Friday, December 2, 2022

How Can Someone Get Hepatitis C

Giving Blood And Organ Donation

How is Hepatitis C spread? — Mayo Clinic

If you have hepatitis C, you cannot give blood.

In a recent research study in America kidneys from people with hepatitis C who had died were transplanted into patients who did not have the virus.

All of the recipients subsequently contracted hepatitis C but were treated for it and all were cured. The benefit of receiving a kidney outweighed the risk of not clearing hepatitis C.

How Is Hepatitis C Spread

Hepatitis C spreads through contact with the blood of someone who has HCV. This contact may be through:

  • Sharing drug needles or other drug materials with someone who has HCV. In the United States, this is the most common way that people get hepatitis C.
  • Getting an accidental stick with a needle that was used on someone who has HCV. This can happen in health care settings.
  • Being tattooed or pierced with tools or inks that were not sterilized after being used on someone who has HCV
  • Having contact with the blood or open sores of someone who has HCV
  • Sharing personal care items that may have come in contact with another person’s blood, such as razors or toothbrushes
  • Being born to a mother with HCV
  • Having unprotected sex with someone who has HCV

Before 1992, hepatitis C was also commonly spread through blood transfusions and organ transplants. Since then, there has been routine testing of the U.S. blood supply for HCV. It is now very rare for someone to get HCV this way.

Hepatitis C Symptoms & Treatment

FAST FACTS:

  • Hepatitis C is found in infected blood. It is also rarely found in semen and vaginal fluids.

  • Hepatitis C is mainly passed on through using contaminated needles and syringes or sharing other items with infected blood on them. It can also be passed on through unprotected sex, especially when blood is present.

  • You can prevent hepatitis C by never sharing needles and syringes, practising safer sex, and avoiding unlicensed tattoo parlours and acupuncturists.

  • Hepatitis C will often not have any noticeable symptoms, but a simple blood test carried out by a healthcare professional will show whether you have hepatitis C.

  • In the early stages, some peoples bodies can clear a hepatitis C infection on their own, others may develop chronic hepatitis C and will need to take antiviral treatment to cure the infection.

  • Without treatment, chronic hepatitis C can lead to permanent liver damage.

Hepatitis C is part of a group of hepatitis viruses that attack the liver.

Its mainly passed on through contaminated needles, either from injecting drugs or from needle stick injuries in healthcare settings. It can also be transmitted sexually, especially during anal sex or other types of sex that may involve blood.

Some groups are more at risk of getting hepatitis C than others, including people who use drugs, people in prisons, men who have sex with men, health workers and people living with HIV.

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Can A Transplant Cure Hepatitis C

If you develop chronic hepatitis C and it leads to liver cancer or liver failure, you may need a liver transplant. Hepatitis C is one of the most common reasons for a liver transplant.

A liver transplant removes a damaged liver and replaces it with a healthy one. However, theres a high likelihood that the hepatitis C virus will be transmitted to the new liver in time.

The virus lives in your bloodstream, not just your liver. Removing your liver wont cure the disease.

If you have active hepatitis C, continued damage to your new liver is very likely, especially if hepatitis C remains untreated.

Gay Men Chemsex And Hep C

CDC Vital Signs: Dramatic Increases in Hepatitis C

Group sex and chemsex parties provide the perfect storm for hepatitis C transmission.

If youre taking drugs and having sex for longer your inhibitions are likely to be lowered and the delicate skin lining the anus can be damaged, causing bleeding. Hep C is very infectious and is easily passed on through group sex it can even be passed from one person to another on fingers.

The virus spreads through anal sex and fisting when condoms and gloves are not used. Its also passed on during group sex, on objects such as sex toys, fingers, enema equipment, condoms, latex gloves or in contaminated lubricant.

The iBase guide Safer HCV sex for gay men is a useful reminder of what to avoid and what steps to take to protect yourself.

The Hepatitis C Trust has some useful information about transmission. They also provide an advocacy service for men who have sex with men who have been re-infected with hepatitis C after previously being successfully treated.

Also Check: Hepatitis C Symptoms Mayo Clinic

How Can I Prevent Passing On The Virus To Others

If you have a current hepatitis C infection you should:

  • Not share any injecting equipment such as needles, syringes, etc.
  • Not donate blood or carry a donor card.
  • Not share razors, toothbrushes or anything else that may possibly be contaminated with blood.
  • Use condoms when having sex. The risk of passing on HCV during sex is small but risk is reduced even further by using condoms.
  • Advise anybody with whom you have had sex or shared needles to have tests as well, to check they do not have HCV.

There is currently no vaccine available to protect against hepatitis C.

Sharing Of Household Items

Very low risk

It is very rare for hep C to be transmitted through the use of household items, but it is best not to share razor blades, tweezers and toothbrushes. Brushing your teeth can cause bleeding gums, so sharing your toothbrush can cause blood-to-blood contact. Razor blades and tweezers can also possibly lead to blood-to-blood contact between people .

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What Is Viral Hepatitis

Viral hepatitis is an inflammation of your liver that’s caused by a virus. There are five types, but the most common ones in the U.S. are hepatitis A, B, and C. All of them affect your liver. Some of the symptoms are similar, but they have different treatments.

Hepatitis A. This type won’t lead to long-term infection and usually doesn’t cause any complications. Your liver heals in about 2 months. You can prevent it with a vaccine.

Hepatitis B. Most people recover from this type in 6 months. Sometimes, though, it causes a long-term infection that could lead to liver damage. Once you’ve got the disease, you can spread the virus even if you don’t feel sick. You won’t catch it if you get a vaccine.

Hepatitis C. Many people with this type don’t have symptoms. About 80% of those with the disease get a long-term infection. It can sometimes lead to cirrhosis, a scarring of the liver. There’s no vaccine to prevent it.

Can Hepatitis C Be Prevented

How Does Hepatitis C Hurt Your Liver? | WebMD

There is no vaccine for hepatitis C. But you can help protect yourself from hepatitis C infection by:

  • Not sharing drug needles or other drug materials
  • Wearing gloves if you have to touch another person’s blood or open sores
  • Making sure your tattoo artist or body piercer uses sterile tools and unopened ink
  • Not sharing personal items such toothbrushes, razors, or nail clippers
  • Using a latex condom during sex. If your or your partner is allergic to latex, you can use polyurethane condoms.

NIH: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases

Also Check: How Does Hepatitis A Spread

How Can I Protect Myself And Others

  • Never share injecting drug equipment or things that may have blood on them such as toothbrushes and razors. Also avoid sharing straws or rolled up banknotes if snorting drugs with others.
  • Use condoms for anal and vaginal sex and latex gloves for fisting.
  • During group sex, cover anything which goes from one partner to another with a fresh condom or fresh latex glove for each new person it enters. Clean objects with warm water and anti-bacterial soap before using on a new partner.
  • Dont share enema equipment or pots of lubricant.

If you have hepatitis C you may want to tell a partner and explain that youre infectious. They can then decide if they’re happy to take any risks and whether they want to take precautions. That way they cannot accuse you of infecting them without them knowing that the risk was there.

How Can I Cover Medication Costs

New therapies called direct-acting antivirals are effective and can achieve cures of over 90%. Because these new therapies are very new, they remain very expensive. As such, drug coverage from both government and private companies may require that your liver disease has progressed to a certain stage before they are willing to cover the cost of these drugs.

Talk with your healthcare provider about financial support that may be available.

Below are useful resources when looking for financial assistance:Private health insurance or drug plansIf you have private health insurance or a drug plan at work, you may be able to have the medication paid through your plan. Please consult your private health insurance or drug plan provider to see if your drug is covered.

Publicly funded plansEach provincial and territorial government offers a drug benefit plan for eligible groups. Some are income-based universal programs. Most have specific programs for population groups that may require more enhanced coverage for high drug costs. These groups include seniors, recipients of social assistance, and individuals with diseases or conditions that are associated with high drug costs. For more details, please contact your provincial or territorial health care ministry, or click on the appropriate link below.

Yukon

Available Patient Assistance Programs for Hepatitis C treatment Holkira Pak Maviret

MerckCare Hepatitis C Program 1 872-5773 Zepatier

Also Check: Signs And Symptoms Of Hepatitis B Virus Infection

What Is The Health Outlook For Someone With Hepatitis C

Thanks to DAAT therapy, the outlook for someone with hepatitis C is excellent. DAAT therapy cures 95% of people with hepatitis C. Even those who already have liver disease can have improved liver function after treatment. For those with advanced liver disease, DAAT treatment can lower the risk of getting liver cancer.

DAAT treatment is also available for children 3 years and older who have hepatitis C. For children younger than 3, a liver specialist will help determine when treatment should start.

How Do You Get Hepatitis B

Know The ABC

The virus that causes hepatitis B lives in blood, semen, and other fluids in your body. You usually get it by having sex with someone who’s infected.

You also can get it if you:

  • Have direct contact with infected blood or the body fluids of someone who’s got the disease, for instance by using the same razor or toothbrush as someone who has hepatitis B, or touching the open sores of somebody who’s infected.
  • If you’re pregnant and you’ve got hepatitis B, you could give the disease to your unborn child. If you deliver a baby who’s got it, they need to get treatment in the first 12 hours after birth.

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Ways You Wont Spread Hepatitis C

There are some ways in which you wont spread HCV, though. Go ahead and let your significant other have a bite of your sandwich or dessert. According to the CDC, hepatitis C isnt spread by sharing silverware or drinking glasses, or through water or foods. Showing affection by holding hands, hugging, or kissing is also safe, Lee says. And although germs from sneezing or coughing might cause you to get a cold, they wont give you hepatitis C.

How It’s Passed On

The hepatitis C virus is found in blood and is passed on when infected blood gets into another persons bloodstream. Its seen as unlikely that it can be passed on in semen.

Most people get the virus from sharing drug injecting equipment such as needles, syringes, water cups, tourniquets, spoons, filters and swabs. Sharing things like straws and banknotes that are used for snorting drugs might pass the virus on, as can sharing pipes.

In the UK piercing and tattooing should be safe but unsterilised equipment abroad can spread the virus.

An infected person risks infecting others if they share anything that might have blood on it like a toothbrush or razor. A pregnant woman with the virus can give it to her baby during pregnancy or childbirth.

Blood transfusions in the UK are safe as blood is screened.

You can also potentially get it from medical or dental treatment abroad in countries where hepatitis C is common and infection control is inadequate.

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What Are The Signs & Symptoms Of Hcv Infection

Most people with HCV have no symptoms. But even without symptoms, they can develop health problems decades later and can still pass the disease to others.

If symptoms do happen, it’s usually when the disease is very advanced. Symptoms can be similar to those of hepatitis A and hepatitis B and include:

  • jaundice
  • fever
  • darker than usual urine or gray-colored stools

Sometimes The Infection Goes Away On Its Own

What is Hepatitis C and Why Should You Care?

Acute hepatitis is C is a short-term illness that occurs within the first six months after being exposed to the virus. Like the human papillomavirus , early acute hepatitis C can clear on its own without treatment this happens about 25% of the time.

However, it’s more likely that the virus will remain in your body longer than six months, at which point it’s considered to be chronic hepatitis C infection.

“Being younger or a woman tends to be a factor in whether the virus clears on its own, and genetics may play a role,” Reau says. “But we can’t determine with certainty which people are certain to clear the infection and which aren’t.”

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What Are The Treatments For Hepatitis C

Treatment for hepatitis C is with antiviral medicines. They can cure the disease in most cases.

If you have acute hepatitis C, your health care provider may wait to see if your infection becomes chronic before starting treatment.

If your hepatitis C causes cirrhosis, you should see a doctor who specializes in liver diseases. Treatments for health problems related to cirrhosis include medicines, surgery, and other medical procedures. If your hepatitis C leads to liver failure or liver cancer, you may need a liver transplant.

How Can You Prevent The Spread Of Hepatitis C

Now that you know how you get hepatitis C, you can take steps to protect yourself from the virus. For instance:

  • Avoid sharing needles or other paraphernalia related to intravenous drugs.
  • Wear gloves if youre a health care worker or otherwise exposed to needles or potentially infected blood.
  • Use barrier methodsaka condomsoutside of sexually monogamous relationships.
  • Dont share toothbrushes or other dental equipment, nail clippers, or shaving tools.
  • If youre getting a tattoo or piercing, make sure the artist or piercer uses sterile ink and needles.

If you have the hepatitis C virus, you can prevent passing it along to others by following those same steps, in addition to:

  • Covering any open sores or wounds.
  • Telling all your health and dental care providers you have the virus.
  • Avoiding donating blood.

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How Can I Cope With My Feelings About Having Hepatitis C

Coping with hepatitis C isnt easy. You may feel sad, scared or angry, or you may not believe you have the disease. These feelings are normal, but they shouldnt keep you from living your daily life. If they do or if they last a long time you may be suffering from depression. People who are depressed have most or all of the following symptoms nearly every day, all day, for 2 weeks or longer:

  • Feeling sad, hopeless and having frequent crying spells
  • Losing interest or pleasure in things you used to enjoy
  • Feeling guilty, helpless or worthless
  • Thinking about death or suicide
  • Sleeping too much, or having problems sleeping
  • Loss of appetite and unintended weight loss or gain
  • Feeling very tired all the time
  • Having trouble paying attention and making decisions
  • Having aches and pains that dont get better with treatment
  • Feeling restless, irritated and easily annoyed

Contact your healthcare provider if you notice any of these symptoms. Your healthcare provider can help by recommending a support group or a therapist, and/or by prescribing a medicine for you to take.

Breastfeeding Extremely Low Risk

Why Isn

Extremely low risk

Breastfeeding does not spread hep C, and the virus is not transmitted through breast milk. However, because hep C is spread by blood, if your nipples are cracked and bleeding, you should stop nursing temporarily on that breast and consult a midwife. Mothers are strongly encouraged to breastfeed whether or not they have hep C .

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How Do People Get Hepatitis C

Medically reviewed by

Hepatitis C infection happens most often in people who:

  • Are being treated in a health care setting where needles or other medical tools are not sterilized in the right way

Much less often, hepatitis C can happen:

  • When a child is born to a mother who has hepatitis C
  • From having sexual contact with a person who has hepatitis C
  • From sharing items like a toothbrush or a razor with a person who has hepatitis C

In the past, hepatitis C would happen from:

  • Medical procedures involving donated blood
  • Before this time, the screening process for blood diseases within donated blood was not well controlled.
  • Medical equipment contaminated with hepatitis C, before strict infection control was required
  • Who Is At Risk For Hepatitis C

    HCV is more common in adults than in kids. Rates of HCV infection in the United States almost tripled from 2010 to 2015, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention .

    Most of these new infections are in young adults who inject drugs. Many of them went from abusing prescription drugs to injecting heroin, which often is cheaper and easier to get. Health experts worry that more newborns will be at risk for HCV because so many young women are part of this group.

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