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How Is Hepatitis C Transmission Mayo Clinic

What Is The Treatment For Hepatitis C

What is Hepatitis C? – Mayo Clinic

Drugs are licensed for treatment of persons with chronic hepatitis C. Combination drug therapy, using pegylated interferon and ribavirin, can get rid of the virus in up to five out of ten of persons with genotype 1, the most common genotype in the U.S. and eight out of ten persons with genotype 2 or 3. It is important to know that not everyone will need treatment. The decision to treat hepatitis C is complex and is best made by a physician experienced in treating the disease.

Mayo Clinic Radiology Tech Pleads Guilty To Spreading Hepatitis C

U.S. Attorneys OfficeMay 11, 2012

  • Middle District of Florida 301-6300

JACKSONVILLE, FLUnited States Attorney Robert E. ONeill announces today that Steven Beumel pleaded guilty to one count of tampering with a consumer product resulting in death, four counts of tampering with a consumer product resulting in serious bodily injury, and five counts of stealing Fentanyl by deception. Beumel faces a maximum penalty of life in federal prison. He was arrested by FBI agents on May 24, 2011 and has remained in custody since his arrest. A sentencing date has not been yet scheduled.

According to court documents, Beumel was a radiology technician at Memorial Hospital from May 1992 through October 2004. He worked as a radiology technician at the Mayo Clinic in Jacksonville from October 2004 through August 2010. Beumel admitted, in court, that he stole syringes of Fentanyl during patients procedures and replaced them with syringes of saline contaminated with hepatitis C. Beumels tampering occurred from 2006 through 2008 at the Mayo Clinics intervetonal radiology unit.

The first patient discovered to have hepatitis C linked to Beumel was a liver transplant patient who received a new liver in September 2006. During a radiology procedure in November 2006, Beumel took this patients Fentanyl and infected him with hepatitis C. The patient battled hepatitis C for almost four years. He died from complications related to hepatitis C, never knowing how he got it.

What To Expect From Your Doctor

Your doctor is likely to ask you some of the following questions. If you’ve thought about your answers beforehand, this part of the visit may go more quickly than usual, leaving you more time to address your concerns.

  • Have you ever had a blood transfusion or an organ transplant? If so, when?
  • Have you ever used self-injected drugs not prescribed by your doctor?
  • Have you ever been diagnosed with hepatitis or jaundice?
  • Does anyone in your family have hepatitis C?
  • Is there a history of liver disease in your family?

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Treatments For Hepatitis C

Hepatitis C can be treated with medicines that stop the virus multiplying inside the body. These usually need to be taken for several weeks.

Until recently, most people would have taken 2 main medicines called pegylated interferon and ribavirin .

Tablet-only treatments are now available.

These new hepatitis C medicines have been found to make treatment more effective, are easier to tolerate, and have shorter treatment courses.

They include sofosbuvir and daclatasvir.

Using the latest medications, more than 90% of people with hepatitis C may be cured.

But it’s important to be aware that you will not be immune to the infection and should take steps to reduce your risk of becoming infected again.

How Is Hepatitis C Treated

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There is no vaccine for hepatitis C. The aim of treatment for hepatitis C is to eradicate the virus from the blood completely, and to protect the liver from developing cirrhosis or liver cancer.

Several medications are available to treat hepatitis C. The hepatitis C virus has six different types or strains . The type and length of treatment may vary. Some hepatitis strains do not respond to antiviral medications as well as others. Some medications may not be suitable for all patients with hepatitis C, because of the side effects or the patients other medical conditions.

These are the medications approved for treatment of hepatitis C infection:

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What Are The Symptoms Of Hepatitis C

Many people with hepatitis C don’t know they are infected. Symptoms typically don’t appear until years later in the course of chronic infection.

Signs of chronic infection include:

  • Bleeding easily
  • Confusion, drowsiness and slurred speech
  • Spiderlike blood vessels on your skin

Because symptoms usually don’t appear until after hepatitis C has caused years of liver damage, the importance of screening is vital.

What Causes Hepatitis C

The hepatitis C virus causes hepatitis C. The hepatitis C virus spreads through contact with an infected persons blood. Contact can occur by

  • sharing drug needles or other drug materials with an infected person
  • getting an accidental stick with a needle that was used on an infected person
  • being tattooed or pierced with tools or inks that were not kept sterilefree from all viruses and other microorganismsand were used on an infected person before they were used on you
  • having contact with the blood or open sores of an infected person
  • using an infected persons razor, toothbrush, or nail clippers
  • being born to a mother with hepatitis C
  • having unprotected sex with an infected person

You cant get hepatitis C from

  • being coughed or sneezed on by an infected person
  • drinking water or eating food
  • hugging an infected person
  • shaking hands or holding hands with an infected person
  • sharing spoons, forks, and other eating utensils
  • sitting next to an infected person

A baby cant get hepatitis C from breast milk.18

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Hiv And Hepatitis C Coinfection

HCV infection is common among people with HIV who also inject drugs. Nearly 75% of people living with HIV who report a history of injection drug use are co-infected with HCV. All people who are diagnosed with HIV are recommended to be tested for HCV at least once. People living with HIV are at greater risk for complications and death from HCV infection. Fortunately, direct acting antivirals that are used to treat HCV work equally well in people with and without HIV infection. For more information about HIV and HCV coinfection, visit the HIV.govs pages about hepatitis C and HIV coinfection.

Who Gets Hepatitis C

Hepatitis C Overview-Mayo Clinic

Persons at highest risk for HCV infection include:

  • persons who ever injected illegal drugs, including those who injected once or a few times many years ago,
  • people who had blood transfusions, blood products or organ donations before June 1992, when sensitive tests for HCV were introduced for blood screening, and
  • persons who received clotting factors made before 1987.

Other persons at risk for hepatitis C include:

  • long-term kidney dialysis patients,
  • health care workers after exposures to the blood of an infected person while on the job,
  • infants born to HCV-infected mothers,
  • people with high-risk sexual behavior, multiple partners and sexually transmitted diseases,
  • people who snort cocaine using shared equipment, and
  • people who have shared toothbrushes, razors and other personal items with a family member who is HCV-infected.

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Can Hepatitis C Be Prevented

There is no vaccine against hepatitis C. The only way to prevent infection is to avoid contact with infected blood.

Hepatitis C cannot be spread by coughing, sneezing or sharing eating utensils. People should not be kept away from school, work, or other social settings because they have hepatitis C.

Here are some precautions that may prevent the spread of hepatitis C:

  • Do not share personal care items, such as toothbrushes or razors, with others.
  • Practice safe sex by using condoms.
  • Dont share needles or syringes.
  • Wear gloves when handling another persons blood.
  • Use sterile equipment for body piercings or tattoos.
  • If you are a healthcare worker, follow recommended safety measures.

People who are at greater risk for contracting hepatitis C should have their blood tested. The Centers for Disease Control recommends that Americans born between 1945 and 1965 be screened at least once for the disease.

Encouraging Others To Get Tested For Hepatitis C

While the odds of passing on the hepatitis C virus are low, you should still tell anyone at risk that you have hepatitis C. You should tell sexual partners, spouses, and family members. Your infection may be difficult to discuss, but anyone at potential risk must know. That way, they can get tested and treated if needed. Read more on why you should get tested for hepatitis C.

Show Sources

Paul Berk, MD, professor of medicine and emeritus chief of the division of liver disease, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York City chairman of the board, American Liver Foundation.

Alan Franciscus, executive director, Hepatitis C Support Project and editor-in-chief of HCV Advocate, San Francisco.

Thelma King Thiel, chair and CEO, Hepatitis Foundation International.

David Thomas, MD, professor of medicine, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore.

Howard J. Worman, MD, associate professor of medicine and anatomy and cell biology, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York City.

The American Gastroenterological Association.

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Related Conditions And Causes Of Hepatitis C

Other types of viral hepatitis include hepatitis A, B, D, and E.

Hepatitis A and E are generally acquired from contaminated food and drink, while hepatitis B and D are transmitted via bodily fluids. You can only get hepatitis D if you already have hepatitis B.

Though viruses are the most common causes of hepatitis, there are also forms of nonviral hepatitis, including:

  • Alcoholic hepatitis caused by prolonged alcohol abuse, per the Mayo Clinic
  • Autoimmune hepatitis, in which the immune system attacks healthy liver cells, per the NIDDK

What Is The Prognosis For A Patient Who Has Toxic Hepatitis

Liver Disease Hep C

The liver has the ability to heal itself by replacing liver cells that are damaged. It may take several weeks or months before any improvement is noted. Many patients make a full recovery. In rare cases, if liver damage is severe or irreversible, the patient may need a liver transplant.

Last reviewed by a Cleveland Clinic medical professional on 08/27/2018.

References

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Treatment And Medication Options For Hepatitis C

The last few years have seen extraordinary advances in the treatment of hepatitis C.

For decades, the standard treatment was a combination antiviral therapy consisting of a pegylated interferon and ribavirin, sometimes called PEG-riba therapy. This involved weekly injections of the pegylated interferons along with twice-daily oral doses of ribavirin. Sometimes interferon was prescribed without ribavirin.

The treatment by interferon lasted six months to a year, and cured only 40 to 50 percent of hepatitis C patients. The painful injections often made patients feel ill with flu-like symptoms.

But now, hepatitis C can be treated with a number of direct-acting antiviral pills that act faster and much more effectively than the older interferon treatment. These combination oral medicines have 90 to 100 percent cure rates, and they work in weeks instead of months. Some of these drugs may be used in combination with ribavirin.

What Are The Symptoms And Consequences Of Infection

Approximately 20 percent of persons exposed to the virus develop symptoms which may include jaundice , fatigue, dark-colored urine, stomach pain, loss of appetite and nausea. After the initial infection, 15-25 percent will recover and 75-85 percent will become chronically infected . Approximately 70 percent of persons chronically infected may develop liver disease, sometimes decades after initial infection.

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What Does The Test Result Mean

Screening and diagnosis

An HCV antibody test is typically reported as “positive” or “negative.”

Results of HCV viral load testing are reported as a number of virus copies present. If no virus is present or if the amount of virus is too low to detect, the result is often reported as “negative” or “not detected.”

Interpretation of the HCV screening and follow-up tests is shown in the table below.

  • In general, if your HCV antibody test is positive, then you have likely been infected at some time with hepatitis C.
  • If the laboratory reports results as weakly positive, most of these results are false positive and some laboratories will retest your sample with another test before reporting it as positive.
  • If your HCV RNA test is positive, then you have a current infection.
  • If no HCV viral RNA is detected, then you either do not have an active infection or the virus is present in very low numbers.
HCV Antibody
Current, active infection

Guiding and monitoring treatment

The result of your HCV genotype test identifies which strain of HCV you have and helps guide the selection and the length of your treatment. Treatments may differ depending on a variety of factors, including HCV genotype and the health of your liver.

An HCV viral load can indicate whether or not treatment is effective.

  • A high or increasing viral load may mean that treatment is not working.
  • A low, decreasing, or undetectable viral load likely means that the treatment is working.

How Can I Protect Myself Against Viral Hepatitis

How is Hepatitis C spread? — Mayo Clinic

There are many ways you can reduce your chances of getting hepatitis:

  • Get the vaccines for hepatitis A and hepatitis B.
  • Use a condom during sex.
  • Dont share needles to take drugs.
  • Practice good personal hygiene such as thorough hand-washing with soap and water.
  • Dont use an infected persons personal items.
  • Take precautions when getting any tattoos or body piercings.
  • Take precaution when traveling to areas of the world with poor sanitation.
  • Drink bottled water when traveling.

It is very important that you take these preventive measures if you participate in risky behaviors. Take preventive steps, too, if you work in places like a nursing homes, dormitories, daycare centers, or restaurants where there you have extended contact with other people and a risk of coming into contact with the disease.

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What Is The Treatment For Hcv

There are several drugs that can be used to treat HCV infection. Most commonly, a combination of drugs is used, and new drugs are under development. Before 2000, chronic HCV was curable in only 10% of cases. Now, treatments for HCV can cure over 90% of people with hepatitis C before late complications occur, but even those with advanced liver disease often respond to treatment. This increases the opportunity to intervene early and prevent HCV-associated deaths.

  • According to the CDC, recent treatment guidelines recommend monitoring people with acute HCV but only considering treatment if the infection persists longer than 6 months.
  • Chronic HCV is usually treated with a combination of drugs.

Hepatitis C Antibody Test

Certain foreign substances that enter your body trigger your immune system to make antibodies. Antibodies are specifically programmed to only target the foreign substance they were made to fight.

If youve ever had a hepatitis C infection, your body will make hepatitis C antibodies as part of its immune response.

Your body only makes these antibodies if you have hepatitis C or had it in the past. So the hepatitis C antibody test can confirm whether you have the virus by testing for these specific antibodies.

It may take 2 to 3 months after exposure for the test to detect antibodies. If needed, your healthcare professional may order an HCV RNA test, which can detect the virus after just 1 or 2 weeks.

If the antibody test is positive, an HCV RNA test can show whether the infection is current.

While people of any gender experience the same hepatitis C symptoms, 2014 research suggested some effects of the virus may differ, depending on the sex you were assigned at birth.

Researchers noted that:

  • women have a higher chance of clearing the virus without treatment
  • liver disease may progress more rapidly in men
  • men have a higher chance of developing cirrhosis

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What Is The Prognosis For Someone Who Has Hepatitis C

You can continue to lead an active life even if you are diagnosed with hepatitis C. People with the disease can work and continue their regular daily activities. However, it is very important that you see a specialist as soon as you are diagnosed with hepatitis C. There are many treatments available that can cure the virus.

To maintain a healthy lifestyle, patients should:

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How Do You Get Hepatitis A

Endotheliitis in Hepatic Allografts

There are a few ways you can get hepatitis A. We already know its typically transmitted by ingesting contaminated food and beverages but how does that happen? For starters, if an individual with the hepatitis A virus prepares your food and you eat the food, you can get the virus.

Further, you can also get it by eating food handled by a place with poor hygiene rules, drinking polluted water, or by coming into contact with hepatitis A-infected fecal matter. Healthline notes, after contracting the virus youll be contagious for 2-weeks before your symptoms even show up. Thankfully, youll stop being contagious about 1-week after your symptoms appear.

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