Thursday, May 19, 2022

How To Test For Hepatitis

Interpreting Hcv Rna Test Results

Understanding Hepatitis B Serology Results

It is essential that the provider understands how to interpret HCV RNA test results, especially during the course of HCV treatment.

Result of HCV RNA TestInterpretation
A quantified viral load — any exact numberOngoing HCV infection
“Detected”The HCV RNA is detectable but the number of international units is so low that it cannot be quantified accurately. This indicates extremely low level of virus is present.
“< 12 IU/mL” or “< 15 IU/mL” or “< 25 IU/mL” All of these are “less than the LLOQ”HCV RNA is undetectable. No virus is detected at all in the patient’s serum specimen.

The Treatment Programs Role In The Screening Process

Medical staff members at substance abuse treatment programs might assume the primary role for screening individuals for and explaining the screening process and test results. Opioid treatment programs with medical staff members should screen for and C at intake and periodically as indicated. In programs without onsite medical staff, clients may be referred elsewhere for screening with minimal involvement of the substance abuse treatment program.

Regardless of the type of program, counselors should have a basic understanding of the importance of screening, the screening process, and the meaning of the results. Counselors can encourage clients referred for screening to follow through and complete the screening and evaluation process . Clients might feel anxious about being diagnosed with hepatitis, and they might delay or avoid getting screened.

How Long Do Hepatitis B Test Results Take

Fettle is committed to delivering your results within 72 hours of receiving your samples.

If your result is reactive, a Fettle clinician will call you to discuss your diagnosis, treatment options and help you find your nearest clinic.

If your result is negative, well let you know by text message as soon as your results are available.

We deliver resultswithin72 hours

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When Should I Get Hepatitis C Testing

When used for early detection in patients without symptoms of hepatitis C, screening is recommended at least once for all adults aged 18 years or older, except in locations with very low prevalence of HCV. Screening is also recommended during pregnancy and for patients of any age with risk factors for HCV infection. In patients with risk factors, periodic screening is recommended for as long as risk factors persist.

Risk factors for HCV include:

  • Current or past injectable drug use
  • Having a blood transfusion or organ transplant before July 1992
  • Receiving kidney dialysis
  • Pain in the abdomen or joints
  • Nausea, vomiting, or loss of appetite
  • Jaundice or yellowish skin and eyes

Hepatitis C testing may also be performed when liver tests are abnormal or when diagnosing the cause of existing liver damage.

What Is Hepatitis C

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Hepatitis C is a bloodborne virus that is spread when blood from an infected individual enters the body of someone who is not infected. The HCV infection can cause both chronic and acute hepatitis in an individual. Acute hepatitis describes individuals who have only had the hepatitis C virus infection for 6 months or less, which is considered an acute infection. In chronic hepatitis cases, the infection is long-term. A chronic infection is a significant risk factor for liver disease and liver cancer, and is potentially life-threatening if left untreated.

If you think you may be at risk, taking our hep C test kit can help you check if you have this infection. Our HCV test is quick and easy to take , and you can conveniently view your results on our secure, online platform.

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Appropriate Uses Of The Hcv Rna Test

There are 4 major reasons that HCV RNA tests are used:

  • To confirm a positive HCV Ab result and make the diagnosis of current HCV infection
  • To measure a patient’s baseline viral load prior to starting HCV therapy
  • To monitor a patient’s response to therapy
  • To determine whether a patient has achieved a sustained virologic response
  • More rarely, HCV RNA is used when either very acute HCV infection is suspected or a false HCV Ab is suspected.

    It would not be appropriate to repeatedly order HCV RNA viral load screening for a patient who is not on or was recently on HCV treatment, or to use the HCV viral load to determine the severity of the patient’s infection or the patient’s risk of developing significant liver disease.

    How Autoimmune Hepatitis Is Diagnosed

    Autoimmune hepatitis is an autoimmune disease that occurs when the bodys immune system attacks the liver by mistake. The exact cause is unknown but believed to be due to a combination of genetic and environmental factors.

    There is no one test to diagnose autoimmune hepatitis. The diagnostic process usually involves a physical exam, detailed history, lab tests, imaging studies, and a liver biopsy.

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    Emergency Intervention Disclosure Act

    The following information about the Emergency Intervention Disclosure Act is provided for information purposes and guidance only. If there is a conflict between this website and the Emergency Intervention Disclosure Act or the Emergency Intervention Disclosure Regulation, the Act and Regulation prevail.

    The Emergency Intervention Disclosure Act permits individuals, to apply to the court for an order to have another person tested for Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C or HIV if they have come into contact with a persons bodily substance in any of the following circumstances:

    • While providing emergency health services.
    • While performing their duties as a fire fighter, emergency medical assistant or police or other peace officer.
    • When they have reason to believe that they have been the victim of an alleged offence under the Criminal Code and have reported the matter to a law enforcement agency.

    The purpose of the Testing Order is to provide information to the exposed individual about the test results of the source individual, which may assist the exposed individual and their physician in managing the possible consequences of the exposure. There are strict timelines to the Testing Order process, please review the information below and Frequently Asked Questions section for additional information.

    Is There Anything Else I Should Know

    Hepatitis A: CDC Viral Hepatitis Serology Training

    The tests that are typically included in an acute viral hepatitis panel may not always be able to tell whether someone has had a previous hepatitis infection or has developed antibodies in response to a vaccine. Usually other types of tests are performed to provide this type of information. See the individual articles on Hepatitis A Testing, Hepatitis B Testing or Hepatitis C Testing for more on this.

    The presence of hepatitis A IgM antibodies in the blood are considered diagnostic for acute infection with hepatitis A when the test information is combined with a person’s signs and symptoms. When the hepatitis screening test is performed for people who do not have symptoms of acute hepatitis, the presence of hepatitis A IgM antibodies may represent a false-positive result. Therefore, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has recommended against using the test for screening in people without acute hepatitis symptoms to decrease the possibility of false-positive results.

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    What Does The Test Result Mean

    The table below summarizes results that may be seen with a hepatitis panel that is performed to detect an infection:

    Anti-hepatitis A, IgM
    PositiveAcute or chronic hepatitis C additional tests are required to make the determination

    If other hepatitis tests are performed to help determine prior exposure or previous infection, they may indicate the following:

    • Hepatitis A antibody, total â if negative, no current or previous HAV infection if positive, indicates exposure to HAV or the HAV vaccine. An IgM test must be done if an acute infection is suspected.
    • Hepatitis B core antibody, total â a positive test can indicate exposure to the virus. An IgM test must be performed if an acute infection is suspected.
    • Hepatitis B surface antibody â if positive, it indicates that a HBV infection has resolved depending on results of other HBV tests, a negative result may indicate that an infection has not resolved. Hepatitis B surface antibody will also be positive with a negative hepatitis B core antibody after a person has received a hepatitis B vaccine.

    It is possible to be infected with more than one hepatitis virus, and an acute infection with one hepatitis virus can be superimposed on a chronic infection with a different hepatitis virus. In such cases, there may be a positive result for more than one type of virus and care must be taken when interpreting the results.

    Can An Autoimmune Hepatitis Diagnosis Be Something Else

    Some symptoms and lab findings found in autoimmune hepatitis are also common in other chronic conditions. Your medical team will work to rule out any other possible causes for your symptoms. Some diseases to rule out include other types of hepatitis, certain viral infections, and other liver conditions such as cirrhosis and fatty liver disease.

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    How Could I Have Gotten The Virus Without Knowing It

    The virus is passed through contact with stool from an infected person, typically via contaminated food or water. If a person infected with HAV does not wash their hands after using the bathroom, that person can pass the virus by handling raw fruits and vegetables consumed by others, or directly through person to person contact. You can also contract the virus by eating raw or improperly cooked seafood that had fed in contaminated waters. You may also contract the virus through sexual contact with someone who is infected but asymptomatic.

    Identifying Patterns Of Risky Behavior

    CDC Vital Signs: Dramatic Increases in Hepatitis C

    Screening is an opportunity to draw attention to the clients behaviors that put him or her at risk for contracting :

    • Ask for the clients perception of his or her risk for having contracted : How likely do you think it is that the test will be positive?
    • Listen for and identify behaviors that put the client at risk for contracting , B, and C and HIV, especially unprotected sex and sharing injection drug paraphernalia.
    • Assess the clients alcohol consumption.

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    What Does A Positive Smooth Muscle Antibody Test Mean

    Normally, very little to no ASMAs are found in your blood.

    If your blood test shows a high amount of ASMAs, you may have autoimmune hepatitis. It means that your immune system is attacking healthy cells in your liver using autoantibodies.

    âYour doctor will order a biopsy to confirm the diagnosis of autoimmune hepatitis.

    When Should I Get Hepatitis B Testing

    Using hepatitis B tests to screen for HBV is recommended for certain groups that are at an increased risk of infection. Groups that may benefit from hepatitis B screening include:

    • Pregnant people
    • People born in parts of the world where hepatitis B is more common, including Africa, Asia, Eastern Europe, South America, and parts of the Middle East
    • People who didnt receive a hepatitis B vaccine
    • HIV-positive people
    • Pain in the joints or abdomen
    • Loss of appetite, nausea, or vomiting
    • Yellowish skin and eyes

    Using hepatitis B testing to assess immunity to HBV may be used before or after vaccination. Pre-vaccination testing is not always needed but may be performed if there is a chance that a patient has previously been infected with HBV or has already been vaccinated. Post-vaccination testing is used in certain groups of people who are at an especially elevated risk for HBV infection, including infants born to mothers with a hepatitis B infection.

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    What Abnormal Results Mean

    There are different tests for hepatitis A and hepatitis B. A positive test is considered abnormal.

    A positive test may mean:

    • You currently have a hepatitis infection. This may be a new infection , or it may be an infection that you have had for a long time .
    • You had a hepatitis infection in the past, but you no longer have the infection and can’t spread it to others.

    Hepatitis A test results:

    • IgM anti-hepatitis A virus antibodies, you have had a recent infection with hepatitis A
    • Total antibodies to hepatitis A, you have a previous or past infection, or immunity to hepatitis A

    Hepatitis B test results:

    • Hepatitis B surface antigen : you have an active hepatitis B infection, either recent or chronic
    • Antibody to hepatitis B core antigen , you have a recent or past hepatitis B infection
    • Antibody to HBsAg : you have a past hepatitis B infection or you have received the hepatitis B vaccine and are unlikely to become infected
    • Hepatitis B type e antigen : you have a chronic hepatitis B infection and you are more likely to spread the infection to others through sexual contact or by sharing needles

    Antibodies to hepatitis C can most often be detected 4 to 10 weeks after you get the infection. Other types of tests may be done to decide on treatment and monitor the hepatitis C infection.

    Time For Processing Hcv Ab Test Results

    Medical School – Hepatitis B Testing

    The turnaround time for 3rd-generation EIAs is at least 1 day. Many labs do not perform the tests on site and must send specimens to another lab for processing, which may further increase the turnaround time.

    A point-of-care test is also available. The OraQuick® HCV Rapid Antibody Test is an FDA-approved test that can be performed with a fingerstick . It is also a CLIA-waived test and therefore can be used in clinic offices and outreach facilities. Results are reported as reactive or nonreactive within 20 minutes. Just as for the standard HCV Ab test done in the lab, a positive OraQuick® test must be confirmed by an HCV RNA test. The sensitivity and specificity of the test is similar to that of the laboratory-based assays.

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    To Order Both Hav Igg And Igm:

    Complete the Hepatitis Serology checkboxes adjacent to Section 3 of the .

    Tests that will be performed if clinical symptoms pertaining to acute viral hepatitis are provided: Hepatitis A IgG & Hepatitis A IgM

    Test that will be performed if no clinical symptoms are provided: Hepatitis A IgG

    Note: A reason for testing must be indicated in section 5 “Reason for Test” of the , in addition to completion of the “Hepatitis Serology” Box.

    Clinical information must pertain to recent Hepatitis A Virus exposure, outbreak investigation, contact with known case etc.

    Questions You Should Be Able To Answer About Your Liver Health

    Keep in mind, though, that elevated liver enzymes don’t always indicate liver problems due to hepatitis C. Liver enzymes can go up and down because of various factors. For this reason, someone diagnosed with chronic hepatitis can have a liver enzyme level thats normal or near normal, whereas a person who doesnt have hepatitis C can have elevated enzymes for other reasons.

    Certain medications can cause elevated enzymes, such as acetaminophen and drugs used to control cholesterol. A larger waist circumference can also cause elevated liver enzymes if theres excess fat stored in your liver cells.

    Your doctor may even recommend an ultrasound or another imaging test to check your liver for cirrhosis. A biopsy, which removes a sample of tissue from your liver, can confirm cirrhosis. Your doctor can also schedule a biopsy and imaging test to check for liver cancer.

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    How Is The Test Used

    An acute viral hepatitis panel is used to help detect and/or diagnose acute liver infection and inflammation that is due to one of the three most common hepatitis viruses: hepatitis A virus , hepatitis B virus , or hepatitis C virus .

    There are several causes of hepatitis and the accompanying symptoms, so these tests are used to determine if symptoms are due to a current infection with a virus and to identify which virus in particular is causing the disease. These tests may also help determine if someone has been exposed to one of the viruses even before symptoms develop.

    An acute viral hepatitis panel typically consists of the following tests:

  • Hepatitis A antibody, IgMâthese antibodies typically develop early in a hepatitis A infection, about 2 to 3 weeks after a person is first infected and persist for about 2 to 6 months. A positive hepatitis A IgM test is usually considered diagnostic for acute hepatitis A in a person with signs and symptoms.
  • Hepatitis B testing
  • Hepatitis B core antibody, IgMâthis is the first antibody produced in response to a hepatitis B infection and, when detected, may indicate an acute infection. It may also be present in people with chronic hepatitis B when flares of disease activity occur.
  • Hepatitis B surface Agâthis is a protein present on the surface of the hepatitis B virus. It is the earliest indicator of an acute infection but may also be present in the blood of people with chronic hepatitis B.
  • What Other Laboratory Tests Might My Healthcare Practitioner Perform

    G. Diagnosis

    In addition to tests for hepatitis viruses, your healthcare practitioner may choose to run tests to see how your liver has been affected. These may include a liver panel or individual liver enzyme tests such as aspartate aminotransferase , alanine aminotransferase , and alkaline phosphatase . Your healthcare practitioner may also run a test for bilirubin and a prothrombin time , which can help determine if there is liver damage.

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    How To Test For Hep C

    If you suspect you may have a hepatitis C infection, taking a hepatitis C test can be a great start in addition to consulting your healthcare provider for next steps. Our at-home hepatitis C test is a convenient way to check for this virus. To check for hepatitis C with this test, you just collect a small sample of blood with a simple finger prick, then ship the sample to a lab for testing with the prepaid shipping label that comes with the kit.

    If your results from our hepatitis C test indicate that you do have this viral infection, share your results with your healthcare provider right away so you can take the next steps they recommend.

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