Thursday, September 22, 2022

What Do You Get Hepatitis B From

Hepatitis B Vs Hepatitis C

What you need to know about Hepatitis B

Hepatitis has many different types. HBV and the hepatitis C virus have both acute and chronic forms.

The main difference between HBV and HCV is how they spread from person to person. Although HCV is transmissible via sexual activity, this is rare. HCV usually spreads when blood that carries the virus comes into contact with blood that does not.

How Do You Know If You Have Hepatitis B

Signs and symptoms can vary, in particular by the age of the individual. Many individuals may not show symptoms . When symptoms develop, they include fever, joint pain, abdominal pain, fatigue, lack of appetite, nausea, vomiting, dark urine, clay-coloured bowel movements, or jaundice.

Most infections are asymptomatic or mild. Occasionally, people with serious cases of hepatitis B require hospitalization. A very small proportion of these patients develop a critical form of the disease called “fulminant” hepatitis B. This condition results from a sudden breakdown of liver function.

What Exactly Is Hepatitis B

Hepatitis B is caused by the hepatitis B virus, abbreviated as HBV. HBV spreads through blood, semen, open sores or wounds or other bodily fluids.

However, it cannot be spread to others by sneezing or coughing. Hepatitis B causes liver inflammation that can if it persists cause lasting liver damage.

For many people, hepatitis B is a short-term illness that goes away on its own after some time. For others, however, it can become a chronic condition.

Younger people, especially infants and children below the age of five, who are infected by HBV have a much higher risk of developing chronic hepatitis B.

People from certain regions in the world also carry a higher risk of developing chronic hepatitis B, including persons from Sub-Saharan Africa, the Pacific islands, the Middle East, as well as parts of Northeast and Southeast Asia.

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Outlook For Hepatitis B

The vast majority of people infected with hepatitis B in adulthood are able to fight off the virus and fully recover within 1 to 3 months.

Most will then be immune to the infection for life.

Babies and children with hepatitis B are more likely to develop a chronic infection.

Chronic hepatitis B affects around:

  • 90% of babies with hepatitis B
  • 20% of older children with hepatitis B
  • 5% of adults with hepatitis B

Although treatment can help, theres a risk that people with chronic hepatitis B could eventually develop life-threatening problems, such as scarring of the liver or liver cancer.

Page last reviewed: 30 January 2019 Next review due: 30 January 2022

Who Should Not Get The Hepatitis B Vaccine

Hepatitis B dalam kehamilan

Hepatitis B is a safe vaccine that does not contain a live virus.

However, there are some circumstances in which doctors advise against getting the HBV vaccine.

You should not receive the hepatitis B vaccine if:

  • youve had a serious allergic reaction to a previous dose of the hepatitis B vaccine
  • you have a history of hypersensitivity to yeast or any other HBV vaccine components

Also Check: How Can Hepatitis B Be Cured

When To Call The Doctor

  • The child has not felt hungry or wanted to eat in the past 24 hours.
  • Your childs fever is over 100.4 degrees Fahrenheit for more than 2 days.
  • Your child has a stomachache.
  • Your child vomits more than 2 times in an hour.
  • Your child’s skin or the white part of the eyes turns yellow.
  • Your child is overly tired for more than 2 days.

How Common Is Hepatitis B

The number of people who get this disease is down, the CDC says. Rates have dropped from an average of 200,000 per year in the 1980s to around 20,000 in 2016. People between the ages of 20 and 49 are most likely to get it.

About 90% of infants and 25-50% of children between the ages of 1-5 will become chronically infected. In adults, approximately 95% will recover completely and will not go on to have a chronic infection.

As many as 1.2 million people in the U.S. are carriers of the virus.

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How Does A Person Get Hepatitis

A person can get hepatitis A through the following sources:

  • Food or water contaminated with the fecal matter of an infected person
  • Sexual contact

A person can get hepatitis B in many ways, which include:

  • Having sexual contact with an infected person
  • Sharing needles
  • Being in direct contact with an infected persons blood
  • Transferred from mother to the fetus
  • Getting an infected needle prick
  • Being in contact with an infected persons body fluid

A person can get hepatitis C through:

  • Sharing infected needles
  • Being in direct contact with an infected persons blood
  • Getting an infected needle prick
  • Having sexual contact with an infected person

Hepatitis D can be spread through:

  • Transferred from mother to the fetus
  • Being in contact with the infected fluid or blood
  • A person can get hepatitis D only if they are infected previously with hepatitis B.

Hepatitis E mainly infects people who eat or drink food or water contaminated with the virus. Under-cooked foods can also spread hepatitis E. It is more dangerous in pregnant women.

Hepatitis B Vaccine: Canadian Immunization Guide

What is Hepatitis B? Signs, Symptoms, #Hepatitis Transmission and How to get #Tested

For health professionals

Last partial content update : May 2022

The footnotes in and the accompanying text description for the figure have been revised to align with the corresponding figure in Protocole d’immunisation du Qu├ębec, 5e ├ędition from which it was adapted.

Last complete chapter revision :

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What Is Normal Range For Hepatitis B

Intractable at any constant less than 1 or 5 s/c is an integral. To determine what an anti-HB antibodies level is, an anti-HB surface blood sample will range from an upper level of negative 5 mIU to an upper level of protective 12 mIU, so any value between 5 and 12 mIU should be repeated as instructed.

What If I Am Pregnant

It’s recommended that all pregnant women have a blood test for hepatitis B in early pregnancy.

If you have hepatitis B and are pregnant, treatments can reduce the risk of transmission of hepatitis B to the baby.

If you have hepatitis B, it is important to protect others from infection.

Important ways to prevent the spread of hepatitis B include:

  • vaccination of all your close contacts
  • practise safe sex until your sexual contacts are fully vaccinated and immune
  • do not donate blood, organs or body tissue
  • do not allow your blood to contact another person
  • inform healthcare workers
  • if your work involves potential for your blood or other body fluid to spread to other people, discuss your situation with your doctor

The hepatitis B vaccine is safe and effective in protecting against hepatitis B infection, providing protection in 95 in 100 vaccinated people.

In Australia, hepatitis B vaccination is part of the standard immunisation schedule for all newborn babies and infants. It’s also recommended for adults who are at high risk of exposure, people who are immunosuppressed or have other liver disease. People in these risk groups should be vaccinated against hepatitis B. Talk to your doctor about your level of risk and whether hepatitis B vaccination is recommended for you.

If you werent vaccinated against hepatitis B as a child, or if youre not sure whether you are vaccinated, talk to your doctor about whether you need a catch-up vaccine.

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Symptoms Of Hepatitis B

Some people who are infected with the hepatitis B virus have mild, flu-like symptoms and some do not become sick at all. Children who are infected are less likely to have an illness or get sick after getting hepatitis B than adults.

In more severe cases, hepatitis B can cause:

  • Loss of appetite.
  • Pain in the joints.
  • Jaundice .

Normally, these health problems disappear in a few weeks, but even when the person feels much better, they may still be infectious.

Most adults who become infected with the hepatitis B virus recover completely and do not become infected again. A few people become very ill in the time just after infection and need to go to hospital some may even die.

Persons New To Canada

Hepatitis b by Sidny Flores

Health care providers who see persons newly arrived in Canada should review the immunization status and update immunization for these individuals, as necessary. In many countries outside of Canada, HB vaccine is in limited use.

All persons from a country that is endemic for HB should be assessed and vaccinated against HB if not immune and not infected. Individuals born in developing countries are more likely to be carriers of HB, necessitating vaccination of their sexual and household contacts based on review of their serologic test results. HB vaccine is recommended for all household contacts whose families have immigrated to Canada from areas in which there is a high prevalence of HB and who may be exposed to HB carriers through their extended families or when visiting their country of origin.

Children adopted from countries in which there is a high prevalence of HB infection should be screened for HBsAg and, if positive, household or close contacts in the adopting family should be immunized before adoption or as soon as possible thereafter. Adults going to pick-up children from these countries should be vaccinated before departure. Refer to Immunization of Persons New to Canada in Part 3 for additional information.

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A Look At Each Vaccine: Hepatitis B Vaccine

View larger image The hepatitis B vaccine is given to prevent the severe liver disease that can develop when children or adults are infected with hepatitis B virus. The hepatitis B vaccine is given as a series of three shots. The first dose is given within 24 hours of birth. The second dose is given one to two months after the first dose, and the third dose is given between 6 months and 18 months of age. The vaccine is also recommended for those up to 60 years of age who have not previously received it and those 60 years and older who are at increased risk or who simply want the protection afforded by vaccination.

Whats The Procedure For A Hepatitis B Titer Test

A hepatitis titer test requires a healthcare professional to draw a small amount of blood for testing.

No special preparation is needed beforehand. If needles or the sight of blood make you anxious, you may want to arrange a drive ahead of time in case you feel faint.

Heres what will typically happen during this test:

  • The person administering the test ties a band around your arm to make your veins easier to find.
  • The person sterilizes the injection site and inserts a small needle into your vein. You may feel a sharp pain, but it should quickly pass.
  • After the needle is removed, the test administrator asks you to apply a gentle pressure with a gauze or a cotton ball.
  • A bandage is applied to the area, and youre free to leave.
  • Home tests that require a fingerpick are also available. The results of your tests are generally available within 3 days.

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    Who Should Get The Hepatitis B Vaccine

    All newborn babies should get vaccinated. You should also get the shot if you:

    • Come in contact with infected blood or body fluids of friends or family members
    • Use needles to take recreational drugs
    • Have sex with more than one person
    • Are a health care worker
    • Work in a day-care center, school, or jail

    Treating The Symptoms Of Hpv

    How Do You Get Hepatitis B?

    Most cases of HPV dont require any treatment. The virus will go away on its own in many people. However, there are treatment options available for treating the symptoms of HPV.

    Genital warts from HPV may occasionally go away without medication. Sometimes, medications are used to help lessen the effects of the warts. These include:

    • imiquimod
    • podofilox
    • sinecatechins

    Your doctor may also apply trichloroacetic acid or bicloroacetic acid, or cryotherapy to help treat genital warts.

    Sometimes a doctor will remove the warts, though this removes the wart not the virus itself. If a high-risk HPV is found, your doctor may monitor you to ensure that cancer doesnt occur, or is caught early.

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    Why Should I Vaccinate My Newborn Child If I Know That I Am Not Infected With Hepatitis B Virus

    Before the hepatitis B vaccine, every year in the United States about 18,000 children were infected with hepatitis B virus by the time they were 10 years old. This statistic is especially important because people are much more likely to develop liver cancer or cirrhosis if they are infected early in life, rather than later in life .

    About 9,000 of the 18,000 children infected in the first 10 years of life caught the virus from their mother during birth. However, many young children didn’t catch the disease from their mother. They caught it from either another family member or someone else who came in contact with the child. Because hepatitis B can be transmitted by relatively casual contact with items contaminated with the blood of an infected person, and because many people who are infected with hepatitis B virus don’t know that they have it, it is virtually impossible to be “careful enough” to avoid this infection.

    For these reasons, all young children are recommended to receive the hepatitis B vaccine. The best time to receive the first dose is right after birth. This will ensure that the child will be protected as early as possible from catching hepatitis B from people who dont know that they are infected with the virus.

    Listen to Dr. Offit explain why newborns get the hepatitis B vaccine by watching this short video, part of the series Talking About Vaccines with Dr. Paul Offit.

    Reduce Your Chance Of Infection

    You can reduce your chance of hepatitis B infection by

    • not sharing drug needles or other drug materials
    • wearing gloves if you have to touch another persons blood or open sores
    • making sure your tattoo artist or body piercer uses sterile tools
    • not sharing personal items, such as toothbrushes, razors, or nail clippers
    • using a latex or polyurethane condom during sex

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    I Am A Healthcare Worker Who Did Not Develop Hepatitis B Antibodies After Immunization What Should I Do

    Two versions of hepatitis B vaccine are available. One, called Heplisav-B, contains a novel adjuvant that was not present in previous versions used by adults . Some people did not respond to the older version hepatitis B vaccine. In fact, in a group of adults younger than 40 years of age who received two doses of the older version vaccine 75 of 100 were protected. Following the third dose, this number increased to 90 of 100. However, people older than 40 years of age were less likely to respond to the vaccine with increasing age. On the other hand, 90 to 100 of 100 adults 18 years of age and older respond to Heplisav-B, which was approved for use in 2018.

    About 5-10 of every 100 children and adults younger than 40 years of age do not respond to the third dose of the hepatitis B vaccine. Some of these people will be recommended to get vaccinated again. About 5 of 100 people will still not respond after getting all recommended doses of both series. Note that children younger than 18 years of age cannot get Heplisav-B.

    If the people who do not respond to vaccination are determined not to have chronic hepatitis B, they will be reliant on taking precautions to reduce the chance of exposure and relying on those around them for protection. In other words, these people will be reliant on herd immunity.

    Risk Factors Of Hepatitis B

    Hepatitis B

    The risk of developing hepatitis B will increase if you or your loved one:

    • Have unprotected sex.
    • Live or care for someone with chronic hepatitis B.
    • Receive treatment from someone who does not use properly sterilised equipment.
    • Provide treatment to someone, where there is a high likelihood of direct exposure to body fluids.
    • Work or live in institutional facilities, such as prisons or hospitals.
    • Travel to areas with a high risk of HBV infection.

    Note that having any of these risk factors does not mean that you will develop hepatitis B.

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    What Treatments Are Available For Chronic Hepatitis B If Medications Dont Work

    If you have advanced hepatitis B, you might also become a candidate for a liver transplant. This path does not always result in a cure because the virus continues in your bloodstream after a transplant. To prevent being infected again after your transplant, you may be prescribed hepatitis B immunoglobulin with an antiviral agent.

    How Do People Get The Hbv Virus

    Hepatitis B virus is found in the blood of people with HBV infection. It enters the body through blood-to-blood contact.

    Reliable blood tests for HBV were developed many years ago. Since blood donors and blood products are tested for HBV, this is no longer the typical means of infection.

    In many parts of the world, hepatitis B virus infects more than 8% of the population. HBV-infected women pass the infection to their babies during the birth process. People can also get hepatitis B by sharing needles for injection drug use, through sexual contact with an infected person, by an accidental needlestick with a contaminated needle, or from improperly sterilized medical, acupuncture, piercing, or tattooing equipment.

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