Thursday, May 19, 2022

How Do You Acquire Hepatitis C

Helpful Tips While Taking Hepatitis C Medications

Do You Need to Get Screened for Hepatitis C?
  • Always follow your health care providers’ advice, particularly the instructions on taking your medicine.
  • If you have to cancel an appointment, call your provider and schedule a new one as soon as possible.
  • Take good care of yourself. Eat well, drink 8 to 10 glasses of water each day, and try to get a full night’s sleep.
  • Learn about the hepatitis C medications you are taking. This includes special risks and warnings.
  • If taking ribavirin, use sunscreen, wear long sleeves and a hat, and limit sun exposure.
  • Write down your doctor’s name and phone number. Carry this information with you at all times.
  • Write the names and amounts of the medicines you are taking. Carry this information with you at all times.

How Is Hepatitis C Treated

Hepatitis C virus is treated with all-oral medications. These pills, calledantiviral medications, are usually taken once per day. These antiviral medications are extremely good at attacking the virus and preventing it from multiplying.

Antiviral medications were not the original treatment for hepatitis C. Before 2014, the only treatment for hepatitis C was called interferon and ribavirin, taken as weekly injections under the skin, plus pills. Interferon treatment caused many unpleasant side effects and was not usually successful. Then a new generation of medications became available. These antiviral treatments are extremely successful at curing the virus and have very minimal side effects.

Ribavirin is still sometimes prescribed to be taken along with the new antiviral medicines, but it has become more and more uncommon that ribavirin is needed at all. Ribavirin has some mild-moderate side effects. Ribavirin is a pill taken twice per day, as 2 or 3 pills in the morning plus 2 or 3 pills at night, depending on the patient’s body weight. Most patients do not need ribavirin.

Questions For Your Doctor

When you visit the doctor, you may want to ask questions to get the information you need to manage your hepatitis C. If you can, have a family member or friend take notes. You might ask:

  • What kinds of tests will I need?
  • Are there any medications that might help?
  • What are the side effects of the medications you might prescribe?
  • How do I know when I should call the doctor?
  • How much exercise can I get, and is it all right to have sex?
  • Which drugs should I avoid?
  • What can I do to prevent the disease from getting worse?
  • How can I avoid spreading hepatitis C to others?
  • Are my family members at risk for hepatitis C?
  • Should I be vaccinated against other types of hepatitis?
  • How will you keep tabs on the condition of my liver?
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    How Can The Spread Of Hepatitis C Be Prevented

    People who have had hepatitis C should remain aware that their blood is potentially infectious.

    • Do not shoot drugs if you shoot drugs, stop and get into a treatment program if you can’t stop, never share needles, syringes, water or “works”, and get vaccinated against hepatitis A and B.
    • Do not share personal care items that might have blood on them .
    • If you are a health care or public safety worker, always follow routine barrier precautions and safely handle needles and other sharps get vaccinated against hepatitis B.
    • Consider the risks if you are thinking about getting a tattoo or body piercing. You might get infected if the tools have someone else’s blood on them or if the artist or piercer does not follow good health practices.
    • HCV can be spread by sex, but this is rare. If you are having sex with more than one steady sex partner, use latex condoms correctly and every time to prevent the spread of sexually transmitted diseases. You should also get vaccinated against hepatitis B.
    • If you are infected with HCV, do not donate blood, organs or tissue.

    What Are The Complications Of Undiagnosed Hepatitis C

    Hepatitis C
    • Hepatitis C is known to be associated with two skin conditions, lichen planus and porphyria cutanea tarda.
    • Diabetes, heart disease, and arterial blockage are more common among patients with chronic hepatitis C infection than in the general population. It may be that liver damage and chronic inflammation caused by hepatitis C may affect the levels of blood fats and blood sugar.
    • Low platelet counts may occur as a result of the destruction of platelets by antibodies.

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    How Is Hepatitis C Transmitted

    The way the virus does spread is through contact with the blood of someone who is infected. Most commonly, this occurs through one of the following methods.

    Intravenous drug usePeople who share needles or other supplies while injecting drugs like cocaine and heroin have a high risk for contracting hepatitis C. Even if you only used these types of drugs once years ago, there is still a chance you are infected.

    Needlestick injuriesHealth care or other safety workers may come into contact with an infected persons blood if theyre accidentally stuck with a contaminated needle or other sharp object. Parents often worry about their children developing hepatitis C after finding a needle on the ground or at the beach. While thats possible, its unlikely, Dr. Nachman saysthe most commonly discarded needles are insulin needles, which typically dont contain enough blood to transmit hepatitis C. Plus, the virus can only survive about a day outside of the body.

    Medical proceduresNow, donated blood and organs are screened for the hepatitis C virus. However, before 1992, that wasnt the case, so people who received blood transfusions or an organ transplant before that time might have become infected.

    Tattoos and piercingsThese days, licensed and regulated tattoo parlors dont pose much of a danger. However, piercings or tattoos received in unregulated settings, such as prisons, may spread hepatitis C, Dr. Kodali says.

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    Who Is At High Risk And Should Be Tested For Hepatitis C Infection

    The U.S. Preventive Health Services task force recommends that all adults born between 1945 and 1965 be tested once routinely for hepatitis C, regardless of whether risk factors for hepatitis C are present. One-time testing also is recommended for:

    • People who currently inject drugs or snort drugs, or ever did so, even once many years previously
    • People with persistently elevated alanine aminotransferase level, a liver enzyme found in blood
    • People who have HIV infection
    • Children born to HCV- or HIV-infected mothers
    • People who were ever on long-term hemodialysis
    • People who got a tattoo in an unregulated setting, such as prison or by an unlicensed person
    • People who received clotting factor produced before 1987
    • People who received transfusions or organ transplants before July 1992, or who were notified that they received blood from a donor who later tested positive for hepatitis C infection
    • Health care, emergency medical, and public safety workers after a needlestick, eye or mouth exposure to hepatitis C-infected blood

    People who may have been exposed to hepatitis C in the previous 6 months should be tested for viral RNA load rather than anti-HCV antibody, because antibody may not be present for up to 12 weeks or longer after infection, although HCV RNA may be detectable in blood as soon as 2-3 weeks after infection.

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    Additional Tests You Might Need

    Once youve been diagnosed with Hepatitis C, your doctor will likely order a number of tests to find out about the health of your liver and decide on a treatment plan thats most appropriate for you.

    Hepatitis C genotype

    The Hepatitis C genotype refers to a specific strain or type of the Hepatitis C virus. There are six major types of Hepatitis C around the world: genotypes 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6. In the United States, genotypes 1, 2, and 3 are common:

    • Genotype 1: Most Americans with Hepatitis C have this type
    • Genotype 2: About 10% of Americans with Hepatitis C have this type
    • Genotype 3: About 6% of Americans with Hepatitis C have this type

    The genotype of Hepatitis C does not change over time, so you only need to get tested once.

    Genotype tests are done before a person starts treatment. Hepatitis C treatment works differently for different genotypes, so knowing your genotype helps your doctor choose the best treatment for you.

    Testing for Hepatitis A and Hepatitis B

    Your doctor may test to see if your body is immune to Hepatitis A and Hepatitis B. If these tests show no prior exposure or protection, he or she will recommend that you be vaccinated against these two viruses to eliminate the chance of becoming infected.

    Liver function tests or liver enzymes

    • ALT
    • AST

    Liver function tests also include ALP and total bilirubin, among other things.

    Tests to measure liver scarring or fibrosis

    • Liver Biopsy
    • Elastography
    • Serum markers

    Imaging tests

    How Does Hepatitis C Spread

    How Do You Get Hepatitis C?

    Hepatitis C is spread only through exposure to an infected person’s blood.

    High-risk activities include:

    • Sharing drug use equipment. Anything involved with injecting street drugs, from syringes, to needles, to tourniquets, can have small amounts of blood on it that can transmit hepatitis C. Pipes and straws to smoke or snort drugs can have blood on them from cracked lips or nosebleeds. Get into a treatment program if you can. At the very least, don’t share needles or equipment with anyone else.
    • Sharing tattoo or piercing tools. Nonsterile items and ink can spread contaminated blood.
    • Blood transfusions in countries that donât screen blood for hepatitis C.
    • Nonsterile medical equipment. Tools that arenât cleaned properly between use can spread the virus.
    • Blood or cutting rituals. Sharing the tools or exchanging blood can transmit hepatitis C.

    Medium-risk activities include:

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    Direct Exposure To Blood

    Exposure to large amounts of contaminated blood increases the risk for hepatitis C transmission. If you get a cut and need help tending it, whoever helps you should first put on disposable gloves to prevent exposure in case he or she has a cut. You can also help prevent hepatitis C transmission by covering any cuts or sores with bandages until theyre healed and disposing of used bandages properly.

    Uninfected people should take steps to avoid getting someone elses blood in their eyes, nose, and mouth. If an uninfected persons skin is exposed to contaminated blood, wash the area with soap and water immediately. If blood gets in the eyes, rinse them with running water right away and call a doctor to find out about further steps that should be taken.

    When cleaning blood from surfaces, Dr. Lee recommends using a solution of one part bleach to 10 parts water. Dried blood should also be handled with care because the virus can live for several days outside the body.

    The CDC recommends that if youve ever tested positive for hepatitis C, you should abstain from donating blood, organs, or semen.

    How Can You Prevent The Spread Of Hepatitis C

    Now that you know how you get hepatitis C, you can take steps to protect yourself from the virus. For instance:

    • Avoid sharing needles or other paraphernalia related to intravenous drugs.
    • Wear gloves if youre a health care worker or otherwise exposed to needles or potentially infected blood.
    • Use barrier methodsaka condomsoutside of sexually monogamous relationships.
    • Dont share toothbrushes or other dental equipment, nail clippers, or shaving tools.
    • If youre getting a tattoo or piercing, make sure the artist or piercer uses sterile ink and needles.

    If you have the hepatitis C virus, you can prevent passing it along to others by following those same steps, in addition to:

    • Covering any open sores or wounds.
    • Telling all your health and dental care providers you have the virus.
    • Avoiding donating blood.

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    Why Should People Take Antiviral Medications For Hepatitis C

    The purpose of taking antiviral medications for hepatitis C is to:

    • remove all the hepatitis C virus from your body permanently
    • stop or slow down the damage to your liver
    • reduce the risk of developing cirrhosis
    • reduce the risk of developing liver cancer
    • reduce the risk of liver failure and the need for a liver transplant

    What Are The Common Types Of Viral Hepatitis

    All You Need To Know About The Virus

    Although the most common types of viral hepatitis are HAV, HBV, and HCV, some clinicians had previously considered the acute and chronic phases of hepatic infections as “types” of viral hepatitis. HAV was considered to be acute viral hepatitis because the HAV infections seldom caused permanent liver damage that led to hepatic failure. HBV and HCV produced chronic viral hepatitis. However, these terms are outdated and not currently used as frequently because all of the viruses that cause hepatitis may have acute phase symptoms . Prevention techniques and vaccinations have markedly reduced the current incidence of common viral hepatitis infections however, there remains a population of about 1 to 2 million people in the U.S. with chronic HBV, and about 3.5 million with chronic HCV according to the CDC. Statistics are incomplete for determining how many new infections occur each year the CDC documented infections but then goes on to estimate the actual numbers by further estimating the number of unreported infections .

    Hepatitis A

    Hepatitis B

    Hepatitis C

    Types D, E, and G Hepatitis

    Individuals who already have chronic HBV infection can acquire HDV infection at the same time as they acquire the HBV infection, or at a later time. Those with chronic hepatitis due to HBV and HDV develop cirrhosis rapidly. Moreover, the combination of HDV and HBV virus infection is very difficult to treat.

    • HIV patients
    • People with hemophilia who receive blood clotting factors

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    Hepatitis C Testing And Diagnosis

    Doctors will start by checking your blood for:

    Anti-HCV antibodies: These are proteins your body makes when it finds the hep C virus in your blood. They usually show up about 12 weeks after infection.

    It usually takes a few days to a week to get results, though a rapid test is available in some places.

    The results can be:

    • Nonreactive, or negative:
    • That may mean you donât have hep C.
    • If youâve been exposed in the last 6 months, youâll need to be retested.
  • Reactive, or positive:
  • That means you have hep C antibodies and youâve been infected at some point.
  • Youâll need another test to make sure.
  • If your antibody test is positive, youâll get this test:

    HCV RNA: It measures the number of viral RNA particles in your blood. They usually show up 1-2 weeks after youâre infected.

    • The results can be:
    • Negative: You donât have hep C.
    • Positive: You currently have hep C.

    You might also get:

    Liver function tests: They measure proteins and enzyme levels, which usually rise 7 to 8 weeks after youâre infected. As your liver gets damaged, enzymes leak into your bloodstream. But you can have normal enzyme levels and still have hepatitis C. Learn the reasons why you should get tested for hepatitis C.

    Is Hepatitis C Sexually Transmitted

    Can hepatitis C be spread through sexual contact?

    Hepatitis C is a contagious liver disease caused by the hepatitis C virus . The disease can be passed from person to person.

    As with many infections, HCV lives in blood and bodily fluids. You can contract hepatitis C by coming into direct contact with an infected persons blood. It can also be transmitted by contact with bodily fluids including saliva or semen of an infected person, but this is rare.

    Researchers in found that 1 out of every 190,000 instances of heterosexual sexual contact led to HCV transmission. Participants in the study were in monogamous sexual relationships.

    HCV may be more likely to spread through sexual contact if you:

    • have multiple sexual partners
    • participate in rough sex, which is more likely to result in broken skin or bleeding
    • dont use barrier protection, such as condoms or dental dams
    • dont use barrier protection properly
    • have a sexually transmitted infection or HIV

    Theres no evidence that HCV can be spread through oral sex. However, it may still be possible if blood is present from either the person giving or receiving oral sex.

    For example, a slight risk may exist if any of the following are present:

    • menstrual blood
    • genital warts
    • any other breaks in the skin in the involved areas

    Though sexual transmission is rare overall, HCV may be more likely to spread through anal sex than oral sex. This is because rectal tissue is more likely to tear during intercourse.

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    How Many People Have Hepatitis C

    During 2013-2016 it was estimated that about two and half million people were chronically infected with HCV in the United States. The actual number may be as low as 2.0 million or as high as 2.8 million.Globally, hepatitis C is a common blood-borne infection with an estimated 71 million people chronically infected according to the World Health Organization .

    Do You Need Vaccinations Before Traveling Abroad

    How Much Do You Know About Hepatitis C?

    The CDC divides travel vaccinations into three categories: 1) routine, 2) recommended, and 3) required. The only vaccine classified as “required” by International Health Regulations is the yellow fever vaccination for travel to certain countries in sub-Saharan Africa and tropical South America.

    “Routine” vaccinations are those that are normally administered, usually during childhood, in the United States. These include immunizations against:

    • tetanus

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    What Causes Hepatitis C

    The hepatitis C virus causes hepatitis C. The hepatitis C virus spreads through contact with an infected persons blood. Contact can occur by

    • sharing drug needles or other drug materials with an infected person
    • getting an accidental stick with a needle that was used on an infected person
    • being tattooed or pierced with tools or inks that were not kept sterilefree from all viruses and other microorganismsand were used on an infected person before they were used on you
    • having contact with the blood or open sores of an infected person
    • using an infected persons razor, toothbrush, or nail clippers
    • being born to a mother with hepatitis C
    • having unprotected sex with an infected person

    You cant get hepatitis C from

    • being coughed or sneezed on by an infected person
    • drinking water or eating food
    • hugging an infected person
    • shaking hands or holding hands with an infected person
    • sharing spoons, forks, and other eating utensils
    • sitting next to an infected person

    A baby cant get hepatitis C from breast milk.18

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