How Hbv Is Spread
It is possible for the hepatitis B virus to be spread through the bodily fluids of an infected person, which is to say that the virus can be transmitted through the blood, sweat, tears, saliva, semen, vaginal secretions, menstrual blood, and breast milk of an infected person. That said, having hepatitis B does not necessarily mean that you are infectious only some people with HBV are actually contagious.
Opportunities for exposure can include sharing a syringe or getting tattoos or body piercings with infected tools. But it also means that it is possible to be exposed during childbirth as well as sexual contact and intercourse. In fact, nearly two-thirds of acute cases of hepatitis B in the United States are caused by sexual exposure.
Though HBV can be spread through blood, there is generally very little risk of contracting the virus through blood transfusions as most countries began screening for it by 1975.
Viral Infections Detectable Using Oral Fluid Samples
The presence of viable virus in oral fluid specimens is typically demonstrated by screening for viral nucleic acids. Initially, the viral nucleic acid is isolated from the oral fluid sample directly or after centrifugation performed to concentrate cellassociated virus. This is usually followed by PCR amplification of a virusspecific viral nucleic acid fragment or by using a signal amplification technology. For HIV viralload analysis, a frequently used commercial assay, based on viral nucleic acid amplification, is the COBAS® Amplicor HIV1 Monitor Test and an example of a commercial assay based on signal amplification is the VERSANT® HIV1 RNA Assay .
Viral nucleic acidbased methods are more sensitive and considered less contagious because pathogens in the sample are inactivated during the initial viral nucleic acid isolation protocol. However, amplificationbased detection of viral nucleic acid is relatively expensive, requires trained personnel and specific equipment and may not always be proof of an active infection. Ultimately, a cultivation confirmatory test may be needed to obtain a definitive diagnosis. Detection of viral antigens by indirect fluorescent antibody labeling or electron microscopic techniques can be used to detect the presence of intact viral particles. Note that the presence of microscopically intact viral particles in a specific biological fluid/matrix cannot distinguish viable/infectious virus from noninfectious virus.
Can You Get Hepatitis From Saliva
People with chronic Hepatitis C are advised not to share toothbrushes, razors, nail clippers or other personal articles that may have potentially been in contact with their blood.
While there is very little emphasis on saliva as a vehicle of Hepatitis C transmission, under the right circumstances there is some evidence to the contrary:
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How Do You Test For Hepatitis B
A simple blood test carried out by a healthcare professional will show whether you have the virus. You may also be given extra tests to see if your liver is damaged.
If youve got hepatitis B you should be tested for other STIs. Its important that you tell your recent sexual partner/s so they can also get tested and treated. Many people who have hepatitis B dont notice anything wrong, and by telling them you can help to stop the virus being passed on. This can also stop you from getting the infection again.
How Do You Get Or Transmit Hiv
You can only get HIV by coming into direct contact with certain body fluids from a person with HIV who has a detectable viral load. These fluids are:
- Semen and pre-seminal fluid
- Rectal fluids
- Vaginal fluids
- Breast milk
For transmission to occur, the HIV in these fluids must get into the bloodstream of an HIV-negative person through a mucous membrane open cuts or sores or by direct injection.
People with HIV who take HIV medicine daily as prescribed and get and keep an undetectable viral load have effectively no risk of sexually transmitting HIV to their HIV-negative partners.
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Acknowledgments And Financial Support
Samples from one cohort used in this study were collected by the Women’s Interagency HIV Study and its associated Collaborative Study Groups. Kathryn Anastos is acknowledged for providing, selecting and shipping the paired saliva and serum samples from the WIHS cohort collection The Bronx/Manhattan WIHS is funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases and cofunded by the National Cancer Institute. Cheryl Barber is acknowledged for organizing the UO1 collection bank. Collection of the UO1 sample bank, development and validation and of the UCPLF antibody assay was performed, in part, with financial support from the US National Institutes of Health grants UO1DE017855 and R01AI094599.
How Do You Know If You Have Hepatitis B
Signs and symptoms can vary, in particular by the age of the individual. Many individuals may not show symptoms . When symptoms develop, they include fever, joint pain, abdominal pain, fatigue, lack of appetite, nausea, vomiting, dark urine, clay-coloured bowel movements, or jaundice.
Most infections are asymptomatic or mild. Occasionally, people with serious cases of hepatitis B require hospitalization. A very small proportion of these patients develop a critical form of the disease called “fulminant” hepatitis B. This condition results from a sudden breakdown of liver function.
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Infectious Diseases From Mouth Sores
Certain infections causing ulcerations in the mouth can also be spread through kissing. These include cold sores and hand, foot, and mouth disease.
Cold sores are caused by the herpes virus, usually herpes simplex virus-1 . While related, this is different from herpes simplex virus-2 , which is more generally associated with genital herpes.
In contrast to infections spread through the saliva, HSV-1 is spread through open cold sores on the lips or near the mouth. Although the infection is contagious through all stages of a cold sore, the infection is most contagious when the sore is open and leaking fluid.
Hand, foot, and mouth disease, caused by the Coxsackievirus, is another infectious disease that is spread through open sores in the mouth. This is a type of enterovirus, which is a common infection that has multiple strains that we all often are exposed to. This particular infection is common in kids, especially those in daycare or preschool settings.
It spreads by breathing the air after the sick person coughs or sneezes, touching or close contact such as kissing or sharing utensils and cups, through touching a sick person’s feces such as when changing a diaper, or from touching the eyes, nose, or mouth after contact with surfaces that have been contaminated such as doorknobs or toys.
In contrast to cold sores and coxsackievirus blisters, canker sores have no infectious disease origin and cannot be spread through saliva or kissing.
Overview Of Viral Infections
There is no single infectious route used by all viruses. Human viral infection and transmission can occur through multiple paths, such as fecaloral, ingestion of contaminated food and drinks, sexual contact, exposure to infected blood, exchange of saliva or by aerosols generated by sneezing or coughing. Common examples of viruses isolated from the oral cavity include rotavirus, norovirus, HIV, hepatitis C virus, herpes simplex viruses 1 and 2, EpsteinBarr virus and influenza viruses.
As a result of new vaccines and vaccination policies, and also improved medical care and development of novel drugs, worldwide infectious disease fatalities have not increased in the past two decades. However, a significant decrease worldwide can be expected only when the equivalent of western world resources become available in resourcepoor areas. The global approach to eradicate polio is another example, with currently up to 80% of the world’s population living in poliofree regions and a collaborative strategic endgame plan in place to eradicate the last reservoirs of polio . The list of viral infections and viral diseases is extensive and the eradication of one pathogen may provide a niche for another pathogen to become more virulent. Naturally acquired immunity through exposure to the pathogen is likely to provide the best protection against recurring infection.
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Tips For Preventing Transmission Through Sex
If youre sexually active with a person who has hepatitis C, there are ways that you can prevent contracting the virus. Likewise, if you have the virus, you can avoid infecting others.
A few steps you can take to reduce the likelihood of sexual transmission include:
- using a condom during every sexual contact, including oral sex
- learning to use all barrier devices correctly to prevent ripping or tearing during intercourse
- resisting engaging in sexual contact when either partner has an open cut or wound in their genitals
- being tested for STIs and asking sexual partners to be tested too
- practicing sexual monogamy
- using extra precautions if youre HIV-positive, as your chance of contracting HCV is much higher if you have HIV
If you have hepatitis C, you should be honest with all sexual partners about your status. This ensures that youre both taking the proper precautions to prevent transmission.
What Are The Symptoms Of Hepatitis B
Many people with hepatitis B dont have any symptoms. If you do get symptoms you may not notice them until two or three months after infection and they can last up to three months. There are two types of infection acute and chronic.
Acute symptoms include:
- flu-like symptoms, including tiredness, fever and aches and pains
- feeling and/or being sick
- jaundice, meaning your skin and the whites of your eyes turn yellow
- dark urine
- pale faeces .
People who cant fight off acute infection after six months, such as babies, young children and people with a weakened immune system because of HIV, can go on to develop chronic hepatitis B. This is when people are at higher risk of liver failure, liver disease and cancer of the liver.
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Ways Hiv Cannot Be Spread
HIV is not spread by:
- Air or water
- Mosquitoes, ticks or other insects
- Saliva, tears, or sweat that is not mixed with the blood of a person with HIV
- Shaking hands hugging sharing toilets sharing dishes, silverware, or drinking glasses or engaging in closed-mouth or social kissing with a person with HIV
- Drinking fountains
Sharing Toothbrushes Scissors And Razors
There’s a potential risk that hepatitis C may be passed on through sharing items such as toothbrushes, razors and scissors, as they can become contaminated with infected blood.
Equipment used by hairdressers, such as scissors and clippers, can pose a risk if it has been contaminated with infected blood and not sterilised or cleaned between customers. However, most salons operate to high standards, so this risk is low.
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Viral Infection Of The Oral Cavity
Saliva plays a key role in protecting the body from a wide variety of viral infections in addition to its role in controlling the colonization of bacteria in the oral cavity. Many biomolecules in saliva have antiviral activities for specific viruses . Most viral infections occur across mucosal membranes. The mouth and the eye are common sites for viral entry, although viral infections of both the eye and the oral cavity are relatively rare. The mechanism for viral infection control includes many biomolecules, including mucins, antibodies and antiviral proteins that are present in a continuous flow of fluid. It is of interest that many of the same antiviral molecules are present in both saliva and tears and that the hypotonicity of saliva is capable of lysing enveloped viruses.
In the next sections we focus on a number of viral infections detectable in oral fluids, the protective role of saliva and the targets and mechanism involved in the infection pathway .
Hiv Antibody Levels In Blood Vs Saliva
Consecutive flow assay format for detection of human antiHIV1/2 immunoglobulins. Antibodies indicated in red represent human antiHIV immunoglobulins in saliva that can bind to the HIV1/2 antigen Test line. Other IgG antibodies will bind to the flow Control line comprised of antihuman IgG antibodies, located downstream of the Test line. Following a wash flow, the fluorescent reporter that can bind to IgG on the Test and Control lines is flowed. The lateral flow strip is then scanned to record the presence of the reporter.
Figure shows the results obtained with the WIHS and UO1 samples . The assay results are presented as a normalized value, the ratio of the signal measured at the Test line divided by the signal measured at the Flow Control line . Assay cutoff thresholds are determined from the average value obtained with the HIVnegative control samples. The HIVpositive samples uniformly generated a higher assay value than the HIVnegative samples, apparently independently of the salivacollection protocol. Similar patterns comparing saliva and bloodantibody levels are also observed for other infectious diseases .
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What Laboratory Tests Are Available For Hepatitis B
Tests are available to detect the types of antigens used to identify the hepatitis B virus. The tests determine if the virus is present in the body tissue or blood. The amount of each type of antigen present indicates how advanced the disease is and how infective the individual has become.
Other tests are available to detect the body’s reaction to the viral infection or the body’s reaction to vaccination against the virus. These tests work by measuring the number of antibodies present in the blood.
Sharing Toothbrushes + Mouthguards
Ever forget a toothbrush and borrow your partners? The American Dental Association advises against this practice.
Toothbrushes may cause microtrauma. Someone elses saliva can come in contact with tears in your mucous membrane and transmit infection, explains Dr. Benninger.
Sharing toothbrushes is especially risky if you have a weakened immune system.
Have a cold, sore throat or other virus? Keep your toothbrush from touching the family toothpaste and others toothbrushes.
There are also several types of mouthguards those that protect your teeth, mouth and jaw during sports, and help keep you from grinding your teeth at night.
You can get stock mouthguards from a sporting goods store, bite and boil mouthguards from a drugstore, or custom-made mouthguards from your dentist.
Whatever type you use, mouthguards, which are porous, should never be shared. A 2007 study, reported in General Dentistry, found that mouthguards harbor bacteria, yeasts and molds.
Someone elses mouthguard may fit very poorly and cause microtrauma, says Dr. Benninger. This can expose your mucous membranes to infection.
If you wear a mouthguard, be sure to:
- Brush your teeth before inserting it.
- Clean it whenever you brush your teeth.
- Store it in a case.
- Avoid chewing on it.
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Hepatitis And Sex: Frequently Asked Questions
Itâs widely known that viral hepatitis can spread through consuming contaminated food or sharing dirty hypodermic needles. But the liver-destroying disease can also sometimes be spread through sexual contact. Hereâs what you need to know to protect yourself.
How many kinds of viral hepatitis are there?
Can all types be spread by sexual contact?
Hepatitis A spreads via fecal-oral contact, which can occur if there is direct oral-anal contact or contact with fingers or objects that have been in or near the anus of an infected person. If even a microscopic amount of virus-laden feces gets into the mouth, infection potentially can result.
Are men and women equally at risk of getting and spreading hepatitis through sex?
The risk is determined by a personâs behavior, not their gender, although some studies have shown that it is easier for a man to transmit HCV to a woman than vice versa.
Men who have sex with men are 10 to 15 times more likely than the general population to be infected with hepatitis B.
How can I make sure my partner is free of hepatitis before we have sex?
Are some sex acts especially likely to transmit hepatitis?
Any sexual activity that might cause abrasions, cuts, or other trauma is especially risky.
Is it possible to catch hepatitis from kissing?
Can You Get Hepatitis From Kissing
All possibilities must be considered in trying to determine how unknown sources of Hepatitis C infection took place. Although Hepatitis C has been detected in saliva, the necessary conditions render it unlikelybut not impossibleto be transmitted by kissing or through the sharing of a toothbrush.
Before anybody panics about these potential risks, remember that there are conditions accompanying these possible modes of transmission:
- The person with the virus must have a viral load over one million.
- Both parties involved have gum disease.
While experts view the risk of transmitting this disease through saliva as extremely low, it is recommended to maintain good oral hygiene, and toothbrushes be used solely by their owners.
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What Cant Be Transmitted Through Kissing
Heres a quick reference guide to some common STIs that dont pass on through kissing:
- Chlamydia. This bacterial STI is only spread through oral, anal, or genital sex without barrier methods. The bacteria isnt transmitted through saliva.
- Gonorrhea. This is another bacterial STI only passed on through sexual activity, not saliva from kissing.
- Hepatitis. This is a liver condition typically caused by a virus that can be spread through sexual contact or exposure to blood that contains the virus, but not through kissing.
- Pelvic inflammatory disease . This is a bacterial infection spread through sexual contact. The bacteria can cause PID when introduced into the vagina, but not the mouth.
- Trichomoniasis. This bacterial STI is only transmitted through genital sexual activity without barrier methods, not through kissing or even oral or anal sex.
- HIV. This is a viral infection that isnt transmitted through kissing. Saliva cant transmit this virus. Contact with the following fluids can transmit HIV when they contain the virus: