Wednesday, September 21, 2022

Causes Of Hepatitis B And C

What Are Hepatitis B And C

Hepatitis A, B, C, D, E Nursing Symptoms, Treatment, Causes, NCLEX

Hepatitis B and C are diseases caused by the hepatitis B and C viruses.

Hepatitis B and C stop the liver from working properly. Both Hepatitis B and C begin as acute infections , but in some people, the virus remains in the body, resulting in chronic disease and longterm liver problems. Some people with chronic disease develop liver cancer, others might need a liver transplant.

In New Zealand, about 100,000 people are living with hepatitis B and about 50,000 are living with hepatitis C.

How Does Hepatitis B Spread

Persons infected with hepatitis B can pass the virus to others through blood or body fluids. In the U.S., the most common way of becoming infected is through unprotected sex, although sharing an infected person’s needles to inject illicit drugs also is quite common. Less common ways are by contaminated razors or toothbrushes. As previously mentioned, hepatitis B is passed from infected mother to infant in over 90% of cases.

How Common Is Hepatitis B

Hepatitis B is fairly common in Africa and the western Pacific region. Throughout the world, there are about 292 million people who are infected with chronic hepatitis B. In the U.S., the figure exceeds 2 million people.

The number of infections had been falling in the U.S., but fewer vaccinations among adults combined with the onset of the opioid crisis and injected drug usage has resulted in the numbers rising again. Infected women can pass the infection on to their babies. Children who are infected before age 5 are more likely to have chronic infection than those infected later in life.

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What Treatments Are Available For Chronic Hepatitis B If Medications Dont Work

If you have advanced hepatitis B, you might also become a candidate for a liver transplant. This path does not always result in a cure because the virus continues in your bloodstream after a transplant. To prevent being infected again after your transplant, you may be prescribed hepatitis B immunoglobulin with an antiviral agent.

What Is Involved In A Liver Transplant

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A liver transplant is considered necessary when the liver is damaged and cannot function or in some cases of liver cancer. Your liver is very important. It is responsible for many functions related to making sure that your body stays healthy and is able to digest foods.

You may be eligible for a transplant if you have chronic hepatitis B infection or some of the diseases that may result from it, including liver cancer and cirrhosis. You will have to complete testing and be evaluated before being approved for a transplant. It is likely that you will be placed on a waiting list while an appropriate organ is found.

Donated livers come from two types of donors: living and deceased. Because the liver can regenerate, it is possible to use part of a liver for transplant. The remaining sections in both the donor and the receiver will grow into livers of adequate size.

People who get liver transplants must take anti-rejection drugs for the rest of their lives. These drugs make you more susceptible to infection. However, liver transplants have become more successful over time and continue to improve.

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What Is Chronic Viral Hepatitis

Patients infected with HBV and HCV can develop chronic hepatitis. Doctors define chronic hepatitis as hepatitis that lasts longer than 6 months. In chronic hepatitis, the viruses live and multiply in the liver for years or decades. For unknown reasons, these patients’ immune systems are unable to eradicate the viruses, and the viruses cause chronic inflammation of the liver. Chronic hepatitis can lead to the development over time of extensive liver scarring , liver failure, and liver cancer. Liver failure from chronic hepatitis C infection is the most common reason for liver transplantation in the U.S. Patients with chronic viral hepatitis can transmit the infection to others with blood or body fluids as well as infrequently by transmission from mother to newborn.

Are Hepatitis B And C Preventable

Hepatitis B is a vaccine-preventable disease.

There is a three-shot vaccination series that is very effective in protecting people against the virus if theyre exposed. In the United States, all newborns are vaccinated for hepatitis B and all pregnant women are screened for hepatitis B during pregnancy. This way, mothers infected with hepatitis B can take protective steps to decrease the risk of transmission of the virus to the child.

There is no vaccine for hepatitis C.

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What Happens With Hepatitis B

A majority of adults who contract hepatitis B have none to mild symptoms, and then the virus resolves spontaneously however, about 5% of people are not able to eliminate the hepatitis B virus and develop chronic infection. If a chronically infected mother gives birth, 90% of the time her infant will be infected and develop chronic hepatitis B, usually for life. This may give rise to serious complications of liver disease later in life such as liver damage, liver failure, and liver cancer.

Clinical Outcomes Of Dual Chronic Hepatitis C And B Are Usually Worse

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Several hospital or community-based studies demonstrated that in patients co-infected with chronic hepatitis C and B, the disease outcomes are usually worse than those with either chronic HCV or HBV infection 1-7. Patients with HCV/HBV co-infection may exhibit various fluctuating virological profiles basically HCV and HBV can alternate their dominance during long-term follow-up. In Italy, a longitudinal follow-up study revealed the patterns and dynamics of virological dominance in these cases 11. Of 103 untreated HBV/HCV coinfected patients, active infection with HBV and HCV was revealed in 24 cases, inactive infection of both viruses was seen in 15 cases, active HBV and inactive HCV infection was seen in 15 cases, and active HCV and inactive HBV infection was found in 49 cases. During one year follow-up, fluctuation of HBV and/or HCV viremia levels was documented in 32 subjects . Based on these findings, careful evaluation of serum HBV DNA and HCV RNA levels is essential before the diagnosis of the viral dominance which will influence the therapeutic strategies in the co-infected patients.

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Who Should Be Vaccinated For Hepatitis B

All newborns should be vaccinated. Also, people who are under 18 who were not vaccinated at birth should also get the vaccine. Other groups who should be sure to be vaccinated are those in certain high-risk categories, such as:

  • People who have more than one sexual partner.
  • Men who have sex with men.
  • Adults with diabetes.
  • Sexual partners of infected people and people who share households with infected individuals.
  • People who are exposed to blood and other bodily fluids, including healthcare and public safety professionals, and people who work in jails and other places taking care of people who cant take care of themselves.

Hepatitis C And The Hep C Virus

Hepatitis C is a liver infection that can lead to serious liver damage. Its caused by the hepatitis C virus. About 2.4 million people in the U.S. have the disease. But it causes few symptoms, so most of them don’t know. The virus spreads through an infected persons blood or body fluids.

There are many forms of the hepatitis C virus, or HCV. The most common in the U.S. is type 1. None is more serious than any other, but they respond differently to treatment.

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Hiv And Hbv Coinfection

About 2% of people with HIV in the United States are coinfected with HBV both infections have similar routes of transmission. People with HIV are at greater risk for complications and death from HBV infection. All people with HIV are recommended to be tested for HBV, and if susceptible, are further recommended to receive the hepatitis B vaccination or, if chronically infected, evaluated for treatment to prevent liver disease and liver cancer. For more information about HIV and HBV coinfection, visit HIV.gov√Ęs pages about hepatitis B and HIV coinfection.

How Long Does It Last

Hepatitis B virus information

Hepatitis A can last from a few weeks to several months.

Hepatitis B can range from a mild illness, lasting a few weeks, to a serious, life-long condition. More than 90% of unimmunized infants who get infected develop a chronic infection, but 6%10% of older children and adults who get infected develop chronic hepatitis B.

Hepatitis C can range from a mild illness, lasting a few weeks, to a serious, life-long infection. Most people who get infected with the hepatitis C virus develop chronic hepatitis C.

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Willowbrook State School Experiments

A New York University researcher named Saul Krugman continued this research into the 1950s and 1960s, most infamously with his experiments on mentally disabled children at the Willowbrook State School in New York, a crowded urban facility where hepatitis infections were highly endemic to the student body. Krugman injected students with gamma globulin, a type of antibody. After observing the temporary protection against infection this antibody provided, he then tried injected live hepatitis virus into students. Krugman also controversially took feces from infected students, blended it into milkshakes, and fed it to newly admitted children.

Hepatitis B And C Prevention Screening And Treatment

Hepatitis B is a potentially life-threatening liver infection caused by the hepatitis B virus . It is a major global health problem. It can cause chronic infection and puts people at high risk of death from cirrhosis and liver cancer. Hepatitis C is a liver disease caused by the hepatitis C virus : the virus can cause both acute and chronic hepatitis, ranging in severity from a mild illness lasting a few weeks to a serious, lifelong illness.

A vaccine against hepatitis B has been available since 1982. The vaccine is 95% effective in preventing infection and the development of chronic disease and liver cancer due to hepatitis B. Catch-up vaccination of older individuals and vaccination of groups of higher risk of infection have been implemented in many LAC countries. Groups at higher risk of infection include people who inject drugs, men who have sex with men, sexual partners of people living with HIV, prisoners, and others such as recipients of blood products and health-care workers.

There is currently no vaccine for HCV. Hence, there is an even greater need to intensify current efforts to screen for and prevent HCV transmission. WHO recommends a screening test for those considered at high risk of infection followed by another test for those who screen positive, to establish whether they have chronic hepatitis C infection.

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How Does It Affect The Body

The incubation period for hepatitis B can range from . However, not everyone who has acute hepatitis B will experience symptoms.

About 95 percent of adults completely recover from hepatitis B. However, hepatitis B can also become chronic.

The risk of chronic hepatitis B is greatest in those who were exposed to HBV as young children. Many people with chronic hepatitis B dont have symptoms until significant liver damage has occurred.

In some people whove had hepatitis B, the virus can reactivate later on. When this happens, symptoms and liver damage may occur. People with a weakened immune system and those being treated for hepatitis C are at a higher risk for HBV reactivation.

Viral Hepatitis Definition And Overview

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Hepatitis means inflammation of the liver. Many illnesses and conditions can cause inflammation of the liver, for example, drugs, alcohol, chemicals, and autoimmune diseases. Many viruses, for example, the virus causing mononucleosis and the cytomegalovirus, can inflame the liver. Most viruses, however, do not attack primarily the liver the liver is just one of several organs that the viruses affect. When most doctors speak of viral hepatitis, they are using the definition that means hepatitis caused by a few specific viruses that primarily attack the liver and are responsible for about half of all human hepatitis. There are several hepatitis viruses they have been named types A, B, C, D, E, F , and G. As our knowledge of hepatitis viruses grows, it is likely that this alphabetical list will become longer. The most common hepatitis viruses are types A, B, and C. Reference to the hepatitis viruses often occurs in an abbreviated form The focus of this article is on these viruses that cause the majority of human viral hepatitis.

Hepatitis viruses replicate primarily in the liver cells. This can cause the liver to be unable to perform its functions. The following is a list of major functions of the liver:

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What Is The Outlook For People With Hepatitis B

The outlook for people with HBV is better now than ever before. You are certainly able to live a full life and help yourself stay healthy. You should make sure to have regular check-ups with a healthcare provider who is qualified to treat hepatitis B, possibly a liver doctor.

Make sure you are vaccinated against hepatitis A. Check with your healthcare provider or pharmacist before taking other medications or over-the-counter products, including supplements and natural products. These could interfere with your medication or damage your liver. For instance, taking acetaminophen in large doses may harm your liver.

Follow the usual guidelines for living a healthy life:

  • Eat nutritious foods, choosing from a variety of vegetables, fruits and healthy proteins. It is said that cruciferous vegetables are especially good at protecting the liver.
  • Exercise regularly.
  • Dont smoke and dont drink. Both tobacco and alcohol are bad for your liver.
  • Do things that help you cope with stress, like journaling, talking with others, meditating and doing yoga.
  • Avoid inhaling toxic fumes.

What Do Doctors Do

A doctor who thinks someone may have hepatitis may ask questions like these:

  • Has the person been around anyone who works in health care or childcare?
  • Did the person stick himself or herself with a dirty needle or get a tattoo with a dirty needle?
  • Did the person have contact with the bodily fluids of someone who has hepatitis?
  • Did the person have a blood transfusion as a baby?
  • Have any of the person’s family members had hepatitis?
  • Could the person have eaten food that was contaminated with hepatitis A?

The doctor can order a blood test to see if someone has hepatitis and which type, then help the person get the right care.

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Can Hepatitis B Be Prevented

The hepatitis B vaccine is one of the best ways to control the disease. It is safe, effective and widely available. More than one billion doses of the vaccine have been administered globally since 1982. The World Health Organization says the vaccine is 98-100% effective in guarding against the virus. Newborns should be vaccinated.

The disease has also been more widely prevented thanks to:

  • Widespread global adoption of safe blood-handling practices. WHO says 97% of the blood donated around the world is now screened for HBV and other diseases.
  • Safer blood injection practices, using clean needles.
  • Safe-sex practices.

You can help prevent hepatitis B infections by:

  • Practicing safe sex .
  • Never sharing personal care items like toothbrushes or razors.
  • Getting tattoos or piercings only at shops that employ safe hygiene practices.
  • Not sharing needles to use drugs.
  • Asking your healthcare provider for blood tests to determine if you have HBV or if you are immune.

Can Hepatitis A Be Prevented

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The following will help keep people safe from hepatitis A:

  • regular hand washing, especially after going to the bathroom or diapering a baby, and before eating
  • washing fruits and vegetables before eating them
  • not eating raw shellfish, such as raw oysters
  • getting the vaccine for hep A

Getting vaccinated helps a person’s body make antibodies that protect against hepatitis infection. The hepatitis A vaccine is now given to all kids when they’re between 1 and 2 years old, and to people who are traveling to countries where the virus could get into the food and water supply.

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Who Should Be Tested

Testing for hepatitis A is not routinely recommended.

CDC recommends hepatitis B testing for:

  • Men who have sex with men
  • People who inject drugs
  • Household and sexual contacts of people with hepatitis B
  • People requiring immunosuppressive therapy
  • People with end-stage renal disease
  • People with hepatitis C
  • People with elevated ALT levels
  • Pregnant women
  • Infants born to HBV-infected mothers

CDC recommends hepatitis C testing for:

  • All adults aged 18 years and older
  • All pregnant women during each pregnancy
  • About 24,900 new infections each year
  • About 22,600 new infections in 2018
  • Estimated 862,000 people living with hepatitis B
  • About 50,300 new infections in 2018
  • Estimated 2.4 million people living with hepatitis C

What Are The Risk Factors

Some people are at an increased risk for contracting HAV, including:

  • people traveling to areas of the world where hepatitis A is common
  • men who have sex with men
  • people who use injectable or noninjectable drugs
  • caregivers for those who have hepatitis A
  • people who are experiencing homelessness
  • people living with a child whos been adopted from an area where hepatitis A is common

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Who Should Be Vaccinated

Children

  • All children aged 1223 months
  • All children and adolescents 218 years of age who have not previously received hepatitis A vaccine

People at increased risk for hepatitis A

  • International travelers
  • Men who have sex with men
  • People who use or inject drugs
  • People with occupational risk for exposure
  • People who anticipate close personal contact with an international adoptee
  • People experiencing homelessness

People at increased risk for severe disease from hepatitis A infection

  • People with chronic liver disease, including hepatitis B and hepatitis C
  • People with HIV

Other people recommended for vaccination

  • Pregnant women at risk for hepatitis A or risk for severe outcome from hepatitis A infection

Any person who requests vaccination

There is no vaccine available for hepatitis C.

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