Saturday, January 28, 2023

What Causes Hepatitis B Disease

What Laboratory Tests Are Available For Hepatitis B

Hepatitis B: Explained

Tests are available to detect the types of antigens used to identify the hepatitis B virus. The tests determine if the virus is present in the body tissue or blood. The amount of each type of antigen present indicates how advanced the disease is and how infective the individual has become.

Other tests are available to detect the body’s reaction to the viral infection or the body’s reaction to vaccination against the virus. These tests work by measuring the number of antibodies present in the blood.

Who Is At Risk For Hepatitis B

Anyone can get hepatitis B, but the risk is higher in:

  • Infants born to mothers who have hepatitis B
  • People who inject drugs or share needles, syringes, and other types of drug equipment
  • Sex partners of people with hepatitis B, especially if they are not using latex or polyurethane condoms during sex
  • Men who have sex with men
  • People who live with someone who has hepatitis B, especially if they use the same razor, toothbrush, or nail clippers
  • Health care and public-safety workers who are exposed to blood on the job
  • Yellowish eyes and skin, called jaundice

If you have chronic hepatitis B, you may not have symptoms until complications develop. This could be decades after you were infected. For this reason, hepatitis B screening is important, even if you have no symptoms. Screening means that you are tested for a disease even though you don’t have symptoms. If you are at high risk, your health care provider may suggest screening.

How Does Viral Hepatitis Affect Pregnancy

Hepatitis B and C can cause problems during pregnancy and can be passed to your baby. The risk of passing the virus to your baby is higher with hepatitis B than C.

Research shows that pregnant women with hepatitis B or C may have a higher risk for certain pregnancy complications:2

  • Gestational diabetes
  • Low-birth-weight baby
  • Premature birth . Premature birth is the leading cause of infant death and raises the risk of health and developmental problems at birth and later in life.

Talk to your doctor if you think you may be pregnant or plan to become pregnant. Some antiviral medicines that treat hepatitis C, such as ribavirin, can cause serious birth defects if taken during pregnancy.

Although hepatitis is most commonly the result of an infection, other factors can cause the condition.

Alcohol and other toxins

Excess alcohol consumption can cause liver damage and inflammation. This may also be referred to as alcoholic hepatitis.

The alcohol directly injures the cells of your liver. Over time, it can cause permanent damage and lead to thickening or scarring of liver tissue and liver failure.

Other toxic causes of hepatitis include misuse of medications and exposure to toxins.

Autoimmune system response

In some cases, the immune system mistakes the liver as harmful and attacks it. This causes ongoing inflammation that can range from mild to severe, often hindering liver function. Itâs three times more common in women than in men.

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Approaches By Virus Life Cycle Stage

consist of a and sometimes a few stored in a capsule made of , and sometimes covered with a layer . Viruses cannot reproduce on their own and instead propagate by subjugating a host cell to produce copies of themselves, thus producing the next generation.

Researchers working on such “” strategies for developing antivirals have tried to attack viruses at every stage of their life cycles. Some species of mushrooms have been found to contain multiple antiviral chemicals with similar synergistic effects.Compounds isolated from fruiting bodies and filtrates of various mushrooms have broad-spectrum antiviral activities, but successful production and availability of such compounds as frontline antiviral is a long way away. Viral life cycles vary in their precise details depending on the type of virus, but they all share a general pattern:

  • Attachment to a host cell.
  • Release of viral genes and possibly enzymes into the host cell.
  • Replication of viral components using host-cell machinery.
  • Assembly of viral components into complete viral particles.
  • Release of viral particles to infect new host cells.
  • Before cell entry

    This stage of viral replication can be inhibited in two ways:

  • Using agents which mimic the virus-associated protein and bind to the cellular receptors. This may include VAP , natural of the receptor and anti-receptor antibodies.
  • Uncoating inhibitor

    Inhibitors of uncoating have also been investigated.

    During viral synthesis

    Reverse transcription
    Integrase
    Transcription

    What Are Clinical Trials For Hepatitis B

    What is Hepatitis B

    Clinical trialsand other types of clinical studiesare part of medical research and involve people like you. When you volunteer to take part in a clinical study, you help doctors and researchers learn more about disease and improve health care for people in the future.

    Researchers are studying many aspects of hepatitis B, such as

    • progression of hepatitis B and long-term outcomes
    • new treatments for hepatitis B
    • prevention of reactivated or worsening hepatitis B in people receiving cancer treatment

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    How Can I Get Free Or Low

    The hepatitis A and hepatitis B vaccines are covered under most insurance plans.

    • If you have insurance, check with your insurance provider to find out whats included in your plan.
    • Medicare Part B covers hepatitis B vaccines for people at risk.

    Find a clinic near you where you can get vaccines for hepatitis A and B.

    Hepatitis A B And C: What Is The Difference

    A, B, C D and E.

    Aside from the letters associated with it, how much do you know about hepatitis? Whats the difference between the types? And if you get a vaccination for hepatitis, which are you protected from?

    We spoke with Moises Ilan Nevah, MD, a transplant hepatologist/gastroenterologist and medical director of the Liver Transplant Program at Banner University Medical Center Phoenix, to help better understand the similarities and differences between the various types of hepatitis, who is at risk and when to get vaccinated.

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    Reduce Your Chance Of Infection

    You can reduce your chance of hepatitis B infection by

    • not sharing drug needles or other drug materials
    • wearing gloves if you have to touch another persons blood or open sores
    • making sure your tattoo artist or body piercer uses sterile tools
    • not sharing personal items, such as toothbrushes, razors, or nail clippers
    • using a latex or polyurethane condom during sex

    What Causes Hepatitis In General

    Viral hepatitis (A, B, C, D, E) – causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment & pathology
    • Virus and other infections
    • Autoimmune response
    • Metabolic disorders
    • An acute illness caused by the hepatitis A virus .
    • Transmitted through food and water contaminated by feces of infected people.
  • An acute or chronic infection caused by the hepatitis B virus .
  • Transmitted through contact with infectious body fluids. It can be sexually transmitted or transmitted through infected needles.
  • An acute or chronic illness caused by the hepatitis C virus .
  • Transmitted through contact with infectious body fluids. It can be sexually transmitted or transmitted through infected needles.
  • Caused by the hepatitis D virus .
  • Transmitted through contact with infected blood.
  • It is rare, but very serious.
  • It only occurs in the presence of hepatitis B. HDV cannot multiply in the absence of HBV.
  • An acute disease caused by the hepatitis E virus .
  • Like HAV, it is transmitted through food and water contaminated by the feces of infected people.
  • Recommended Reading: How Do I Know If I Have Hepatitis C

    Treatment: Chronic Hepatitis B

    The goal of treating chronic hepatitis B is to control the virus and keep it from damaging the liver. This begins with regular monitoring for signs of liver disease. Antiviral medications may help, but not everyone can take them or needs to be on medication. Be sure to discuss the risks and benefits of antiviral therapy with your doctor.

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    What Are The Symptoms Of Hepatitis B

    People who develop Hep B may face different symptoms that can last for weeks. Some common symptoms are mild fever, stomach pain, loss of appetite, achy joints or muscles, brown urine, constipation, mild fever, and more. Jaundice or yellowing of eyes whites can also be a symptom of hep B. If you have such symptoms, then consult a doctor for evaluation.

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    Viral Hepatitis And Fatty Liver Disease: What’s The Common Denominator

    Widespread ignorance about the importance of the liver and how to protect it from harm obstructs our path to disease elimination.

    Millions of Americans live with viral hepatitis, a dangerous infectious disease that causes liver damage and a myriad of related health complications yet more than half of these individuals are completely unaware of their infection status. Hepatitis B and C, in particular, are mainly responsible for the rising rates of liver cancer in the United States. Similarly, Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease prevalence has also increased. NAFLD is, in fact, the leading indicator for liver transplantation and a leading cause of liver cancer.

    It seems that we can’t get ahead of these liver-related diseases. Why is that?

    A significant deterrent has been that the public is uninformed about the importance of their liver, how hepatitis viruses and excess sugar and fats can cause irreparable liver damage, or even what cirrhosis is. This massive ignorance coupled with decades of stigma surrounding liver disease has been detrimental to progress.

    Hepatitis Cases In Children

    What is Hepatitis B? â Icon Health Screening

    The number of cases of hepatitis in children has increased recently. Public health doctors and scientists are looking into what could be causing this.

    See a GP if your child has symptoms of hepatitis, including yellowing of the eyes and skin .

    Good hygiene, including supervising hand washing in young children, can help to prevent infections that can cause hepatitis.

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    What Is The Outlook For People With Hepatitis B

    The outlook for people with HBV is better now than ever before. You are certainly able to live a full life and help yourself stay healthy. You should make sure to have regular check-ups with a healthcare provider who is qualified to treat hepatitis B, possibly a liver doctor.

    Make sure you are vaccinated against hepatitis A. Check with your healthcare provider or pharmacist before taking other medications or over-the-counter products, including supplements and natural products. These could interfere with your medication or damage your liver. For instance, taking acetaminophen in large doses may harm your liver.

    Follow the usual guidelines for living a healthy life:

    • Eat nutritious foods, choosing from a variety of vegetables, fruits and healthy proteins. It is said that cruciferous vegetables are especially good at protecting the liver.
    • Exercise regularly.
    • Dont smoke and dont drink. Both tobacco and alcohol are bad for your liver.
    • Do things that help you cope with stress, like journaling, talking with others, meditating and doing yoga.
    • Avoid inhaling toxic fumes.

    American Association For The Study Of Liver Diseases Recommendations

    The 2016 AASLD guidelines for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B as well as select recommendations from the 2018 AASLD guidance update on the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of chronic hepatitis B are outlined below and in the Guidelines section.

    Adults with immune-active chronic hepatitis B infection

    Administer antiviral therapy to lower the risk of morbidity and mortality associated with chronic hepatitis B infection.

    The recommended initial agent for adults is PEG-IFN, entecavir, or tenofovir.

    Adults with immune-tolerant chronic hepatitis B infection

    Antiviral therapy is not recommended.

    The AASLD suggests obtaining ALT levels at least every 6 months to monitor for potential transition to immune-active or -inactive chronic hepatitis B.

    For select patients older than 40 years, the AASLD suggests antiviral therapy in the setting of normal ALT levels, elevated HBV DNA , and significant necroinflammation or fibrosis on liver biopsy specimens.

    Adults with HBeAg-positive immune-active chronic hepatitis B who seroconvert to anti-HBe on nucleoside analog therapy

    After a period of treatment consolidation , consider discontinuing NA therapy in noncirrhotic HBeAg-positive adults who seroconvert to anti-HBe while on NA treatment. If antiviral therapy is stopped, monitor the patient every 3 months for a minimum of 1 year for recurrent viremia, ALT flares, seroreversion, and clinical decompensation.

    Adults with HBeAg-negative immune-active chronic HBV infection

    Inpatient care

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    What Are The Types Of Hepatitis

    Speaking about the types of hepatitis, a person may suffer from acute or chronic hepatitis infection. You may not need to take any medications to treat acute HBV infection. However, if the infection lasts for more than 6 months, then you are suffering from chronic HBV. It can be fatal. A hepatitis B test will help to know the type of HBV infection you have. With proper treatment, you can slow down the infections progress and lower the chance of liver damage.

    Who Should Get The Hepatitis B Vaccine

    Hepatitis B symptoms, treatment and prevention

    All newborn babies should get vaccinated. You should also get the shot if you:

    • Come in contact with infected blood or body fluids of friends or family members
    • Use needles to take recreational drugs
    • Have sex with more than one person
    • Are a health care worker
    • Work in a day-care center, school, or jail

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    What Are The Treatments For Hepatitis B

    If you think you may have been exposed to hepatitis B, its important to talk with a healthcare professional as soon as possible.

    A doctor or other healthcare professional may administer the first dose of the hepatitis B vaccine and a shot of hepatitis B immunoglobulin. This is a combination of antibodies that provide short-term protection against the virus.

    Though both can be given up to a week after exposure, theyre most effective at preventing infection if administered within 48 hours.

    If you receive a diagnosis of acute hepatitis B, a doctor may refer you to a specialist. They may advise you to get regular blood tests to ensure you dont develop chronic hepatitis.

    Many people with acute hepatitis B dont experience serious symptoms. But if you do, it can help to:

    • get plenty of rest
    • take over-the-counter pain mediation, like naproxen, when needed

    Other lifestyle changes may also be needed to manage your infection, such as:

    • eating a nutritious, balanced diet
    • avoiding substances that can harm your liver, such as:
    • certain herbal supplements or medications, including acetaminophen

    If blood tests show you still have an active infection after 6 months, your doctor may recommend further treatment, including medications to help control the virus and prevent liver damage.

    What Are The Symptoms Of Hbv

    Hepatitis B virus can cause an acute illness with symptoms that last several weeks, including yellowing of the skin and eyes , dark urine, extreme fatigue, nausea, vomiting and abdominal pain. Most of the time HBV infection is ASYMPTOMATIC.

    Joint pains, muscle aches, rash, and jaundice may occur in some people. People can take several months to a year to recover from the symptoms. These people may not know that they are infected, and may therefore not go and see a doctor. People with chronic hepatitis B infection may later develop serious problems like liver cancer and liver failure. These people may not know that they are infected, and may therefore not go and see a doctor. People with chronic hepatitis B infection may later develop serious problems like liver cancer and liver failure.

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    Hepatitis B In The United States

    In the United States, about 862,000 people have chronic hepatitis B.6 Asian Americans and African Americans have higher rates of chronic hepatitis B than other U.S. racial and ethnic groups.10 Researchers estimate that about half of the people living with chronic hepatitis B in the United States are Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders.11 Chronic hepatitis B is also more common among people born in other countries than among those born in the United States.7

    The hepatitis B vaccine has been available since the 1980s and, in 1991, doctors began recommending that children in the United States receive the hepatitis B vaccine. The annual rate of acute hepatitis B infections went down 88.5 percent between 1982 and 2015.12 In 2017, the annual number of hepatitis B infections rose in some states.13 Experts think the rise was related to increases in injection drug use. Injection drug use increases the risk of hepatitis B infection.

    Acute Hepatitis B Symptoms

    Hepatitis B Symptoms, Treatment, Causes, What is Hepatitis B

    There are three phases of acute hepatitis B infection, and symptoms may differ depending on the stage. Early in the disease, called the prodromal phase, symptoms may include:

    • Dark urine and light stool color

    During the icteric phase:

    • Jaundice develops
    • Anorexia, nausea and vomiting may worsen
    • Irritated skin lesions may develop
    • Other symptoms may subside

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    Hepatitis B During Pregnancy

    If a woman with HBV becomes pregnant, they may transmit the virus to their baby. Women should inform the doctor who delivers their baby that they have HBV.

    The infant should receive an HBV vaccine and HBIG with 1224 hours of birth. This significantly reduces the risk that they will develop HBV.

    The HBV vaccine is safe to receive while pregnant.

    People with a high risk of HBV include:

    • the infants of mothers with HBV
    • the sexual partners of people with HBV
    • people who engage in sexual intercourse without contraception and those who have multiple sexual partners
    • men who have sex with men
    • people who inject illicit drugs
    • those who share a household with a person who has a chronic HBV infection
    • healthcare and public safety workers who are at risk of occupational exposure to blood or contaminated bodily fluids
    • people receiving hemodialysis, which is a type of kidney treatment
    • people taking medications that suppress the immune system, such as chemotherapy for cancer

    People can prevent HBV infection by:

    • wearing appropriate protective equipment when working in healthcare settings or dealing with medical emergencies
    • not sharing needles
    • following safe sexual practices
    • cleaning any blood spills or dried blood with gloved hands using a 1:10 dilution of one part household bleach to 10 parts water

    A vaccine against HBV has been available since 1982.

    People who should receive this vaccine include:

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