Tuesday, May 17, 2022

How Can You Get Hepatitis

Common Symptoms Of Hepatitis

How do you get hepatitis A?

If you are living with a chronic form of hepatitis, like hepatitis B and C, you may not show symptoms until the damage affects liver function. By contrast, people with acute hepatitis may present with symptoms shortly after contracting a hepatitis virus.

Common symptoms of infectious hepatitis include:

It is crucial to understand what is causing hepatitis in order to treat it correctly. Doctors will progress through a series of tests to accurately diagnose your condition.

If I Have Hepatitis How Can I Avoid Giving It To Someone Else

For hepatitis A, one of the best things you can do is wash your hands a lot. That will keep the virus out of food and drinks.

If you have hepatitis B and C, you need to find ways to keep others from making contact with your blood. Follow these tips:

  • Cover your cuts or blisters.
  • Carefully throw away used bandages, tissues, tampons, and sanitary napkins.
  • Don’t share your razor, nail clippers, or toothbrush.
  • If your blood gets on objects, clean them with household bleach and water.
  • Don’t breastfeed if your nipples are cracked or bleeding.
  • Don’t donate blood, organs, or sperm.
  • If you inject drugs, don’t share needles or other equipment.

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When Will Symptoms Appear After You Have Been Exposed To Hav

It generally takes about 4 weeks for symptoms to appear, but they can start at 2 weeks or they can start up to 8 weeks after you have been exposed. You probably wont get every symptom immediately, but they tend to emerge over days.

Also, you can have no symptoms and have the virus and be contagious. Children especially may be free of symptoms despite being infected.

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How Can You Avoid Hepatitis A

The best way to prevent hepatitis A is to bevaccinated. People with certain risk factors andhealth problems need this vaccine. Ask your doctor ifthe vaccine is right for you. You cannot get hepatitisA from the vaccine. Hepatitis A vaccination isrecommended for:

  • All children at age 1 year
  • People who use injection and non-injection illegal drugs
  • People with chronic liver diseases, such as hepatitis B or hepatitis C
  • People with bleeding problems who take clotting factors
  • People whose work has a risk for hepatitis A infection
  • People who live in areas with high rates of hepatitis A infection
  • Travelers to countries that have high rates of hepatitis A. These include:
    • Africa

CDC’s Travelers’ Health site has information about hepatitis A and other vaccines.

Getting vaccinated is the best way to prevent hepatitis A.

Other ways to avoid hepatitis A:

  • Boil water or drink bottled water in places where the water may not be clean.
  • Eat cooked foods and fruits that you can peel. Avoid eating uncooked vegetables or fruits that could have been washed with dirty water, such as lettuce.
  • Avoid eating raw or steamed shellfish such as oysters. Shellfish may live in dirty water.
  • Use condoms correctly and every time you have sex.
  • Clean hands often.

Parenteral Routes: Transmission Of Hepatitis B Hepatitis D And Hepatitis C

Hepatitis A alert

Hepatitis B, C, and D viruses are all transmitted by what is known as the parenteral route. Parenteral simply means that these viruses can be introduced by all routes except through the intestinal tract, which leaves the door wide open in terms of possible exposure. Let’s look at the possible transmission routes for each of these types of hepatitis virus more closely.

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How Do You Get Hepatitis C

The hepatitis C virus is usually spread through blood-to-blood contact.

Some ways the infection can be spread include:

  • sharing unsterilised needles particularly needles used to inject recreational drugs
  • sharing razors or toothbrushes
  • from a pregnant woman to her unborn baby
  • through unprotected sex although this is very rare

In the UK, most hepatitis C infections happen in people who inject drugs or have injected them in the past.

It’s estimated around half of those who inject drugs have been infected with the virus.

Who Is More Likely To Get Hepatitis C

People more likely to get hepatitis C are those who

  • have injected drugs
  • had a blood transfusion or organ transplant before July 1992
  • have hemophilia and received clotting factor before 1987
  • have been on kidney dialysis
  • have been in contact with blood or infected needles at work
  • have had tattoos or body piercings
  • have worked or lived in a prison
  • were born to a mother with hepatitis C
  • are infected with HIV
  • have had more than one sex partner in the last 6 months or have a history of sexually transmitted disease
  • are men who have or had sex with men

In the United States, injecting drugs is the most common way that people get hepatitis C.13

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Hepatitis C Symptoms & Treatment

FAST FACTS:

  • Hepatitis C is found in infected blood. It is also rarely found in semen and vaginal fluids.

  • Hepatitis C is mainly passed on through using contaminated needles and syringes or sharing other items with infected blood on them. It can also be passed on through unprotected sex, especially when blood is present.

  • You can prevent hepatitis C by never sharing needles and syringes, practising safer sex, and avoiding unlicensed tattoo parlours and acupuncturists.

  • Hepatitis C will often not have any noticeable symptoms, but a simple blood test carried out by a healthcare professional will show whether you have hepatitis C.

  • In the early stages, some peoples bodies can clear a hepatitis C infection on their own, others may develop chronic hepatitis C and will need to take antiviral treatment to cure the infection.

  • Without treatment, chronic hepatitis C can lead to permanent liver damage.

Hepatitis C is part of a group of hepatitis viruses that attack the liver.

Its mainly passed on through contaminated needles, either from injecting drugs or from needle stick injuries in healthcare settings. It can also be transmitted sexually, especially during anal sex or other types of sex that may involve blood.

Some groups are more at risk of getting hepatitis C than others, including people who use drugs, people in prisons, men who have sex with men, health workers and people living with HIV.

Overview Of Acute Viral Hepatitis

Hepatitis A: How is it spread?

, MD, MPH, Weill Cornell Medical College

  • Symptoms range from none to very severe.

  • Affected people may have a poor appetite, nausea, vomiting, fever, pain in the upper right part of the abdomen, and jaundice.

  • Doctors do blood tests to diagnose hepatitis and identify its cause.

  • Vaccines can prevent hepatitis A, B, and E .

  • Usually, specific treatment is not needed.

Acute viral hepatitis is common throughout the world. Most cases of acute viral hepatitis resolve on their own, but some persist and progress to chronic hepatitis Overview of Chronic Hepatitis Chronic hepatitis is inflammation of the liver that lasts at least 6 months. Common causes include hepatitis B and C viruses and certain drugs. Most people have no symptoms, but some have vague… read more .

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What Is Hepatitis A

Hepatitis A is a contagious liver infection caused by the hepatitis A virus . In the USA, hepatitis A infections have declined by 90% since the hepatitis A vaccine first became available in 1995. Still, there are cases of hepatitis A reported to the San Francisco Department of Public Health every year among San Francisco residents. Hepatitis A is still common in Latin America, Africa, the Middle East, Asia, and eastern Europe.

What Is The Prognosis/outlook For Patients Who Have Hepatitis A

Most cases of hepatitis A are short-lived, but the disease doesnt always look the same for everyone. Some people have short illnesses that only last a few weeks and have mild symptoms. Others can be very ill for several months. Hepatitis A is rarely fatal, but death has happened due to liver failure brought on by HAV. This tends to happen more often in people who are over 50 years old or and in people who have another liver condition.

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How Do I Avoid Getting Sick

These tips will help protect you and your family from Hepatitis A:

  • Wash your hands after using the washroom and changing diapers, and before preparing or eating food.
  • When travelling, especially to developing countries:
  • drink water from a safe supply
  • avoid ice cubes in drinks
  • eat only freshly cooked food
  • avoid non-peelable raw fruit or vegetables
  • Talk to your doctor about getting a Hepatitis A vaccination before travelling.
  • Cook food to a safe internal temperature using a digital thermometer.
  • If you think that you have been exposed to the Hepatitis A virus, see your doctor immediately. Vaccination can prevent the onset of symptoms if given within two weeks of exposure.
  • If you have been diagnosed with Hepatitis A, or any other gastrointestinal illness, do not prepare food or pour water for other people.
  • Also, these safe food practices will reduce your risk of contracting Hepatitis A and other foodborne illnesses.

    Can Bleach Or Cleaner Kill Hepatitis A

    Are you at High Risk for Hepatitis A? Get vaccinated ...

    Disinfectant that contains bleach can kill the hepatitis A virus on hard non-porous surfaces like toilet seats. However, freezing does not kill HAV.

    If you cook food that is contaminated for one minute at cooking temperatures higher than 185ºF , it will kill HAV. However, food can be contaminated after cooking, so it is very important to wash your hands well with soap and water.

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    What Are The Symptoms Of Hepatitis B

    Many people with hepatitis B dont have any symptoms. If you do get symptoms you may not notice them until two or three months after infection and they can last up to three months. There are two types of infection acute and chronic.

    Acute symptoms include:

    • flu-like symptoms, including tiredness, fever and aches and pains
    • feeling and/or being sick
    • jaundice, meaning your skin and the whites of your eyes turn yellow
    • dark urine
    • pale faeces .

    People who cant fight off acute infection after six months, such as babies, young children and people with a weakened immune system because of HIV, can go on to develop chronic hepatitis B. This is when people are at higher risk of liver failure, liver disease and cancer of the liver.

    How Common Is Hepatitis C In The United States

    In the United States, hepatitis C is the most common chronic viral infection found in blood and spread through contact with blood.14

    Researchers estimate that about 2.7 million to 3.9 million people in the United States have chronic hepatitis C.13 Many people who have hepatitis C dont have symptoms and dont know they have this infection.

    Since 2006, the number of new hepatitis C infections has been rising, especially among people younger than age 30 who inject heroin or misuse prescription opioids and inject them.15,16

    New screening efforts and more effective hepatitis C treatments are helping doctors identify and cure more people with the disease. With more screening and treatment, hepatitis C may become less common in the future. Researchers estimate that hepatitis C could be a rare disease in the United States by 2036.17

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    If I Am Infected How Can I Prevent Passing On The Virus To Others

    If you have a current hepatitis B infection you should:

    • Avoid having sex with anyone until they have been fully immunised and checked with a blood test to see that the immunisation has worked.
    • Not share any injecting equipment such as needles, syringes, etc.
    • Not donate blood or semen or carry a donor card.
    • Not share razors, toothbrushes, etc, that may be contaminated with blood.
    • Cover any cuts or wounds with a dressing.
    • Make sure that, if any of your blood spills on to the floor or other surfaces following an accident, it is cleaned away with bleach.

    What Are The Symptoms Of Hepatitis A

    How is Hepatitis C spread? — Mayo Clinic

    Children who become infected with hepatitis A before age 6 usually have no symptoms or mild illness, and if they do become ill, they usually get better in under 2 months. Adults and older children who become infected with hepatitis A can have no symptoms or very mild illness , but most develop jaundice and other symptoms . Mild illness can resolve in 1-2 weeks, but more severe illness can last for months. Common symptoms of HAV infection include:

    • Jaundice

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    Treatment: Chronic Hepatitis C

    The latest drug to be approved by the FDA is glecaprevir and pibrentasvir . This medication offers a shorter treatment cycle of 8 weeks for adult patients with all types of HCV who donât have cirrhosis and who have not been previously treated. The length of treatment is longer for those who are in a different disease stage. The prescribed dosage for this medicine is 3 tablets daily.

    There are several other combination drugs available, as well as some single drugs that may be used in combination. Your doctor will choose the right one for you depending on the type of hepatitis C you have, how well your liver is functioning and any other medical problems you may have. Also be sure to discuss your insurance coverage since these medications are expensive.

    Hepatitis B: What Happens

    Many adults who get hepatitis B have mild symptoms for a short time and then get better on their own. But some people are not able to clear the virus from the body, which causes a long-term infection. Nearly 90% of infants who get the virus will carry it for life. Over time, hepatitis B can lead to serious problems, such as liver damage, liver failure, and liver cancer.

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    Keep Personal Items Personal

    Any tools or implements that may have a bit of blood on them from infected people are potential sources of hepatitis B or C transmission. Toothbrushes, nail clippers, razors, needles, and washcloths may all contain trace amounts of blood that can transmit infection. Keep personal items such as these to yourself and never use personal items that belong to others.

    What Are The Treatments For Hepatitis A

    Hepatitis A

    If you have not had the vaccine, and your infection has been confirmed by a blood sample, your healthcare provider might give you the hepatitis A vaccine or immune globulin . This only works if the medicine is given within two weeks of you being exposed to HAV.

    If you were exposed and are unable to get the vaccine or the immune globulin, you are likely to recover without treatment. However, your healthcare provider will probably recommend that you follow the following self-care recommendations:

    • Get plenty of rest.
    • Eat a healthy diet.
    • Avoid alcohol.
    • Review any type of medicineprescription and over-the-counterthat you take with your healthcare provider. Even things like supplements or vitamins could cause damage to your liver.

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    How It Spreads

    • you have unprotected sex with an infected person
    • you share needles or piercing equipment with an infected person
    • you share a toothbrush with an infected person
    • an infected mother gives birth to a baby
    • an infected child bites another child
    • you are exposed in another way to the blood, semen or vaginal fluids of an infected person.

    Who Is At Risk

    Anyone who has not been vaccinated or previously infected can get infected with the hepatitis A virus. In areas where the virus is widespread , most hepatitis A infections occur during early childhood. Risk factors include:

    • poor sanitation
    • living in a household with an infected person
    • being a sexual partner of someone with acute hepatitis A infection
    • use of recreational drugs
    • travelling to areas of high endemicity without being immunized.

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    Diagnosis Of Acute Viral Hepatitis

    • Blood tests

    Doctors suspect acute viral hepatitis based on symptoms. During the physical examination, a doctor presses on the abdomen above the liver, which is tender and somewhat enlarged in about half of the people with acute viral hepatitis.

    Doctors suspect fulminant hepatitis if

    • People are very ill and develop jaundice very quickly.

    • Mental function quickly deteriorates.

    • Blood tests to determine how quickly blood clotsâprothrombin time or international normalized ratio âare abnormal.

    • People who have liver disease start worsening rapidly.

    These blood tests can detect parts of specific viruses or specific antibodies produced by the body to fight the viruses. involves white blood cells that travel through the bloodstream and into tissues, searching for and attacking microorganisms and… read more â are proteins produced by the immune system to help defend the body against attack by viruses and other foreign invaders.)

    To determine whether the cause may be something other than a virus, the doctor may ask whether people take any drugs that can cause hepatitis and how much alcohol they drink.

    Occasionally, if the diagnosis is unclear, a liver biopsy is done: A sample of liver tissue is removed with a needle and examined.

    How Does A Person Get Hepatitis

    Do You Need to Get Screened for Hepatitis C?

    A person can get hepatitis A through the following sources:

    • Food or water contaminated with the fecal matter of an infected person
    • Sexual contact

    A person can get hepatitis B in many ways, which include:

    • Having sexual contact with an infected person
    • Sharing needles
    • Being in direct contact with an infected persons blood
    • Transferred from mother to the fetus
    • Getting an infected needle prick
    • Being in contact with an infected persons body fluid

    A person can get hepatitis C through:

    • Sharing infected needles
    • Being in direct contact with an infected persons blood
    • Getting an infected needle prick
    • Having sexual contact with an infected person

    Hepatitis D can be spread through:

    • Transferred from mother to the fetus
    • Being in contact with the infected fluid or blood
    • A person can get hepatitis D only if they are infected previously with hepatitis B.

    Hepatitis E mainly infects people who eat or drink food or water contaminated with the virus. Under-cooked foods can also spread hepatitis E. It is more dangerous in pregnant women.

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