Friday, December 2, 2022

Hepatitis A And B Vaccine

Does The Hepatitis B Vaccine Have Side Effects

Canada-wide Hep A and Hep B vaccine shortage

Some children will develop pain or soreness in the local area of the shot, and low-grade fever.

There is one extremely rare, but serious, side effect. About 1 out of every 600,000 doses of the hepatitis B vaccine will cause a severe allergic reaction, called anaphylaxis, with symptoms including swelling of the mouth, difficulty breathing, low blood pressure or shock. Anaphylaxis usually occurs within 15 minutes of receiving the vaccine. Although anaphylaxis can be treated, it is quite frightening. People should remain at the doctors office for about 15 minutes after getting the vaccine.

Although the hepatitis B vaccine is made in yeast cells, no one has ever been shown to be allergic to the yeast proteins contained in the hepatitis B vaccine .

Talk With Your Health Care Provider

Tell your vaccination provider if the person getting the vaccine:

  • Has had an allergic reaction after a previous dose of hepatitis B vaccine, or has any severe, life-threatening allergies

In some cases, your health care provider may decide to postpone hepatitis B vaccination until a future visit.

Pregnant or breastfeeding people should be vaccinated if they are at risk for getting hepatitis B. Pregnancy or breastfeeding are not reasons to avoid hepatitis B vaccination.

People with minor illnesses, such as a cold, may be vaccinated. People who are moderately or severely ill should usually wait until they recover before getting hepatitis B vaccine.

Your health care provider can give you more information.

The National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program

The National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program is a federal program that was created to compensate people who may have been injured by certain vaccines. Claims regarding alleged injury or death due to vaccination have a time limit for filing, which may be as short as two years. Visit the VICP website at or call to learn about the program and about filing a claim.

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Hepatitis A And B Vaccine Side Effects

Get emergency medical help if you have any of these signs of an allergic reaction:hives difficulty breathing swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat.

Keep track of any and all side effects you have after receiving this vaccine. When you receive a booster dose, you will need to tell the doctor if the previous shot caused any side effects.

You should not receive a booster vaccine if you had a life-threatening allergic reaction after the first shot.

Becoming infected with hepatitis is much more dangerous to your health than receiving this vaccine. However, like any medicine, this vaccine can cause side effects but the risk of serious side effects is extremely low.

You may feel faint after receiving this vaccine. Some people have had seizure like reactions after receiving this vaccine. Your doctor may want you to remain under observation during the first 15 minutes after the injection.

  • numbness, tingling, or burning pain

  • red or blistering skin rash with burning or tingly feeling

  • easy bruising or bleeding or

  • unexplained muscle pain, tenderness, or weakness.

Common side effects include:

This is not a complete list of side effects and others may occur. Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report vaccine side effects to the US Department of Health and Human Services at 1-800-822-7967.

What Are The Symptoms Of Hepatitis A And B

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Not all infected adults will experience symptoms. That means you could contract hepatitis A or B, and spread the viruses to others, without realizing it.

Symptoms of hepatitis A may include*:

Fever

Jaundice

Loss of appetite

Dark urine

Fatigue

* TWINRIX is not indicated to treat the symptoms of, or reduce serious consequences associated with hepatitis A and B.

Possible consequences of hepatitis A.*Hepatitis A infection can have mild to severe consequences on infected individuals that can last from a few weeks to several months.

Chronic hepatitis and carrier states are not linked with hepatitis A infection.

However, relapsing hepatitis, a condition where a person gets worse again after a period of improvement, can last up to a year in 15% of cases.

While most infected people recover, the older you are, the more severe hepatitis A can be.

Approximately 25% of infected adults are hospitalized.

The overall case fatality rate, which is the proportion of deaths among the number of hepatitis A cases, is approximately 0.5%, but can reach 2.6% in adults over 60 years of age.

* TWINRIX is not indicated to treat the symptoms of, or reduce serious consequences associated with hepatitis A and B.

Symptoms of hepatitis B may include*:

Fatigue

Jaundice

Loss of appetite

Dark urine

Clay-coloured stool

* TWINRIX is not indicated to treat the symptoms of, or reduce serious consequences associated with hepatitis A and B.

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How Can I Contract Hepatitis B

You can contract hepatitis B by coming into contact with the bodily fluids of an infected person.

Resort activities that may put you at risk for hepatitis B include:

Getting a manicure, pedicure, tattoo, piercing, or acupuncture with improperly sterilized tools

Having sexual contact with an infected partner

Giving first aid to, or receiving it from, an infected person

Receiving a medical or dental procedure with contaminated equipment

Sharing personal grooming items with an infected person

Who Should Receive The Hepatitis B Vaccine And When

Hepatitis B vaccine is usually given as 2, 3, or 4 shots.

Infants should get their first dose of hepatitis B vaccine at birth and will usually complete the series at 6-18 months of age. The birth dose of hepatitis B vaccine is an important part of preventing longterm illness in infants and the spread of hepatitis B in the United States.

Children and adolescents younger than 19 years of age who have not yet gotten the vaccine should also be vaccinated.

Adults who were not vaccinated previously and want to be protected against hepatitis B can also get the vaccine.

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What Happens If I Miss A Dose

Contact your doctor if you miss a booster dose or if you get behind schedule. The next dose should be given as soon as possible. There is no need to start over.

Be sure you receive all recommended doses of this vaccine. You may not be fully protected against disease if you do not receive the full series.

Who Should Not Have The Hepatitis A And B Vaccine

ACP and CDC issue recommendations for hepatitis B screening, vaccination, and care
  • Anyone with a severe feverish illness. The vaccine should be postponed until after recovery.
  • People who have previously had a serious allergic reaction to any ingredient of the vaccine .
  • People who had an allergic reaction to a previous dose of a hepatitis A or hepatitis B vaccine.
  • This vaccine is not recommended for preventing hepatitis A and B infection after a potential exposure to the virus, for example following a needle-stick injury .
  • Babies under one year of age.

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How Does The Hepatitis A And B Vaccine Work

The combined hepatitis A and B vaccine contains an inactivated form of the virus that causes hepatitis A and an inactivated extract of the hepatitis B virus.

The vaccine works by stimulating the immune system to produce antibodies against these viruses, without actually causing the diseases.

The antibodies that are produced after having the vaccine remain in your body. This means that if you are exposed to the viruses naturally, the antibodies can quickly recognise them, allowing the immune system to attack them and stop them from causing hepatitis A or B.

Hepatitis A Vaccine: Canadian Immunization Guide

For health professionals

Last partial chapter update

: The immunoglobulin dosage for Hepatitis A pre-exposure and post-exposure prophylaxis was increased based on the Product Monograph update for GamaSTAN®, which is available on Health Canada’s Drug Product Database.

Last complete chapter revision: March 2018

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What Should I Know Before Having The Hepatitis A And B Vaccine

  • This vaccine only provides protection against hepatitis caused by the hepatitis A and hepatitis B viruses. It will not prevent other forms of hepatitis.
  • No vaccine is 100 per cent effective and this vaccine may not protect all people who are given it from contracting hepatitis A and B.
  • People who are obese , people with kidney failure who are having haemodialysis, and people who have an underactive immune system , may not produce enough antibodies in response to this vaccine. If you fall into one of these categories, your doctor may want you to have a blood test after your primary course of three injections is completed, in order to check the levels of antibodies in your blood. You may need to have additional doses of the vaccine to make sure you produce enough antibodies to protect you from the viruses.

Hepatitis A And B Vaccine

Why do newborns need the hepatitis B vaccine?
Hepatitis A and B vaccine

Combination of

Twinrix is a vaccine against hepatitis A and hepatitis B, manufactured by GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals. The full generic name ishepatitis A inactivated & hepatitis B vaccine. Twinrix is administered over three doses.

The name was created because it is a mixture of two earlier vaccines Havrix, an inactivated-virus Hepatitis A vaccine, and Engerix-B, a recombinant Hepatitis B vaccine. Twinrix first entered the market in early 1997.

In the United States, Twinrix is approved by the Food and Drug Administration for those aged 18 and older. In some countries outside the United States, notably Canada and Europe, Twinrix is known as Twinrix Adult or Ambirix and a pediatric formulation, called Twinrix Junior or Twinrix Paediatric, is available.

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Which Drugs Or Supplements Interact With Hepatitis B/hepatitis A Vaccine

: Hepatitis A/B vaccine vaccines should not be used with medications and therapies that suppress the immune system such as adalimumab , belimumab , cyclosporine , azathioprine , irradiation, and high doses of steroids because suppressing the immune system reduces the effectiveness of hepatitis A/B vaccine.

How And When Do Doctors Give Vaccines

For the hepatitis A vaccine:

You should get two doses, given as shots, 6 months apart for complete protection. The virus in the vaccine is killed .

Children should get the first dose between 12 and 23 months of age. Children older than age 2 can get the first dose at their next doctorâs visit.

If you need the vaccine because of upcoming travel, get it at least 1 month before you go.

For the hepatitis B vaccine:

For long-lasting immunity, you need three to four doses, depending on which type of vaccine is used. You get them as shots.

Children should get their first dose at birth and complete the series by age 6 months. Usually, the baby would get a second dose at 1 month old and the third dose at 6 months.

Babies born to women who have hepatitis B need a shot of hep B antibodies, as well as their first hep B vaccine shot, when theyâre born. They will also need follow-up blood tests to make sure theyâre OK.

Catch-up vaccinations are recommended for children and teens who were never vaccinated or who did not get all three shots.

If you’re an adult who wants to be vaccinated, you should talk about it with your doctor or pharmacist. If you are considering both vaccines, ask your doctor about vaccines that combine hep A and B.

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Who Should Be Vaccinated With Hepatitis B

  • Any person who desires protection from hepatitis B
  • Sexually active people who are not in a long-term, mutually monogamous relationship like a person with more than 1 sex partner during the last six months
  • Men who have sex with men
  • People seeking testing or therapy for a sexually transmitted infection like HIV
  • Recent or current injection drug users
  • Healthcare and public safety workers who are potentially exposed to blood or other infectious body fluids
  • People with diabetes who are younger than age 60 years and consider after age 60
  • People with end-stage kidney disease, including people undergoing hemodialysis, people with HIV, and people with chronic liver disease
  • Household contacts and sex partners of people who have hepatitis B
  • Clients and staff members of institutions and daycare facilities for persons with developmental disabilities
  • International travelers to countries with a high or intermediate prevalence of chronic HBV infection
  • All adults in sexually transmitted infection treatment facilities like HIV testing and treatment facilities,
  • All adults in facilities providing drug abuse treatment and prevention services or providing services to injection drug users
  • All adults in healthcare settings providing services to men who have sex with men
  • All adults in correctional facilities
  • All adults working in end-stage kidney disease facilities for patients on chronic hemodialysis

What Else Should I Know About Hepatitis B/hepatitis A Vaccine

Hepatitis B vaccine for Grade 7 Students
What preparations of hepatitis B/hepatitis A vaccine are available?

PREPARATIONS:

  • Hepatitis A/B vaccine is available as sterile, preservative-free, intramuscular injections.
  • Hepatitis A/B vaccine injections are available in 1 ml single-dose vials and 1 ml single-dose pre-filled disposable syringes.
  • Each 1 ml dose of vaccine contains 720 ELISA Units of inactivated Hepatitis A virus and 20 mcg of recombinant Hepatitis B antigen protein.
How should I keep hepatitis B/hepatitis A vaccine stored?

Store hepatitis A/B vaccine under refrigeration between 2 C and 8 C . Do not freeze hepatitis A/B vaccine vaccines and discard if they have been frozen.

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A Look At Each Vaccine: Hepatitis B Vaccine

The hepatitis B vaccine is given to prevent the severe liver disease that can develop when children or adults are infected with hepatitis B virus. The hepatitis B vaccine is given as a series of three shots. The first dose is given within 24 hours of birth. The second dose is given one to two months after the first dose, and the third dose is given between 6 months and 18 months of age.

Guidance On Reporting Adverse Events Following Immunization

Vaccine providers are asked to report, through local public health officials, any serious or unexpected adverse event temporally related to vaccination. An unexpected AEFI is an event that is not listed in available product information but may be due to the immunization, or a change in the frequency of a known AEFI.

Refer to Reporting Adverse Events Following Immunization in Canada and Adverse events following immunization in Part 2 for additional information about AEFI reporting.

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Persons New To Canada

Health care providers who see persons newly arrived in Canada should review the immunization status and update immunization for these individuals, as necessary. In many countries outside of Canada, HB vaccine is in limited use.

All persons from a country that is endemic for HB should be assessed and vaccinated against HB if not immune and not infected. Individuals born in developing countries are more likely to be carriers of HB, necessitating vaccination of their sexual and household contacts based on review of their serologic test results. HB vaccine is recommended for all household contacts whose families have immigrated to Canada from areas in which there is a high prevalence of HB and who may be exposed to HB carriers through their extended families or when visiting their country of origin.

Children adopted from countries in which there is a high prevalence of HB infection should be screened for HBsAg and, if positive, household or close contacts in the adopting family should be immunized before adoption or as soon as possible thereafter. Adults going to pick-up children from these countries should be vaccinated before departure. Refer to Immunization of Persons New to Canada in Part 3 for additional information.

Concurrent Administration Of Vaccines

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HB-containing vaccines may be administered concomitantly with other vaccines or with HBIg. Different injection sites and separate needles and syringes must be used for concurrent parenteral injections.

Refer to Timing of Vaccine Administration in Part 1 for additional information about concurrent administration of vaccines.

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How Can I Contract Hepatitis A

You can contract the hepatitis A virus by eating food or drinking beverages that have been contaminated by human fecal waste.

Resort activities that may put you at risk for hepatitis A include:

Eating food handled by an infected worker who did not wash his/her hands properly after using the washroom

Eating raw or undercooked seafood and shellfish that lived in sewage-polluted water

Eating salads or produce rinsed in contaminated water

Drinking contaminated water or drinks with contaminated ice

Bathing, showering, or swimming in contaminated water

How Should I Use This Medicine

This vaccine is for injection into a muscle. It is given by a health care professional.

A copy of Vaccine Information Statements will be given before each vaccination. Read this sheet carefully each time. The sheet may change frequently.

Talk to your pediatrician regarding the use of this medicine in children. Special care may be needed.

Overdosage: If you think you have taken too much of this medicine contact a poison control center or emergency room at once.

NOTE: This medicine is only for you. Do not share this medicine with others.

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Hepatitis A & B Combination Vaccine

Hepatitis A & B combination vaccineHepatitis A & B Quick facts4 doses 0, 7, 2130 days and 12 months apart at least 21 days prior to travel

  • Hepatitis A and B are two viruses that affect your liver’s ability to function.

    Hepatitis A is usually spread through ingesting contaminated food or water or close contact with an infected person. The hepatitis A virus can cause a flu-like illness, a yellowing of the skin or eyes along with severe stomach pains and diarrhea.

    Hepatitis B is a highly contagious, serious liver disease caused by the hepatitis B virus. It spreads through contact with the blood or other body fluids of an infected person, including contact with objects that could have blood or body fluids on them such as toothbrushes and razors. It can cause a short-term flu-like illness, or long-term infection that can lead to liver damage, liver cancer or death. Babies and young children infected with hepatitis B are more likely to get this chronic form of the disease.

  • The hepatitis A & B combination vaccine contains both hepatitis A and hepatitis B vaccines to prevent these two forms of hepatitis. Its administered either as 3 doses over 6-month period or 3 shots administered over 1 month with the addition of a booster shot after 1 year.

    Learn more about the hepatitis A & B vaccines from the CDC:

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