Treatment And Manifestation Of Hepatitis A And B
Hepatitis A has an incubation time of two to six weeks. Hepatitis B only manifests after two to six months. Often patients with hepatitis A and B infection have moderate to no signs of the infection.
In persons who show symptoms, they will get flu-like symptoms, which will occur about three to ten days before symptoms of the liver develop.
Thereafter, the urine will darken, and jaundice may grow. With jaundice, the skin and the whites of a person’s eyes have a yellow hue. The inflamed liver cannot conduct its normal biochemical processes, so a material called bilirubin increases in the body.
Typically, you tend to feel healthy when you have jaundice, even though you keep looking worse.
In hepatitis A the jaundice stage only lasts for about one week. After that, you’ll continue to heal and usually feel like your usual self within a month. You are immune for life after recovering from hepatitis A.
In hepatitis B, the jaundice stage is about two weeks.
Living With Hepatitis B: Your Lifestyle
People living with HIV and hepatitis B can benefit from adopting a healthy lifestyle, including eating a balanced diet. Try to maintain a healthy weight. Being overweight is linked to fatty liver disease which can worsen liver damage.
Since people living with HIV and hepatitis may have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes, your clinic should regularly monitor your blood fats or lipids and blood sugar .
People living with hepatitis B should limit how much alcohol they drink, and those with liver damage should avoid alcohol altogether. Not smoking and cutting down or stopping recreational drug use are also important for overall health.
- Eat a balanced diet including vegetables, fruit and wholegrains.
- Get regular moderate exercise.
Impact Of Hiv On Liver Complication
Impaired immune response to HIV is an increased risk for liver-related disease progression among HBVHIV co-infected patients on HBV active ART regimen.7,28,38 Moreover, the rate of HBVHIV co-infection is increased in HIV patients with impaired immune response compared to individuals with optimum immune restoration.23,32,34,43 The proportion of liver-related mortality is higher among HBVHIV co-infected subjects than HBV mono-infected only.20 Likewise, HIV infection increased the risk of rapid progression of liver-related disease in patients with chronic HBV infection.5,20,25,26 The rate of acquiring chronic HBV infection among the HBVHIV co-infected individuals and those infected with HBV alone is 25% and 4% respectively.42 Unlike the above findings, one prospective study suggested HBVHIV co-infected patients are less likely to develop liver disease progression than HBV mono-infected, particularly among those with non-AIDS stages.17
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Is Hepatitis B Contagious
- semen, or
- any other body fluid from the infected person.
Moreover, hepatitis B can be transferred through sexual contact, sharing needles, or from mother to baby at the time of birth.
Are There Vaccines To Prevent Hepatitis B
Yes, there are. In fact, there are two types of vaccines that are currently available as tools for the prevention of Hepatitis B. The first is the Hepatitis B vaccine, which can protect you and loved ones from the Hepatitis B virus. There is also a combination vaccine that can provide protection from both Hepatitis B and Hepatitis A.
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Who Should Receive Twinrix
According to Canadian medical advice, the vaccine is required for all those seeking to minimize their hepatitis A and B infection risk. Twinrix is used for vaccinating adults, teenagers, youngsters and babies above one year of age.
In specific, vaccination against hepatitis A is suggested for:
- Travellers to countries or areas with a risk for hepatitis A
- The Canadian armed forces, emergency organization, or any other organization likely to be sent at short notice to high-risk areas for hepatitis A
- Zoo workers, veterinarians, and researchers
- People diagnosed with liver disease
Hepatitis B vaccination is prescribed for those who:
- Travellers to countries or areas with a risk for hepatitis B
- Nurses, including medical students
- People in contact with someone with hepatitis B
- People who use medication through injections
- Immigrants and students coming to Canada
Will My Immunization Be Recorded
Your immunization records are registered in a computerized network known as the Immunization Records and Yellow Cards. While this one is specific to Ontario, each province has their own.
They can use information obtained in these databases to:
- Maintain immunization data
- Inform you whether or when you or your family members need an immunization
- Track how well vaccinations perform to prevent vaccine-preventable infections
You can also share your immunization history with health care providers for the provision of social health services to aid with assessment and treatment and monitor the spread of infectious illnesses.
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What Puts Me At Risk For Hepatitis C
Hepatitis C is usually spread when blood from a person infected with the Hepatitis C virus enters the body of someone who is not infected. Today, most people become infected with the Hepatitis C virus by sharing needles or other equipment to inject drugs. Hepatitis C was also commonly spread through blood transfusions and organ transplants prior to the early 1990s. At that time, widespread screening of the blood supply began in the United States, which has helped ensure a safe blood supply.
Quality Assessment Of The Studies
Based on the criteria proposed by Boyle , Fowkes and Fulton , Loney , and Prins , we created a list of criteria related to the adequacy of the sample , data collection , and data analysis and presentation , prevalence by sex and age, prevalence with confidence interval, and satisfactory confidence interval), for a total of 21 items. The items were scored as positive or negative, and the importance of each item was not weighted. Higher scores corresponded to higher-quality studies for our review. This assessment was made independently by two researchers . Disagreements in the evaluation of the quality of the studies were discussed, and a consensus was reached.
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How Do You Get Hepatitis B
Hepatitis B is really contagious. Its transmitted through contact with semen , vaginal fluids, and blood. You can get it from:
having vaginal, anal, or oral sex
sharing toothbrushes and razors
sharing needles for shooting drugs, piercings, tattoos, etc.
getting stuck with a needle that has the Hep B virus on it.
Hepatitis B can also be passed to babies during birth if their mother has it.
Hepatitis B isnt spread through saliva , so you CANT get hepatitis B from sharing food or drinks or using the same fork or spoon. Hepatitis B is also not spread through kissing, hugging, holding hands, coughing, sneezing, or breastfeeding.
Should People With Hiv Get Tested For Hbv
CDC recommends that all people with HIV get tested for HBV. Testing can detect HBV even when a person has no symptoms of the infection.
There are several HBV blood tests. Results of different tests show different things. For example, a positive hepatitis B surface antigen test result shows that a person has acute or chronic HBV and can spread the virus to others.
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Can Hbv Infection Be Prevented
Yes. The best way to prevent HBV is to get the hepatitis B vaccine.
CDC recommends that people with HIV and people who are at risk for HIV get the HBV vaccine . The housemates and sexual partners of people with HBV should get the HBV vaccine, too.
People, including people with HIV, can also take the following steps to reduce their risk of HBV infection:
- Use condoms during sex to reduce the risk of HBV infection and infection with other sexually transmitted diseases, such as gonorrhea and syphilis.
- Do not inject drugs. But if you do, do not share needles, syringes, or other drug injection equipment.
- Do not share toothbrushes, razors, or other personal items that may come in contact with another person’s blood.
- If you get a tattoo or body piercing, make sure the instruments used are sterile.
What Is The Risk Of Coinfection
A coinfection is when someone has two or more infections at the same time. People living with HIV are at risk of developing coinfections such as hepatitis C because HIV weakens the immune system, which leaves the body more vulnerable to other infections and illnesses.
HIV and HCV are also transmitted in similar ways, which means that people who have HIV may be at higher risk of exposure to HCV. In the United States, over a third of people living with HIV also have hepatitis C.
Coinfection of HCV and HIV is higher among those who use injected drugs. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention , HCV coinfection occurs in between 62 and 80 percent of people with HIV who use injected drugs.
A systematic review of 783 studies concluded that people living with HIV were six times more likely to have hepatitis C than people without HIV.
Hepatitis C infections are more serious in people with HIV and can lead to more severe damage of the liver. HIV and HCV coinfections can increase the risk of:
- liver fibrosis and cirrhosis, which is a buildup of scar tissue in the liver
- end-stage liver disease
A person can contract HCV through direct contact with blood or other body fluids that contain the virus. Possible modes of transmission include:
Ways to prevent hepatitis C include:
- not sharing needles
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How Are Hepatitis B And Hepatitis C Spread From Person To Person
Like HIV, the hepatitis B and hepatitis C viruses spread:
- From mother to child: Pregnant women can pass these infections to their infants. HIV-HCV coinfection increases the risk of passing on hepatitis C to the baby.
- Sexually: Both viruses can also be transmitted sexually, but HBV is much more likely than HCV to be transmitted sexually. Sexual transmission of HCV is most likely to happen among gay and bisexual men who are living with HIV.
Treatments For Hepatitis B
Treatment for hepatitis B depends on how long you have been infected for.
If you have been exposed to the virus in the past few days, emergency treatment can help stop you becoming infected.
If you have only had the infection for a few weeks or months , you may only need treatment to relieve your symptoms while your body fights off the infection.
If you have had the infection for more than 6 months , you may be offered treatment with medicines that can keep the virus under control and reduce the risk of liver damage.
Chronic hepatitis B often requires long-term or lifelong treatment and regular monitoring to check for any further liver problems.
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How Does Hbv Spread From Person To Person
HBV is spread through contact with the blood, semen, or other body fluid of a person who has HBV. Among adults in the United States, HBV is spread mainly through sexual contact.
HBV can also spread from person to person in the following ways:
- From contact with the blood or open sores of a person who has HBV
- From an accidental prick or cut from an HBV-contaminated needle or other sharp object
- From a mother who has HBV to her child during childbirth
Looking After Your Liver When You Have Hepatitis B
- Drink plenty of fluids.
- Stick to a healthy diet.
- If your skin is itchy keep cool, avoid hot showers and baths and wear loose clothes.
- Avoid alcohol and recreational drugs.
- Attend all your medical appointments and check-ups.
Ibuprofen or paracetamol can help with stomach pain in the acute phase. Check with a clinician if you’re unsure whether you should take them.
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Hiv And Hbv Coinfection
About 2% of people with HIV in the United States are coinfected with HBV both infections have similar routes of transmission. People with HIV are at greater risk for complications and death from HBV infection. All people with HIV are recommended to be tested for HBV, and if susceptible, are further recommended to receive the hepatitis B vaccination or, if chronically infected, evaluated for treatment to prevent liver disease and liver cancer. For more information about HIV and HBV coinfection, visit HIV.govâs pages about hepatitis B and HIV coinfection.
What Is Chronic Infection With Hepatitis B
Early in the infection, most people will clear the virus without treatment and develop protective immunity. However, in 5-10% of adults hepatitis B continues to reproduce in the body long after infection. These people become chronically infected with hepatitis B, meaning that they continue to be infectious although they may not experience any symptoms at all, or not for many years.
People living with HIV, especially if they have a low CD4 cell count, are less likely to clear the virus naturally than people without HIV.
Without treatment, some people with chronic hepatitis B eventually develop cirrhosis of the liver. About one in 20 people with cirrhosis will go on to develop cancer of the liver.
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Risks For Genital Herpes
Genital herpes is a common STD, and most people with genital herpes infection do not know they have it. You can get genital herpes from an infected partner, even if your partner has no herpes symptoms. There is no cure for herpes, but medication is available to reduce symptoms and make it less likely that you will spread herpes to a sex partner.
Risks for Genital Human Papillomavirus
HPV is so common that most sexually active people get it at some point in their lives. Anyone who is sexually active can get HPV, even if you have had sex with only one person. In most cases, HPV goes away on its own and does not cause any health problems. But when HPV does not go away, it can cause health problems like genital warts and cancer. HPV is passed on through genital contact . You can pass HPV to others without knowing it.
Risks for Chlamydia
Most people who have chlamydia dont know it since the disease often has no symptoms. Chlamydia is the most commonly reported STD in the United States. Sexually active females 25 years old and younger need testing every year. Although it is easy to cure, chlamydia can make it difficult for a woman to get pregnant if left untreated.
Risks for Gonorrhea
Risks for Syphilis
Hepatitis A B And C: Whats The Difference
Hepatitis is often caused by a virus that comes in different strains. The most common strains of hepatitis are hepatitis A, B, and C. They all are contagious, but they differ primarily by the way they are spread.
Table: Differences among hepatitis A, B, and C
Table: Differences among hepatitis A, B, and C
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Impact Of Hbv On Cd4 Cell Recovery And Hiv Disease Progression
Many studies described that HBVHIV co-infected individuals have shown declined or impaired CD4 cell count compared to HIV mono-infected.,29,33 Higher HBV DNA is observed in HBVHIV co-infected subjects with low CD4 cell count or advanced HIV/AIDS stages.10,33 Moreover, many studies suggested that HBVHIV co-infected individuals have shown impaired immune response while on ART follow up compared to HIV infected alone.22,32,34,35 In contrast, one large retrospective study indicated an increased CD4 cell count in HBVHIV co-infected individuals compared to HBV mono-infected on ART between 6 months and 4 years, although it needs further study.10
Viral Suppression And Hbv Reactivation
Many findings indicated that HIVHBV co-infected individuals have shown lower CD4 cell count compared to HIV infected alone.22,32,34,35 However, the roles of low CD4 cell count and HIV viremia in HBVHIV co-infected individuals are unclear with many study findings.32,34,35 But one large prospective study described that HIV viral suppression at 6 months and greater with HBV active ART regimen reduced the risk of liver complications in HBVHIV co-infected individuals after ART administration compared to those with elevated HIV RNA.38 This emphasizes the importance of suppressed HIV RNA for reducing liver-related complication. Likewise, early initiation of ART and optimum HIV viral suppression reduced the risk of developing end stage liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma.38
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How Can You Prevent Hepatitis B And Hepatitis C
Hepatitis B: Vaccination is the best way to prevent all of the ways that hepatitis B is transmitted. People with HIV who do not have active HBV infection should be vaccinated against it. In addition to the 3-dose series of hepatitis B vaccine given over 6 months, as of 2017, there is a 2-dose series given over 1 month.
Hepatitis C: No vaccine exists for HCV and no effective pre- or postexposure prophylaxis is available. The best way to prevent hepatitis C infection is to never inject drugs or to stop injecting drugs by getting into and staying in drug treatment. If you continue injecting drugs, always use new, sterile needles or syringes, and never reuse or share needles or syringes, water, or other drug preparation equipment.
Symptoms And Disease Progression
The majority of adults with hepatitis B have no symptoms, and infection is often only diagnosed by routine blood tests and monitoring the health of the liver. Among people living with HIV, routine liver function monitoring sometimes shows elevated liver enzymes, which can be a sign of liver inflammation due to hepatitis B.
Some people develop symptoms soon after hepatitis B infection, known as the acute phase. These can include the following:
- pain in the upper abdomen or belly
- muscle or joint aches
- feeling generally unwell
- yellowing of the skin and whites of the eyes .
A minority of people may develop severe symptoms during acute hepatitis B infection, and in rare cases it can lead to death.
After the acute stage , many people with chronic hepatitis B have few or no symptoms. Others may experience ongoing symptoms including fatigue and feeling unwell. Even if you have no symptoms, you can still pass on hepatitis B to others.
With or without symptoms, chronic hepatitis B infection can lead to serious liver disease over years or decades, including fibrosis, cirrhosis and liver cancer.
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