Wednesday, September 21, 2022

What Does It Mean To Have Hepatitis C Antibodies

How It Is Done

Dr. Nancy Reau Explains Hepatitis C

The health professional taking a sample of your blood will:

  • Wrap an elastic band around your upper arm to stop the flow of blood. This makes the veins below the band larger so it is easier to put a needle into the vein.
  • Clean the needle site with alcohol.
  • Put the needle into the vein. More than one needle stick may be needed.
  • Attach a tube to the needle to fill it with blood.
  • Remove the band from your arm when enough blood is collected.
  • Put a gauze pad or cotton ball over the needle site as the needle is removed.
  • Put pressure on the site, and then put on a bandage.

Getting Tested For Hepatitis C

A blood test, called an HCV antibody test, is used to find out if someone has ever been infected with the hepatitis C virus. The HCV antibody test, sometimes called the anti-HCV test, looks for antibodies to the hepatitis C virus in blood. Antibodies are chemicals released into the bloodstream when someone gets infected.

Test results can take anywhere from a few days to a few weeks to come back. Rapid anti-HCV tests are available in some health clinics and the results of these tests are available in 20 to 30 minutes.

What Foods Should I Avoid

Everyone should avoid eating a lot of fat, cholesterol, salt and processed sugar, even if their liver is healthy. In addition, those with HCV should limit or avoid alcohol. Drinking alcohol will speed up liver damage.

Eating properly can help decrease some of the symptoms of Hepatitis C, like feeling tired and sick. Drink lots of water for general health benefits. HCV is not a digestive disease diet will not affect the disease. Your provider may put you on a special diet if you have advanced liver disease.

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Other Tests For Diagnosing Hepatitis C

Before recommending a treatment plan, your doctor will likely conduct other tests. The six major strains, or genotypes, of HCV respond differently to different treatments, so your doctor will conduct another blood test that determines your HCV genotype.

You can be infected with more than one genotype at a time. Genotypes 1, 2, and 3 are the most common in the United States.

Are There Supplements That Are Good For My Liver

Hepatitis C antibody test: Results and what to expect

If a person eats a balanced diet, they will normally get enough vitamins and minerals. People with liver disease should avoid taking large amounts of supplements or “mega-vitamins.” This is because the liver has to do extra work to process them. Your provider may put you on a general multivitamin without iron.

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How Can I Make A Difference For People With Hepatitis C

Anyone can help raise awareness about this widespread disease. Citizens can write letters to their state representatives or local newspapers and get involved in volunteer efforts with liver disease or Veteran-affiliated organizations . Speaking at support groups and sharing your experience is also a good way to help others with HCV.

Are Test Results Accurate

Although no test is perfect, hepatitis C testing is an important and accepted method of testing for HCV. In order to reduce the risk of inaccurate results, doctors take steps to verify a patients diagnosis. For example, a positive test result for hepatitis C antibody requires confirmation with HCV RNA testing.

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Reactive Or Positive Hepatitis C Antibody Test

  • A reactive or positive antibody test means that Hepatitis C antibodies were found in the blood and a person has been infected with the Hepatitis C virus at some point in time.
  • Once people have been infected, they will always have antibodies in their blood. This is true even if they have cleared the Hepatitis C virus.
  • A reactive antibody test does not necessarily mean that you have Hepatitis C. A person will need an additional, follow-up test.

Persons for Whom HCV Testing Is Recommended

  • Adults born from 1945 through 1965 should be tested once
  • Those who:
  • Ever injected drugs, including those who injected once or a few times many years ago
  • Have certain medical conditions, including persons:
  • who received clotting factor concentrates produced before 1987
  • who were ever on long-term hemodialysis
  • with persistently abnormal alanine aminotransferase levels
  • who have HIV infection
  • Were prior recipients of transfusions or organ transplants, including persons who:
  • were notified that they received blood from a donor who later tested positive for HCV infection
  • received a transfusion of blood, blood components, or an organ transplant before July 1992
  • HCV- testing based on a recognized exposure is recommended for:
  • Healthcare, emergency medical, and public safety workers after needle sticks, sharps, or mucosal exposures to HCV-positive blood
  • Children born to HCV-positive women
  • Discussing Screening Results With Clients

    Hepatitis C Infection with Case รข Disorders of the Hepatobiliary Tract | Lecturio

    The medical personnel who ordered or arranged the screening test, not counselors, usually explain the results. Hepatitis screening should be part of the intake physical examination in an opioid treatment program, and medical personnel may report the results. However, the client may want to discuss the results with the counselor or ask the counselor questions.

    Anxiety might interfere with some clients ability to comprehend or retain information, which might need to be repeated.

    Suggestions for conversations with clients when the test results are negative include the following:

    • Explain results clearly and simply: So the HCV screening result was negative? This means that, as of 6 months ago, you did not have .
    • Emphasize that a negative result to an HCV test does not indicate to and that the client should take precautions to avoid . If a relapse to drug use occurs, advise clients to avoid sharing any drug paraphernalia or equipment. Specify that this includes cookers, cotton, water, needles, syringes, pipes, and straws.
    • Emphasize the importance of getting HAV and HBV vaccinations. Provide information about the availability of low- or no-cost vaccinations.

    Clients whose screening test results are positive for will need additional tests and examinationsusually with doctors who specialize in diseases of the liver to get accurate diagnoses and to determine their health status and the extent of liver damage. These tests are described in .

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    Testing For Hepatitis C

    Two tests need to be done to discover if you have hepatitis C:

    • Antibody test: Which establishes whether you have ever been exposed to the hepatitis C virus.
    • PCR test: Which establishes whether the virus is still active and needs treating.

    The two tests can often be done from one sample of blood which means you may only need to provide the sample once. Both tests can then be done on your sample at the laboratory. However, some services will perform one test and then call you back for a further blood sample to perform the second test.

    Antibody test

    A hepatitis C antibody test is the first test undertaken. This is to determine whether you have ever been exposed to the hepatitis C virus. It works by testing for the presence of antibodies to the virus generated by your immune system. If you receive a negative hepatitis C antibody test but have been experiencing symptoms or have been recently exposed to hepatitis C, then you are likely to be advised to have a second test.

    It is important to remember that there is a ‘window period’. This is the short period of time when your immune system may not have had time to produce antibodies. It usually takes between six and twelve weeks for these antibodies to develop. However, in a few people it can take up to six months. So if you have the test within this window period and the result is negative, it does not necessarily mean that you don’t have the virus.

    PCR test

    Why It Is Done

    Hepatitis C virus testing is done to:

    • Find out if a hepatitis C infection is the cause of abnormal liver function tests.
    • Screen people who have an increased chance of getting or spreading a hepatitis C infection.
    • Screen potential blood donors and donor organs to prevent the spread of hepatitis C.
    • Screen people born from 1945 to 1975. People in this age group are more likely to have hepatitis C and not know it.
    • Identify the type of hepatitis C virus causing the infection.

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    Counseling Practices That Educate Support And Motivate Clients Undergoing Screening

    Clients might need help deciding whether to get screened, understanding the test results, and determining their next steps. Even when services offered through the substance abuse treatment program are limited, discussing testing with clients presents an opportunity for counselors to motivate clients for change by confronting substance use and by making choices that improve their overall health. However, this may also be true when services are offered on-site through substance abuse treatment programs. A study at one methadone clinic that offered hepatitis screening and vaccination revealed that although the majority of clients completed screening , only 54.7 percent of clients who lacked for hepatitis A received vaccinations and only 2.9 percent of clients who lacked immunity for received vaccinations .

    The Consensus Panel makes the following general recommendations while recognizing that, in some programs, the counselors role may be limited:

    How Is Liver Damage Assessed

    Hepatitis C Antibodies: What Do My Test Results Mean?

    If you have hepatitis C, doctors can gauge the level of liver damage you’ve experienced. One useful diagnostic tool is called a hepatic function panel, a group of blood tests performed together that examine the levels of certain liver enzymes, bilirubin , and proteins circulating in the blood.

    Higher-than-normal levels of the liver enzymes, indicate that your liver is damaged, possibly from cirrhosis or liver cancer.

    Albumin may be low, and your total bilirubin levels may also be elevated.

    Along with the hepatic function panel, your doctor may also order two other tests: one test to determine the levels of the liver enzyme gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase in your blood, and a prothrombin time test that measures how well your blood clots.

    A liver biopsy, in which a liver tissue sample is removed with a thin needle inserted through your skin and into your liver, can provide more details about the amount of scarring and damage HCV has caused.

    Your doctor may also order an imaging test, such as a computerized tomography scan, magnetic resonance imaging , or ultrasound, to see if your hepatitis C has caused liver cancer, a possible complication of hepatitis C.

    Additional reporting by Deborah Shapiro.

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    If You Have Hep C You Have Time

    Once you are confirmed as having hepatitis C, there will probably be many things running through your mind. Hepatitis C is a slow-moving disease, so most likely you will have a lot of time to make decisions about your health. Take the time to learn about hepatitis C and make the right decisions for yourself. Don’t make any snap decisions in the moment. In fact, you shouldn’t make any important decisions right away — you may still be in shock. There may be some days when you feel balanced and ready to take steps towards a healthier life, and other days when you don’t want to deal with your hepatitis C — this is normal. Take the time to think about what is important for you now, and remember you will have time to make all the decisions you need to make.

    Can I Get Reinfected With Hepatitis C

    If you become infected with hepatitis C infection and then clear the virus , yes, it is possible for you to become infected again.

    The chance of another infection with hepatitis C is much, much less than the chance of a first-time infection, but it is not impossible. It has happened in people who continue to use injection drugs, and some studies suggest that it happens even more often in people who are also HIV positive.

    In other words, having had hepatitis C once does not make you “immune” to getting hepatitis C again.

    The best way to avoid reinfection is to reduce risky behaviors that can result in exposure to the hepatitis C virus: Do not use injection drugs, do not share needles for any reason, avoid blood-to-blood exposures with others, and use condoms if you are sexually active with a new partner or with a partner who has used injection drugs.

    The research in this area is ongoing, and we will continue to learn more about this very important topic. But for now, preventing re-exposure to the hepatitis C virus is the only sure way of avoiding infection and reinfection with hepatitis C.

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    Who Can Be Treated For Hepatitis C

    Treatment decisions should be made by both you and your provider. Current treatments for hepatitis C are very successful and can cure most people of the virus.

  • Treatment regimens exist for all genotypes.
  • Treatment regimens exist for HCV-HIV coinfection.
  • Treatment regimens exist for all stages of disease .
  • Treatment regimens exist for patients who have taken treatment in the past but were not successful.
  • Are Alternative Medicines Available

    What is Hepatitis C and Why Should You Care?

    Some people believe certain forms of alternative medicine help cure hepatitis C.

    However, the National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health reports that there are no effective, research-proven forms of alternative treatment or complementary medicine for hepatitis C.

    Silymarin, also known as milk thistle, is an herb commonly suggested to help cure hepatitis C liver disease. But a rigorous did not find any beneficial effects from this supplement.

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    How Likely Am I To Become Infected With Hepatitis C From A Family Member Living In The Same House

    Household transmission of hepatitis C is extremely rare. Fewer than 1 in 1,000 family members or close acquaintances becomes infected each year through common, nonsexual contact with hepatitis C-infected persons.

    There are many possible ways by which hepatitis C could be passed from one person to another. Because the virus is carried in the blood, it could be transmitted between household members if a mucous membrane were to come in contact with blood or body fluids containing hepatitis C. Family members sometimes share razors, toothbrushes, or toothpicks, perhaps unknowingly. If an item were contaminated with hepatitis C-infected blood from one person, the virus could be passed to a second person if it were to tear the lining of the mouth or break through the skin.

    Although these sorts of possibilities are often discussed as potential ways for hepatitis C to infect family members, such events occur very rarely.

    If you aren’t sure of your hepatitis C status, get tested. If you test negative and have lived in a household with an infected family member or close acquaintance, you shouldn’t worry that any more contact will put you at risk.

    Who Should Get Tested

    You should consider getting tested for hepatitis C if you’re worried you could have been infected or you fall into one of the groups at an increased risk of being infected.

    Hepatitis C often has no symptoms, so you may still be infected if you feel healthy.

    Some groups of people are at an increased risk of hepatitis C, including:

    • ex-drug users and current drug users, particularly users of injected drugs
    • people who received blood transfusions before September 1991 or blood products before 1986 in the UK
    • UK recipients of organ or tissue transplants before 1992
    • people who have lived or had medical treatment in an area where hepatitis C is common high-risk areas include Africa, the Middle East and central Asia
    • babies and children whose mothers have hepatitis C
    • anyone accidentally exposed to the virus, such as health workers
    • people who have received a tattoo or piercing where equipment may not have been properly sterilised
    • sexual partners, family members and close contacts of people with hepatitis C

    If you continue to engage in high-risk activities, such as injecting drugs frequently, regular testing may be recommended. Your doctor will be able to advise you about this.

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    Can Hepatitis C Be Treated

    Yes, since 2010 enormous progress has been made in the treatment of chronic hepatitis C. New therapies called direct-acting antivirals are pills that act on the virus itself to eradicate it from the body, unlike older medicines like interferon injections which work by stimulating an immune response. These new treatments are very effective and can achieve cure rates of over 90%. In most situations now, there is no need for interferon, which was responsible for many of the side effects previously associated with HCV treatment. The new treatment combinations require shorter treatment durations , have reduced side effects and appear to be effective at all stages of the disease.

    Because these new therapies are very new, they remain very expensive. As such, drug coverage from both government and private companies may require that your liver disease has progressed to a certain stage before they are willing to cover the cost of these drugs.

    Your primary care physician may refer you to a specialist to determine whether you are eligible for treatment. A specialist will help you decide which drug therapy is best for you based on the severity of your liver disease, your virus genotype and whether or not you have been treated in the past.

    If I Have Hepatitis C Infection Does This Mean I Am Going To Have Other Health Problems

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    Hepatitis C can cause scarring of the liver leading to cirrhosis and liver cancer. Other conditions have also been linked to hepatitis C and are known as extra-hepatic manifestations of hepatitis C. They include diabetes mellitus, arthritis, hypothyroid, and aplastic anemia among other conditions. Talk to your provider for more information.

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