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Where To Get Hepatitis B Vaccine In Nigeria

What Is Hepatitis B And How Do You Contract It

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Hepatitis B is a virus that spreads through blood and body fluids causing an infection of the liver.

In the UK hepatitis B is fairly uncommon but those with a higher risk include people from or travelling to high risk countries, people who inject illicit drugs and people who have unprotected sex with multiple sexual partners.

The virus is present in the blood and body fluid of someone with the infection. Here are the ways it can spread:

  • From mother to child during pregnancy particularly in countries where the infection is common
  • Child to child in countries where the infection is common
  • Having unprotected sex with someone who is infected
  • Sharing drug equipment such as needles, spoons and filters
  • Tattoos, body piercings, medical or dental treatment where equipment isnt sterilised
  • Sharing toothbrushes or razors with someone whos infected

Infants Born To Mothers Who Have Hepatitis B: Hepatitis B Vaccine Schedules

*Please note that the first dose should be given as soon as possible. Additional doses require minimum time intervals between doses in order for the vaccine to be effective.

Protecting Your Baby

Infants born to women with hepatitis B must receive accurate doses of hepatitis B vaccine and hepatitis B immune globulin to ensure complete protection. In order to protect these infants, medications should be given immediately after birth in the delivery room or within the first 12-24 hours of life*.

* See Testing and Treatment During Pregnancy section for details. Please note that testing of all pregnant women for hepatitis B is a global recommendation.

3-Dose Vaccine Series for Infants

The World Health Organization recommends that infants born to hepatitis B positive mothers receive the first dose of the hepatitis B vaccine within 24 hours of birth, and ideally a dose of hepatitis B immunoglobulin . These shots must be followed by the additional vaccine doses given on the recommended schedule. In the U.S., infants should follow a 1 month and 6-month schedule for the additional two doses.

4-Dose Combination Vaccine Series for Infants

Us Children And Adult Hepatitis B Vaccine Schedules

*Please note that the first dose should be given as soon as possible. Additional doses require minimum time intervals between doses in order for the vaccine to be effective.

3-Dose Vaccine Series for Children and Adults

The hepatitis B vaccine is an injection that is generally given in the arm as a three-dose series on a 0, 1, and 6-month schedule. Alternative schedules may be considered, noting that a third dose at 6 months, meeting minimum intervals between doses, is needed for maximum, long-term protection. Completing the hepatitis B vaccine series, preferably beginning at birth, will ensure protection against hepatitis B, hepatitis delta and lower the lifetime risk of liver cancer. Greater than 90% of babies and up to 50% of young children who are not vaccinated and are infected with hepatitis B will have lifelong infection, which makes the birth dose essential to their protection.

There are four, 3-dose vaccine brands approved in the U.S.

  • PreHevbrio PreHevbrio is only approved for adults age 18 and over.

2-Dose Vaccine Series

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What Are The Side Effects Of Hepatitis B Vaccine In Nigeria

Personally, I didnt experience any adverse effects during vaccination. Though, a lot of authors have talked about the side effects of hepatitis B vaccine to include allergy, pain at the injection side, diarrhoea, headache, fever, and sore throat but the benefits of the vaccine far outweighs these concerns.

Knowledge Of Hepatitis B Vaccine Among Operating Room Personnel In Nigeria And Their Vaccination Status

Amuria Locals Charged Money For Hepatitis B Vaccine ...

Emeka B. Kesieme

1Department of Surgery, Irrua Specialist Teaching Hospital, PMB 8, Irrua, Nigeria

2Department of Community Medicine, Imo State University Teaching Hospital, PMB 8, Orlu, Nigeria

3Department of Surgery, University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital, PMB 1414, Maiduguri, Nigeria

4Department of Surgery, University College Hospital, PMB 5017, Ibadan, Nigeria

Academic Editor:


1. Introduction

The most serious occupational health hazard faced by health care workers worldwide is exposure to blood-borne pathogens. These blood-borne pathogens are mainly Hepatitis B, C, and HIV infection.

Hepatitis B is by far the most dreaded with over 2 billion people affected worldwide and 350 million people suffering from chronic hepatitis B virus infection . It is more infectious than the other blood-borne pathogens and estimates of the risk of a single needlestick injury indicate a risk of 300 hepatitis B virus infection , 30 hepatitis C virus infection and 3 HIV infection , per 1,000 respective exposures .

In the United States, the incidence of HBV infection among all health care workers is estimated to be 3.5 to 4.6 infections per 1000 workers, which is 2- to 4-times the level for the general population . The disease is thus more likely in health workers in Nigeria, a country with high prevalence of the disease.

To the best of our knowledge, no similar study has been carried out among operating room personnel in Nigeria.

2. Methodology

2.1. Study Design

3. Results

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What Is Hepatitis B

Hepatitis B is a contagious liver infection with potentially severe symptoms. It can lead to lifelong illness if it becomes chronic.

The two most common forms of hepatitis B are:

  • Acute Hepatitis B A short-term illness occurring 6 months after exposure. It can lead to chronic hepatitis infection.
  • Chronic Hepatitis B A long-term illness that affects the liver. Nearly 250 million people worldwide have chronic infection.

If I Already Have Hepatitis B Can The Vaccine Treat It

No. The hepatitis vaccine prevents hepatitis, but doesnt cure it if you already have it. If you have hepatitis B, there are other treatment options.

However, if you recently got exposed to the hepatitis B virus and you havent had the vaccine yet, tell your doctor right away. The vaccine and possibly other treatment can reduce your chances of getting hepatitis B if you get it within 2 weeks after you came into contact with the virus. The sooner you seek care after being exposed to hepatitis B, the better, so try to get there right away.

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Keep Away From Animals

Most animals avoid people, but they may attack if they feel threatened, are protecting their young or territory, or if they are injured or ill. Animal bites and scratches can lead to serious diseases such as rabies.

Follow these tips to protect yourself:

  • Do not touch or feed any animals you do not know.
  • Do not allow animals to lick open wounds, and do not get animal saliva in your eyes or mouth.
  • Avoid rodents and their urine and feces.
  • Traveling pets should be supervised closely and not allowed to come in contact with local animals.
  • If you wake in a room with a bat, seek medical care immediately. Bat bites may be hard to see.

All animals can pose a threat, but be extra careful around dogs, bats, monkeys, sea animals such as jellyfish, and snakes. If you are bitten or scratched by an animal, immediately:

  • Wash the wound with soap and clean water.
  • Go to a doctor right away.
  • Tell your doctor about your injury when you get back to the United States.

Consider buying medical evacuation insurance. Rabies is a deadly disease that must be treated quickly, and treatment may not be available in some countries.

Subgroup Analysis Of Hbv Prevalence

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The results of the sub-group analysis of the pooled prevalence, including assessment of differences between sub-groups, are presented in Table . Geographically, the North West Zone had the highest prevalence while the South East Zone had the lowest prevalence . In the studies providing age-specific estimates, the prevalence was higher in adults than in children . Studies conducted on blood donors accounted for the highest prevalence followed by other general population and HIV positive individuals . Subgroup analysis by publication year revealed an apparent downward trend in prevalence from 2010 to 2014 to 20152019 group . Further, studies conducted in urban areas showed lower prevalence than studies conducted in rural areas . In reference to the methods of diagnosis, studies conducted using PCR accounted for the least prevalence estimate . A relatively large degree of heterogeneity was identified across most estimates. Setting and region were significantly associated with the pooled prevalence heterogeneity .

Table 2 Sub-group analysis of the pooled prevalence of hepatitis B infection in Nigeria

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Important Information About Vaccine And Hepatitis B Immunoglobulin Shot Administration

Where available, the hepatitis B birth-dose and HBIG should be administered within 24 hours of birth in order to prevent the transmission of hepatitis B from mother to child. It is very important that the shots be given in opposite limbs, to ensure the highest effectiveness. Please see chart above for more information.

Is Hepatitis B Curable

Theres no cure for hepatitis B. The good news is it usually goes away by itself in 4 to 8 weeks. More than 9 out of 10 adults who get hepatitis B totally recover.

However, about 1 in 20 people who get hepatitis B as adults become carriers, which means they have a chronic hepatitis B infection. Carriers are more likely to pass hepatitis B to other people. Most carriers are contagious meaning they can spread hepatitis B for the rest of their lives.

Hepatitis B infections that last a long time may lead to serious liver diseases like cirrhosis and liver cancer. About 1 in 5 people with chronic hepatitis B die from it. There are medicines that can help treat chronic hepatitis B infections.

Most babies who get hepatitis B during birth develop chronic infection, unless they get treated right away. But treatments are almost always effective if your baby gets them quickly. Thats why its important for pregnant people to get tested for hepatitis B.

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Where Does Hepatitis B Occur

Hepatitis B is found across the globe. From developed countries to those still developing, the disease can spread relatively easily. Some regions, like Africa, have an increased risk. While other more developed areas have a slightly lower risk due to increased use of vaccinations.

No matter the destination, vaccination is recommended.

Meeting The 2030 Elimination Targets

Hepatitis B

In February 2020, heads of states and governments from African Union member states, including the Nigerian government, pledged to eliminate hepatitis as a public health threat by 2030. Despite the challenges of COVID-19, with renewed political commitments, clearly defined targets, and financial support, Nigeria can prevent hundreds of thousands of unnecessary deaths.

To be on course to the elimination targets, Nigeria must improve access to affordable diagnosis and care for its population. People living with HBV should not have to wait for care until their infection becomes chronic and liver disease reaches an advanced stage. HBV diagnostics need to be affordable and accessible now, so people can be linked to care in a timely manner.

Ensuring high uptake of the vaccine at birth for babies is crucial to prevent new infections. In Nigeria, the current coverage for HBV vaccination is 57% and offers room for improvement. Other measures, such as robust pre-conception screening, and the implementation of test and treat interventions at low cost for infected couples, are important to prevent mother-to-child transmission of infection.

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International Hepatitis B Vaccine Schedules

*Please note that the first dose should be given as soon as possible. Additional doses require minimum time intervals between doses in order for the vaccine to be effective.

The hepatitis B vaccine is an injection that is generally given in the arm and as a three-dose series. The World Health Organization recommends a 0, 1, and 6-month vaccine schedule, though schedules may vary based on a countrys national immunization program. Completing the hepatitis B vaccine series, preferably beginning at birth, will ensure protection against hepatitis B, hepatitis delta and lower the lifetime risk of liver cancer. Greater than 90% of babies and up to 50% of young children who are not vaccinated and are infected with hepatitis B will have lifelong infection, which makes the birth dose essential to their protection. Please note that the vaccine brand name, manufacturer and associated schedules for adults, children and infants may be unique to different countries, though there is a list of WHO prequalified vaccines.

3-Dose Vaccine Series for Infants

The World Health Organization recommends all infants receive the first dose of the hepatitis B vaccine within 24 hours of birth and to complete the vaccine series with additional shots at 1 month and 6 months of age. Beginning the hepatitis B vaccine at birth will ensure protection against hepatitis B for life.

3-Dose Vaccine Series for Children and Adults

4-Dose Combination Vaccine Series for Infants

Additional Resource Links:

Icipants In The Study

Figure shows the respondents flow chart. The first stage showed that 3132 out of 3422 HCWs completed the questionnaires correctly given a response rate of 91.2%. In the second stage, 893 out of 3132 knew their HBV status. Third stage showed that 872 out of 893 participants that knew their HBV status were HBV negative, while 21 were HBV positive. The fourth stage showed the participants who have received hepatitis B vaccination and the doses received.

Fig. 1

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Ological Quality Of Included Studies

The studies scored median of 6 using JBIs nine items of risk bias . Five studies had a quality score of 8, 38/47 studies scored between 5 and 7, and 4/47 studies had a quality score of 4. All studies used valid diagnostic methods for HBV detection and the prevalence was measured in a standardised way. An almost perfect inter-rater agreement of k=84.9% p< 0.01 was observed between the two reviewers .

How Safe Is Nigeria

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The Government of Canada has issued a travel warning in Nigeria, urging travellers not to visit the country.

There is a high presence of militant and terrorist groups in Nigeria, including Boko Haram. This heightens the risk of experiencing a terrorist attack, kidnappings, and political violence.

Other jihadist groups can be found in Borno, Kaduna, Bauchi, Yobe, and Kano.

You should avoid drinking alcohol in public.

Travellers should be extra careful around places of worship, hotels, markets and shopping malls.

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What Do I Need To Know About Having Hepatitis B

If you have chronic hepatitis B, getting the right medical care can help you stay healthy. Taking good care of your liver is important. Talk with your doctor before you take any prescription medication, over-the-counter drugs, vitamins, or nutritional supplements to make sure they wont hurt your liver. You should also stay away from alcohol, because drinking can damage your liver.

Strengths And Limitations Of This Study

  • This is the first study to estimate hepatitis B vaccination coverage of public safety workers such as the Federal Road Safety Corps in Nigeria, despite these workers being occupationally exposed to hepatitis B virus.

  • The participating unit commands were randomly selected and the study had a high response rate, hence minimising selection bias and improving the generalisability of the research findings.

  • Retrospective studies are prone to recall bias this was mitigated in this study by omitting inconsistent data suggestive of guessing at the analysis stage.

  • Researcher bias was mitigated by the use of a pre-validated data collection instrument and by predetermining analytical strategies before data collection while confounding was minimised through multivariate analysis.

  • Missing data made sample size in multivariate analysis less than the pre-research estimate, although the proportion analysed constituted a good representation of the entire study population.

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Study Strengths And Limitations

This was a descriptive cross sectional survey which limits its suitability for demonstrating temporal relationships between explanatory and outcome variables. It nevertheless showed independent associations useful in understanding predictors of full dose HBVc in this study population which will inform relevant public health interventions. Recall bias is another limitation of this retrospective study design as participants may not have remembered accurately their vaccination history, thereby introducing information bias. This was mitigated at the analysis stage by omitting inconsistent data suggestive of guessing. Simple random sampling using the staff register would have yielded a more representative sample disproportionate distribution of sociodemographic variables such as sex and cadre in the study population made this infeasible.

Vaccine For Hepatitis B

Hepatitis B is preventable with safe and effective vaccines

Hepatitis B Vaccine

It takes only a few shots to protect yourself and your loved ones against hepatitis B for a lifetime.

The hepatitis B vaccine is a safe and effective vaccine that is recommended for all infants at birth and for children up to 18 years. The hepatitis B vaccine is also recommended for adults living with diabetes and those at high risk for infection due to their jobs, lifestyle, living situations, or country of birth. Since everyone is at some risk, all adults should seriously consider getting the hepatitis B vaccine for a lifetime protection against a preventable chronic liver disease.

The hepatitis B vaccine is also known as the first anti-cancer vaccine because it prevents hepatitis B, the leading cause of liver cancer worldwide.

You cannot get hepatitis B from the vaccine. All hepatitis B vaccines that have been used since 1986 are made synthetically meaning the hepatitis B vaccines do not contain any blood products. Learn more.

If you have a current HBV infection or have recovered from a past HBV infection, the hepatitis B vaccine series will not benefit you or clear the virus. However, the vaccine can provide a lifetime of protection for loved ones who do not have hepatitis B and get the vaccine as soon as possible. Testing is the only way to know if you or your loved ones have a current infection or have recovered from a past infection.

Hepatitis B Vaccine Recommendations

Three-Dose Hepatitis B Vaccine Schedule

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