Friday, January 27, 2023

What Types Of Hepatitis Are There

What Is The Outlook For Hepatitis

Hepatitis A, B, C, D, E Nursing Symptoms, Treatment, Causes, NCLEX

Hepatitis A and E usually only cause short-term infections that your body can overcome. The others can also cause acute infections, but might also cause chronic infections. The chronic forms are more dangerous. Hepatitis non-E is usually acute, but can become chronic.

Most people recover fully from hepatitis even though it might take several months for the liver to heal. To help improve your health and to help speed up your recovery:

Nursing Education To Provide To Patients With Hepatitis

Handwashing

Eat low fat and high carb meals

Personal hygiene products NOT to be shared

Activity conservationpatient needs to REST to help the liver heal

Toxic substances AVOIDEDespecially over-the-counter products that are liver toxic: alcohol, sedative, aspirin, acetaminophen etc.

Individual bathroomsdont share bathroom with family members

Test results:

  • Hepatitis A: anti-HAV IgM and anti-HAV IgG
  • Hepatitis B: HBsAG and anti-HBV

Interferon and Immune globulin for Hepatitis A and Hepatitis B Immune globulin

Small but frequent mealsthis may help with the nausea and patient should NOT cook for others until not infectious.

Do You Need Vaccinations Before Traveling Abroad

The CDC divides travel vaccinations into three categories: 1) routine, 2) recommended, and 3) required. The only vaccine classified as required by International Health Regulations is the yellow fever vaccination for travel to certain countries in sub-Saharan Africa and tropical South America.

Routine vaccinations are those that are normally administered, usually during childhood, in the United States. These include immunizations against:

Read Also: Hepatitis C Rash On Hands

Which Treatment Works For Each Genotype

Ribavirin causes birth defects and miscarriage. HCV treatment regimens that include RBV should not be used by pregnant women or by male partners of pregnant women. RBV stays in a persons body for months, so women and their male partners should avoid pregnancy until six months after stopping it .

This fact sheet is current as of December 2016. It is recommended to be read alongside the Adherence and HCV Diagnostics fact sheets. Always check for updated information.

Read Also: What Should You Eat If You Have Hepatitis C

Hiv And Hepatitis C Coinfection

Types Of Viral Hepatitis. Hepatitis A, B, C, D, E, F, G. World ...

HCV infection is common among people with HIV who also inject drugs. Nearly 75% of people living with HIV who report a history of injection drug use are co-infected with HCV. All people who are diagnosed with HIV are recommended to be tested for HCV at least once. People living with HIV are at greater risk for complications and death from HCV infection. Fortunately, direct acting antivirals that are used to treat HCV work equally well in people with and without HIV infection. For more information about HIV and HCV coinfection, visit the HIV.govs pages about hepatitis C and HIV coinfection.

You May Like: Hepatitis B Core Antibody Total

How Common Is Hepatitis C

The exact number of people infected is not known. There are around 200,000 people chronically infected with hepatitis C in the UK. Worldwide, over 180 million people are infected. Rates of infection have been relatively stable in recent years, but deaths from hepatitis C have reduced, thought to be because treatment options have become better.

Most cases are in people who inject illegal drugs. It is estimated that up to half of injecting drug users become infected with hepatitis C.

Hepatitis Cases In Children

The number of cases of hepatitis in children has increased recently. Public health doctors and scientists are looking into what could be causing this.

See a GP if your child has symptoms of hepatitis, including yellowing of the eyes and skin .

Good hygiene, including supervising hand washing in young children, can help to prevent infections that can cause hepatitis.

Recommended Reading: Hepatitis C And Sexuality Activity

What Is Alcoholic Hepatitis

Alcoholic hepatitis is an inflammatory condition of the liver caused by heavy alcohol consumption over an extended period of time. Ongoing alcohol use and binge drinking can both aggravate this condition.

If you develop this condition, its important that you consider stopping alcohol use gradually. Continued drinking can lead to additional health conditions, such as cirrhosis, excessive bleeding, or even liver failure.

How Can You Get Hepatitis C

Viral hepatitis (A, B, C, D, E) – causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment & pathology

Hepatitis C is a blood-borne disease. The main source of infection is from blood from an infected person.

  • Most cases are caused by using contaminated needles or injecting equipment to inject drugs . Even a tiny amount of an infected persons blood left on a needle is enough to cause spread to others.
  • Some people who received blood transfusions or blood prior to 1991 were infected with hepatitis C from some donor blood. Since 1991 all blood and blood products donated in the UK are screened for HCV.
  • There is also a risk of contracting hepatitis C from needlestick accidents, or other injuries involving blood spillage from infected people.
  • There is a small risk of contracting the virus from sharing toothbrushes, razors and other such items which may be contaminated with infected blood.
  • There is even a small risk from inhaling drugs like cocaine, as these can make the inside of your nose bleed. If that happens, tiny spots of blood can fall on to the note you are using and, if that is used by someone else, your blood can travel up their nose and into their bloodstream.
  • There is also a small risk from re-used equipment used for tattooing, body piercing, acupuncture, etc.
  • There is a small risk that an infected mother can pass on the infection to her baby.
  • There is a small risk that an infected person can pass on the virus whilst having sex.

The virus is not passed on during normal social contact, such as holding hands, hugging, or sharing cups or crockery.

You May Like: Low Protein Diet For Hepatic Encephalopathy

How Is Hepatitis Treated

Someone who has hepatitis will need to drink enough fluids, eat healthy foods, and get rest. The persons family members may need to get hepatitis vaccines, if they havent already.

Later on, the person will get follow-up blood tests. Often the blood tests will show that the person no longer has hepatitis. Sometimes, the blood tests may show that someone is now a carrier of hepatitis he or she wont have hepatitis symptoms, but could pass the infection to other people.

Sometimes, blood tests will continue to show that some people still have hep B or C, which means they may have chronic hepatitis. If so, they will need to eat healthy foods and take very good care of themselves by getting rest and visiting the doctor regularly. In some cases, someone with chronic hepatitis may get special medicine for the condition.

We hope that this heads-up on hepatitis will help you stay safe. It may sound funny, but you can love your liver by washing your hands and making smart choices!

What Hepatitis Can You Get From Food

The most frequent types of viral hepatitis in the United States are A, B, and C. Hepatitis B and C may be acquired by contact with virus-infected body fluids such as blood.

However, hepatitis A may be acquired by ingesting contaminated food.

This article investigates the relationship between hepatitis and what people eat and drink. It also outlines preventative techniques and what to do if someone suspects they have hepatitis.

RELATED: Hepatitis A vs. Hepatitis C: Whats the Difference?

Read Also: Can Alcoholic Hepatitis Be Cured

What Are The Treatments For Viral Hepatitis

Treatment for viral hepatitis varies by the type and stage of the infection. Hepatitis A infections usually go away on their own within two months. It is important to get plenty of rest, hydration and good nutrition when healing. In contrast, hepatitis B and hepatitis C may become chronic conditions lasting six months or more. These can lead to liver disease. If caught within 12 hours of exposure, hepatitis B can be treated with an injection of immunoglobulin . The hepatitis B vaccine should also be given if the person has not been vaccinated. People with chronic infections may need treatment for the rest of their lives to reduce the risks of developing liver disease and infecting others. However, in the last decade, there have been exciting breakthroughs in the treatment of hepatitis C infections using direct-acting antiviral drugs, which can cure the infection within 8-12 weeks with fewer side effects than the older treatments.

Can Hepatitis B And C Be Prevented

Pin on Hepatitis Awareness

Today, all babies get vaccinated against the hepatitis B virus in a series of three shots over a 6-month period. Doctors also recommend catch-up vaccination for all kids and teens younger than 19 years old who didnt get the vaccine as babies or didnt get all three doses.

Unfortunately, theres no vaccine for hep C yet.

Dont Miss: How Do You Treat Hepatitis B

Read Also: Rash Caused By Hepatitis C

How Is Hepatitis C Spread

Hepatitis C spreads through contact with the blood of someone who has HCV. This contact may be through:

  • Sharing drug needles or other drug materials with someone who has HCV. In the United States, this is the most common way that people get hepatitis C.
  • Getting an accidental stick with a needle that was used on someone who has HCV. This can happen in health care settings.
  • Being tattooed or pierced with tools or inks that were not sterilized after being used on someone who has HCV
  • Having contact with the blood or open sores of someone who has HCV
  • Sharing personal care items that may have come in contact with another persons blood, such as razors or toothbrushes
  • Being born to a mother with HCV
  • Having unprotected sex with someone who has HCV

Before 1992, hepatitis C was also commonly spread through blood transfusions and organ transplants. Since then, there has been routine testing of the U.S. blood supply for HCV. It is now very rare for someone to get HCV this way.

How Long Does It Last

Hepatitis A can last from a few weeks to several months.

Hepatitis B can range from a mild illness, lasting a few weeks, to a serious, life-long condition. More than 90% of unimmunized infants who get infected develop a chronic infection, but 6%10% of older children and adults who get infected develop chronic hepatitis B.

Hepatitis C can range from a mild illness, lasting a few weeks, to a serious, life-long infection. Most people who get infected with the hepatitis C virus develop chronic hepatitis C.

Don’t Miss: How To Treat Hepatitis C Virus

How Is It Spread

Hepatitis A is spread when a person ingests fecal mattereven in microscopic amountsfrom contact with objects, food, or drinks contaminated by feces or stool from an infected person.

  • Birth to an infected mother
  • Sex with an infected person
  • Sharing equipment that has been contaminated with blood from an infected person, such as needles, syringes, and even medical equipment, such as glucose monitors
  • Sharing personal items such as toothbrushes or razors
  • Poor infection control has resulted in outbreaks in health care facilities

Hepatitis C is spread when blood from a person infected with the Hepatitis C virus even in microscopic amounts enters the body of someone who is not infected. The hepatitis C virus can also be transmitted from:

  • Sharing equipment that has been contaminated with blood from an infected person, such as needles and syringes
  • Receiving a blood transfusion or organ transplant before 1992
  • Poor infection control has resulted in outbreaks in health care facilities
  • Birth to an infected mother

What Causes Hepatitis C

Pinoy MD: What are the different types of hepatitis?

The hepatitis C virus causes hepatitis C. The hepatitis C virus spreads through contact with an infected persons blood. Contact can occur by

  • sharing drug needles or other drug materials with an infected person
  • getting an accidental stick with a needle that was used on an infected person
  • being tattooed or pierced with tools or inks that were not kept sterilefree from all viruses and other microorganismsand were used on an infected person before they were used on you
  • having contact with the blood or open sores of an infected person
  • using an infected persons razor, toothbrush, or nail clippers
  • being born to a mother with hepatitis C
  • having unprotected sex with an infected person

You cant get hepatitis C from

  • being coughed or sneezed on by an infected person
  • drinking water or eating food
  • hugging an infected person
  • shaking hands or holding hands with an infected person
  • sharing spoons, forks, and other eating utensils
  • sitting next to an infected person

A baby cant get hepatitis C from breast milk.18

You May Like: Autoimmune Hepatitis Flare Up Symptoms

How Long Do The Viruses That Cause Hepatitis Survive Outside The Body

The hepatitis A virus can live outside the body for months.

ishonestNo.233 Pigmentation & Blemishes

Hepatitis B survives for at least 7 days while still being able to cause an infection.

Hepatitis C can live on household and clinic surfaces for up to 6 weeks at room temperature. In open air, it can survive for at least 4 days.

Hepatitis A is spread when a person ingests fecal mattereven in microscopic amountsfrom contact with objects, food, or drinks contaminated by feces or stool from an infected person.

  • Birth to an infected mother
  • Sex with an infected person
  • Sharing equipment that has been contaminated with blood from an infected person, such as needles, syringes, and even medical equipment, such as glucose monitors
  • Sharing personal items such as toothbrushes or razors
  • Poor infection control has resulted in outbreaks in health care facilities

Hepatitis C is spread when blood from a person infected with the Hepatitis C virus even in microscopic amounts enters the body of someone who is not infected. The hepatitis C virus can also be transmitted from:

  • Sharing equipment that has been contaminated with blood from an infected person, such as needles and syringes
  • Receiving a blood transfusion or organ transplant before 1992
  • Poor infection control has resulted in outbreaks in health care facilities
  • Birth to an infected mother

Can Hepatitis Be Prevented

There are different ways to prevent or lower your risk for hepatitis, depending on the type of hepatitis. For example, not drinking too much alcohol can prevent alcoholic hepatitis. There are vaccines to prevent hepatitis A and B. Autoimmune hepatitis cannot be prevented.

NIH: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases

Also Check: How Do Contract Hepatitis C

How Is Viral Hepatitis Prevented

Prevention of hepatitis involves measures to avoid exposure to the viruses, using immunoglobulin in the event of exposure, and vaccines. Administration of immunoglobulin is called passive protection because antibodies from patients who have had viral hepatitis are given to the patient. Vaccination is called active protection because killed viruses or non-infectious components of viruses are given to stimulate the body to produce its own antibodies.

Avoidance of exposure to viruses

Use of immunoglobulins

Immune serum globulin is human serum that contains antibodies to hepatitis A. ISG can be administered to prevent infection in individuals who have been exposed to hepatitis A. ISG works immediately upon administration, and the duration of protection is several months. ISG usually is given to travelers to regions of the world where there are high rates of hepatitis A infection and to close or household contacts of patients with hepatitis A infection. ISG is safe with few side effects.

Hepatitis A

Individuals at increased risk of acquiring hepatitis A are:

Some local health authorities or private companies may require hepatitis A vaccination for food handlers.

Hepatitis B

Read Also: Can You Get Hepatitis C From Oral Sex

Genotypes Of Hepatitis C

Types of hepatitis viruses hepatitis a b c d Vector Image

Which genotype of hepatitis C somebody has dictates what treatment is available to them. If you are living with genotype 3, then there is evidence that liver disease might progress more quickly.

The ability of the virus to mutate has resulted in the existence of different genetic variations of HCV. These are called genotypes. The different genotypes are often, but not exclusively, related to different parts of the world.

Genotypes 1, 2 and 3 have a worldwide distribution. Types 1a and 1b are the most common, accounting for about 60% of global infections. They predominate in Northern Europe and North America and in Southern and Eastern Europe and Japan. Genotype 2 is less frequently represented than type 1. Genotype 3 is endemic in south-east Asia. Genotype 4 is principally found in the Middle East, Egypt, and central Africa. Type 5 is almost exclusively found in South Africa. The most common genotypes found in the UK are 1 and 3.

It is still unclear whether or not the type of virus affects the progression of the disease. If it does it is not thought to present any real cause for concern. However, HCV genotype does influence response to treatment. If you are considering treatment it is very important to know which genotype you are actually infected with.

Recommended Reading: Pan Genotypic Hepatitis C Treatment

How Do Doctors Treat The Complications Of Hepatitis C

If hepatitis C leads to cirrhosis, you should see a doctor who specializes in liver diseases. Doctors can treat the health problems related to cirrhosis with medicines, surgery, and other medical procedures. If you have cirrhosis, you have an increased chance of liver cancer. Your doctor may order an ultrasound test to check for liver cancer.

If hepatitis C leads to liver failure or liver cancer, you may need a liver transplant.

Dont Miss: Hepatitis A And B Symptoms

Popular Articles
Related news