminated water
Drinking contaminated water or drinks with contaminated ice
Bathing, showering, or swimming in contaminated water
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How Is Hepatitis B Treated
Your healthcare provider will treat you based on what type of hepatitis B you have, acute or chronic.
Acute hepatitis B infections
If you develop an acute form of the condition, you probably wont need medical treatment. Instead, your doctor will likely suggest that you get plenty of rest, drink lots of fluids and maintain a healthy diet to support your body as it fights off the infection.
Chronic hepatitis B infections
If you have chronic hepatitis B, you might be a candidate for drug therapy. Usually, drug therapy is used only if you have active liver disease. There are seven drugs that are approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to treat hepatitis B. Two are injectable forms of interferon, while the five other antivirals are tablets.
You will need to take these medications every day. They help by slowing the viruss ability to multiply in your system. This helps reduce swelling and liver damage. Youll need to be regularly monitored for early signs of liver damage and liver cancer. Your healthcare provider will want to see you once or twice a year.
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